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1.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(12): 1615-1622, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the clinical outcomes, virological efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for relevant articles written before August 23, 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the usefulness and safety of nitazoxanide in patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Five RCTs were included. The overall mortality of COVID-19 patients receiving nitazoxanide (study group) was 1.3% (9/670), which was lower than the control group (1.8%, 12/681), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (risk difference [RD], 0.00; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.01; P =0.97). However, nitazoxanide was associated with a higher virological eradication rate than placebo or standard care (RD, 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.17; P = 0.03). Compared with the placebo or standard care, nitazoxanide were associated with a similar risk of any adverse event (RD, -0.02; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.03; P = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Although nitazoxanide can help virological eradication and is also tolerable, it does not provide additional clinical benefits. Based on these evidences, the use of nitazoxanide in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 is not recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Thiazoles/adverse effects
2.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(5): 787-794, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086460

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the monkeypox outbreak in early 2022 has posed a new global health threat. As of July 8, 2022, 9069 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported, and most of them are from non-endemic countries. The monkeypox virus is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus, and preliminary genetic data suggest that the 2022 monkeypox virus belongs to the West African clade. In the current outbreak, human-to-human transmission has been the primary transmission mode. Although direct skin-to-skin contact with lesions during sexual activities can spread the virus, it remains unclear whether monkeypox can spread through sexual contact, specifically through contaminated body fluids. The typical presentation of monkeypox includes prodromal symptoms, followed by a rash that usually begins within 1-3 days of symptom onset, and the skin lesions can last for 2-4 weeks and then gradually resolve. However, the monkeypox outbreak in 2022 may exhibit atypical features. A definite diagnosis of monkeypox virus infection requires nucleic acid amplification testing via the polymerase chain reaction method. Supportive care is essential, and antiviral therapy is not considered for all affected patients, but recommended for those at highrisk for severe diseases. The mitigation of monkeypox outbreaks include enhanced case detection, case isolation, contact tracing, and post-exposure vaccination. In conclusion, the current monkeypox outbreak is a new threat during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinicians should be aware of this new situation, which presents a different scenario from those of prior outbreaks. Global health systems should develop effective strategies to mitigate the spread of monkeypox.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Monkeypox virus/genetics , DNA , Antiviral Agents
3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(10)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081888

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a great threat to global health. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 itself, clinicians should be alert to the possible occurrence of co-infection or secondary infection among patients with COVID-19. The possible co-pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and fungi, but COVID-19-associated cryptococcosis is rarely reported. This review provided updated and comprehensive information about this rare clinical entity of COVID-19-associated cryptococcosis. Through an updated literature search till 23 August 2022, we identified a total of 18 culture-confirmed case reports with detailed information. Half (n = 9) of them were elderly. Fifteen (83.3%) of them had severe COVID-19 and ever received systemic corticosteroid. Disseminated infection with cryptococcemia was the most common type of cryptococcosis, followed by pulmonary and meningitis. Except one case of C. laurentii, all other cases are by C. neoformans. Liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole were the most commonly used antifungal agents. The overall mortality was 61.1% (11/18) and four of them did not receive antifungal agents before death. Improving the poor outcome requires a physician's high suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(9): 1001-1005, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the number of cases of non-airborne/droplet-transmitted notifiable infectious disease (NID) before and after COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study used an open database - National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System to collect the epidemiological data of NIDs. Ten fecal-oral-, six vector-borne-, four direct-contact, and four sexually-transmitted NIDs between pandemic period (defined as from January 2020 to December 2021) and the pre-pandemic period (defined as the period from January 2018 to December 2019) were included for the analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the annual case number of these 24 non-airborne/droplet-transmitted NIDs was 19,186, 19,101, 19,567, and 19,863 in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The overall case number in the pandemic period was higher than those in pre-pandemic period (39,430 vs 38,287) and the monthly case number was significantly higher in pandemic period than pre-pandemic period (1643 vs 1595, p < 0.05). However, the lower case number in the pandemic period than those in pre-pandemic period was observed in overall ten fecal-oral-transmitted NIDs (1278 vs 1775), six vector-borne-NIDs (922 vs 2210), and four direct-contact transmitted NIDs (196 vs 344). In contrast, the case number of sexually-transmitted NIDs in the pandemic period was higher than those in pre-pandemic period (37,034 vs 33,958), particularly for gonorrhea (14,463 vs 8732). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the fecal-oral-, vector-borne, and direct-contact transmitted NIDs had declined during pandemic in Taiwan. In contrast, gonorrhea had large increase, and other NPIs were needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Taiwan/epidemiology
5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069364

ABSTRACT

At present, there are more than 560 million confirmed cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Although more than 98% of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can survive acute COVID, a significant portion of survivors can develop residual health problems, which is termed as long COVID. Although severe COVID-19 is generally associated with a high risk of long COVID, patients with asymptomatic or mild disease can also show long COVID. The definition of long COVID is inconsistent and its clinical manifestations are protean. In addition to general symptoms, such as fatigue, long COVID can affect many organ systems, including the respiratory, neurological, psychosocial, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems. Moreover, patients with long COVID may experience exercise intolerance and impaired daily function and quality of life. Long COVID may be caused by SARS-CoV-2 direct injury or its associated immune/inflammatory response. Assessment of patients with long COVID requires comprehensive evaluation, including history taking, physical examination, laboratory tests, radiography, and functional tests. However, there is no known effective treatment for long COVID. Based on the limited evidence, vaccines may help to prevent the development of long COVID. As long COVID is a new clinical entity that is constantly evolving, there are still many unknowns, and further investigation is warranted to enhance our understanding of this disease.

6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(11): 1259-1264, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis investigated the use of fluvoxamine for the treatment of nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies published before June 25, 2022. Only clinical studies that compared the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine with other alternatives or placebos in the treatment of nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Four studies with 1814 patients, of whom 912 received fluvoxamine, were included in this study. Compared with the control group receiving placebo or no therapy, the study group receiving fluvoxamine demonstrated a lower risk of hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95 % CI, 0.44-0.79; I2 = 26 %). In addition, the rate of hospitalization remained significantly lower in patients who received fluvoxamine than in the control group (OR, 0.69; 95 % CI, 0.51-0.94; I2 = 36 %). Although the study group demonstrated a lower risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit admission, and mortality than the control group, these differences were nonsignificant. Finally, fluvoxamine use was associated with a similar risk of adverse events as that observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: Fluvoxamine can be safely used in nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 and can reduce the hospitalization rate or ED visits in these patients.

9.
Pharmacol Res ; 184: 106450, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031623
12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999825
13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977539
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(8): 896-901, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the usefulness of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to treat patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched for RCTs published before November 7, 2021. Only RCTs that compared the clinical efficacy and safety of MSCs with other alternative treatments or placebos in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Six RCTs were included, in which the MSC and control groups consisted of 158 and 135 patients, respectively. The patients who received MSCs had a significantly lower 28-day mortality rate (7.6% vs 21.5%; OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06-0.52; I2 = 0%) and significantly higher clinical improvement rate (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.31-15.83; I2 = 0%) than the controls. The patients who received MSCs were associated with a similar risk of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs to the control group (AEs: OR, 33; 95% CI, 0.09-1.18; I2 = 59%; serious AEs: OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.02-4.41; I2 = 53%). CONCLUSIONS: MSC treatment may help to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. In addition, MSC treatment appears to be a safe therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
16.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969513

ABSTRACT

This network meta-analysis compared the clinical efficacy and safety of anti-viral agents for the prevention of disease progression among non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched from their inception to 28 May 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the clinical efficacy of anti-viral agents for non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Three RCTs involving 4241 patients were included. Overall, anti-viral agents were associated with a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 related hospitalization or death compared with the placebo (OR, 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.96; p = 0.04). Compared with the placebo, patients receiving nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir had the lowest risk of hospitalization or death (OR, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.06-0.24), followed by remdesivir (OR, 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.57) and then molnupiravir (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99). The rank probability for each treatment calculated using the P-score revealed that nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir was the best anti-viral treatment, followed by remdesivir and then molnupiravir. Finally, anti-viral agents were not associated with an increased risk of adverse events compared with the placebo. For non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who are at risk of disease progression, the currently recommended three anti-viral agents, nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir, molnupiravir and remdesivir, should continue to be recommended for the prevention of disease progression. Among them, oral nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir and intravenous remdesivir seem to be the better choice, followed by molnupiravir, as determined by this network meta-analysis. Additionally, these three anti-viral agents were shown to be as tolerable as the placebo in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
17.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1956-1965, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931623

ABSTRACT

AIM: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the usefulness of colchicine in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between database inception and November 12, 2021. Only RCTs that compared the clinical efficacy and safety of colchicine with other alternative treatments or placebos in patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Overall, 7 RCTs involving 16,024 patients were included; 7,794 patients were in the study group receiving colchicine and 8,230 were in the control group receiving placebo or standard treatment. The study and control groups had similar risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.09; I2 = 0%). No significant difference was observed between the study and control groups in terms of the need for non-invasive ventilation (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83-1.03; I2 = 0%), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.32-1.32; I2 = 58%), and length of hospital stay (mean difference, -0.42 days; 95% CI, -1.95 to 1.11; I2 = 62%). In addition, colchicine was associated with significantly higher risks of gastrointestinal adverse events (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.56-2.11; I2 = 0%) and diarrhoea (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.75-2.56; I2 = 9%). CONCLUSIONS: Colchicine does not improve clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19, so it did not support the additional use of colchicine in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.Key messageColchicine could not reduce the mortality of patients with COVID-19.No significant difference was observed between the colchicine and comparators in terms of the need for non-invasive ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay.Colchicine was associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/adverse effects , Humans , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
18.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(5): 593-600, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Only phase 2 and 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from electronic databases that investigated ICS in the treatment of COVID-19 patients were included. The outcomes of interest were the resolution of symptoms, risk of hospitalization or urgent medical visit, mortality, and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Five RCTs involving 1243 patients who received ICS and 1526 patients with placebo or usual care were included. The ICS group had a higher rate of symptom resolution than the control group at day 14 (risk ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.30, p < 0.00001) and day 28 (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18, p < 0.0001). Additionally, the ICS group had a significantly lower risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization than the control group (RR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.50; I2 = 0, p = 0.002). However, no significant difference in the 28-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, ICS therapy improved symptom resolution, and decreased the risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(10): 1333-1340, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe-to-critical COVID-19 has been associated with exaggerated immune responses, and anti-inflammatory agents including corticosteroid and interleukin-6 antagonist have been repurposed as the treatment modality against severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 was controversial. METHODS: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effectiveness of IVIG in patients with COVID-19. Electronic databases were searched for RCTs that compared the clinical efficacy of IVIG with standard of care or placebo in the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Six RCTs involving 472 patients were included. Patients who received IVIG had a similar mortality rate to the controls (25.3% vs 27.0%, odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.31). Compared with the control group, the study group demonstrated a similar incidence of receiving mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.11), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.22-1.53), length of hospital stay (mean difference [MD], -1.81 days; 95% CI, -8.42 to 4.81) and ICU stay (MD, -0.61 days; 95% CI, -2.80 to 1.58). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of IVIG in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 does not improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Interleukin-6 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 183-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly become a global threaten since its emergence in the end of 2019. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection could also present with co-infection or secondary infection by other virus, bacteria, or fungi. Among them, mucormycosis is a rare but aggressive fungal disease and it mainly affects patients particularly with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We here did a comprehensive review of literature reporting COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis (CAM) cases, which have been reported worldwide. The prevalence is higher in India, Iran, and Egypt than other countries, particularly highest in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. Poor diabetic control and the administration of systemic corticosteroids are the common precipitating factors causing mucormycosis in the severe and critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19 itself may affect the immune system resulting in vulnerability of the patients to mucormycosis. Appropriate treatments of CAM include strict glycemic control, extensive surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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