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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132923, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516695

ABSTRACT

Importance: Seroprevalence studies inform the extent of infection and assist evaluation of mitigation strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of unidentified SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population of Hong Kong. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong after each major wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 21 to July 7, 2020; September 29 to November 23, 2020; and January 15 to April 18, 2021). Adults (age ≥18 years) who had not been diagnosed with COVID-19 were recruited during each period, and their sociodemographic information, symptoms, travel, contact, quarantine, and COVID-19 testing history were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on spike (S1/S2) protein, followed by confirmation with a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay based on the receptor binding domain of spike protein. Results: The study enrolled 4198 participants (2539 [60%] female; median age, 50 years [IQR, 25 years]), including 903 (22%), 1046 (25%), and 2249 (53%) during April 21 to July 7, 2020; during September 29 to November 23, 2020; and during January 15 to April 18, 2021, respectively. The numbers of participants aged 18 to 39 years, 40 to 59 years, and 60 years or older were 1328 (32%), 1645 (39%), and 1225 (29%), respectively. Among the participants, 2444 (58%) stayed in Hong Kong since November 2019 and 2094 (50%) had negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results. Only 170 (4%) reported ever having contact with individuals with confirmed cases, and 5% had been isolated or quarantined. Most (2803 [67%]) did not recall any illnesses, whereas 737 (18%), 212 (5%), and 385 (9%) had experienced respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or both, respectively, before testing. Six participants were confirmed to be positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG; the adjusted prevalence of unidentified infection was 0.15% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.32%). Extrapolating these findings to the whole population, there were fewer than 1.9 unidentified infections for every recorded confirmed case. The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Hong Kong before the roll out of vaccination was less than 0.45%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of participants from the general public in Hong Kong, the prevalence of unidentified SARS-CoV-2 infection was low after 3 major waves of the pandemic, suggesting the success of the pandemic mitigation by stringent isolation and quarantine policies even without complete city lockdown. More than 99.5% of the general population of Hong Kong remain naive to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the urgent need to achieve high vaccine coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
2.
mBio ; 12(5): e0268721, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494975

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with emerging mutations, especially on the Spike glycoprotein (S protein). To delineate the genomic diversity in association with geographic dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 variant lineages, we collected 939,591 complete S protein sequences deposited in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) from December 2019 to April 2021. An exponential emergence of S protein variants was observed since October 2020 when the four major variants of concern (VOCs), namely, alpha (α) (B.1.1.7), beta (ß) (B.1.351), gamma (γ) (P.1), and delta (δ) (B.1.617), started to circulate in various communities. We found that residues 452, 477, 484, and 501, the 4 key amino acids located in the hACE2 binding domain of S protein, were under positive selection. Through in silico protein structure prediction and immunoinformatics tools, we discovered D614G is the key determinant to S protein conformational change, while variations of N439K, T478I, E484K, and N501Y in S1-RBD also had an impact on S protein binding affinity to hACE2 and antigenicity. Finally, we predicted that the yet-to-be-identified hypothetical N439S, T478S, and N501K mutations could confer an even greater binding affinity to hACE2 and evade host immune surveillance more efficiently than the respective native variants. This study documented the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 S protein over the first 16 months of the pandemic and identified several key amino acid changes that are predicted to confer a substantial impact on transmission and immunological recognition. These findings convey crucial information to sequence-based surveillance programs and the design of next-generation vaccines. IMPORTANCE Our study showed the global distribution of SARS-CoV-2 S protein variants from January 2020 to the end of April 2021. We highlighted the key amino acids of S protein subjected to positive selection. Using computer-aided approaches, we predicted the impact of the amino acid variations in S protein on viral infectivity and antigenicity. We also predicted the potential amino acid mutations that could arise in favor of SARS-CoV-2 virulence. These findings are vital for vaccine designing and anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug discovery in an effort to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virulence
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy represents one of the major global health issues around the world. We examined the perception, attitude, perceived barriers and facilitation measures of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine in a Chinese population with free vaccine choices (Sinovac [Coronavac] vs. BioNTech/Fosun [Comirnaty]) and adequate doses. METHOD: We conducted a random telephone survey of the general population in 1195 subjects aged 18 years or above from 23 April 2021 to 8 May 2021 after two months of vaccine rollout. A descriptive analysis of the levels of enabling factors, obstacles and perception of COVID-19 vaccination was conducted using ANOVA and Chi-square tests for trend. RESULTS: Only 10.1% and 13.5% had received one and two COVID-19 vaccine doses, respectively. Among those who had not received any COVID-19 vaccine (75.4%), only 25.1% expressed their intention to receive in the coming 6 months. The barriers with the highest scores included "having heard of cases with serious adverse events or death after vaccination" (score: 8.17 out 10, 95% C.I. 7.99, 8.35), "lack of confidence on governmental recommendations" (7.69, 95% C.I. 7.47, 7.91), and "waiting for a better vaccine" (7.29, 95% C.I. 7.07, 7.52). The highest score for the impact of various incentives for vaccination was for "vaccine passports for overseas travel" (4.44, 95% C.I. 4.18, 4.71). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine hesitancy is commonly observed in this Chinese population despite adequate provision of vaccine doses and choices. No single incentive is strong enough to promote vaccination, and multiple facilitation measures for different groups of population are needed to encourage vaccine uptake. Active clarification and promotion by medical professionals together with a variety of incentives are needed to drive vaccine uptake.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant replacement in association with containment capacity and changes in case fatality at country level. METHODS: Altogether, 69 571 full SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected globally within the first 6 months of the pandemic were examined. The correlation between variant replacement and containment capacity was examined by logistic regression models using the WHO International Health Regulation (IHR) score, the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) and the vulnerability index INFORM as proxies, while correlation with changes in monthly crude case fatality ratios was examined by a mixed effect model. RESULTS: At the global level, variant lineage G∗, characterized by the S-D614G mutation, replaced the older lineages L and S in March 2020. European countries-including Finland, France and Italy-were the first to reach a 50% increment of G∗, whereas only Singapore and South Korea had non-G∗ persisting throughout the first 6 months. Countries with higher IHR scores (ß-coefficient -0.001, 95%CI -0.016, -0.001; p 0.034) and higher stringency indexes (OxCGRT) (ß-coefficient -0.011, 95%CI -0.020, -0.001; p 0.035) were associated with lower levels of G∗ replacement, whereas higher vulnerability indexes (INFORM) (ß-coefficient 0.049, 95%CI 0.001, 0.097; p 0.044) were associated with higher replacement levels. Crude case fatality ratio showed a positive correlation with G∗ replacement (ß-coefficient: 0.034, 95%CI 0.011, 0.058; p 0.004), even after adjusting for testing capacity and other country-specific characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant lineage G∗ (S-D614G) replaced older lineages more efficiently in countries with lower containment capacity, and its possible association with increased disease severity deserves further investigation.

5.
Vaccine ; 39(7): 1148-1156, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for COVID-19 are anticipated to be available by 2021. Vaccine uptake rate is a crucial determinant for herd immunity. We examined factors associated with acceptance of vaccine based on (1). constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), (2). trust in the healthcare system, new vaccine platforms and manufacturers, and (3). self-reported health outcomes. METHODS: A population-based, random telephone survey was performed during the peak of the third wave of COVID-19 outbreak (27/07/2020 to 27/08/2020) in Hong Kong. All adults aged ≥ 18 years were eligible. The survey included sociodemographic details; self-report health conditions; trust scales; and self-reported health outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were applied to examine independent associations. The primary outcome is the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: We conducted 1200 successful telephone interviews (response rate 55%). The overall vaccine acceptance rate after adjustment for population distribution was 37.2% (95% C.I. 34.5-39.9%). The projected acceptance rates exhibited a "J-shaped" pattern with age, with higher rates among young adults (18-24 years), then increased linearly with age. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that perceived severity, perceived benefits of the vaccine, cues to action, self-reported health outcomes, and trust in healthcare system or vaccine manufacturers were positive correlates of acceptance; whilst perceived access barriers and harm were negative correlates. Remarkably, perceived susceptibility to infection carried no significant association, whereas recommendation from Government (aOR = 10.2, 95% C.I. 6.54 to 15.9, p < 0.001) was as the strongest driving factor for acceptance. Other key obstacles of acceptance included lack of confidence on newer vaccine platforms (43.4%) and manufacturers without track record (52.2%), which are of particular relevance to the current context. CONCLUSIONS: Governmental recommendation is an important driver, whereas perceived susceptibility is not associated with acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. These HBM constructs and independent predictors inform evidence-based formulation and implementation of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 538: 226-230, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893614

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection is one of the cornerstones of pandemic control. With the myriad of tests available in the market, the use of correct specimen type and laboratory-testing technique in the right clinical scenario could be challenging for non-specialists. In this mini-review, we will discuss the difference in diagnostic performance for different upper and lower respiratory tract specimens, and the role of blood and fecal specimens. We will analyze the performance characteristics of laboratory testing techniques of nucleic acid amplification tests, antigen detection tests, antibody detection tests, and point-of-care tests. Finally, the dynamics of viral replication and antibody production, and laboratory results interpretation in conjunction with clinical scenarios will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Laboratories
7.
J Infect Dis ; 222(10): 1612-1619, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-collected specimens have been advocated to avoid infectious exposure to healthcare workers. Self-induced sputum in those with a productive cough and saliva in those without a productive cough have been proposed, but sensitivity remains uncertain. METHODS: We performed a prospective study in 2 regional hospitals in Hong Kong. RESULTS: We prospectively examined 563 serial samples collected during the virus shedding periods of 50 patients: 150 deep throat saliva (DTS), 309 pooled-nasopharyngeal (NP) and throat swabs, and 104 sputum. Deep throat saliva had the lowest overall reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive rate (68.7% vs 89.4% [sputum] and 80.9% [pooled NP and throat swabs]) and the lowest viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) concentration (mean log copy/mL 3.54 vs 5.03 [sputum] and 4.63 [pooled NP and throat swabs]). Analyses with respect to time from symptom onset and severity also revealed similar results. Virus yields of DTS correlated with that of sputum (Pearson correlation index 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.86). We estimated that the overall false-negative rate of DTS could be as high as 31.3% and increased 2.7 times among patients without sputum. CONCLUSIONS: Deep throat saliva produced the lowest viral RNA concentration and RT-PCR-positive rate compared with conventional respiratory specimens in all phases of illness. Self-collected sputum should be the choice for patients with sputum.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Saliva/virology , Sputum/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Young Adult
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An international city, Hong Kong, in proximity to the first epicentre of COVID- 19, experienced two epidemic waves with different importation pressure. We compared the epidemiological features of patients with COVID-19 in the context of containment policies between the first and second waves. METHODS: We retrieved information on the first 1038 cases detected in Hong Kong (23 January to 25 April 2020) to analyse the epidemiological characteristics including age/gender-specific incidence, clustering, reproduction number (Rt ) and containment delay; in relation to the containment measures implemented. Factors associated with containment delay were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis with age, gender, epidemic wave and infection source as covariates. A time series of 5-day moving average was plotted to examine the changes across the two epidemic waves. RESULTS: The incidence and mortality (135.5 and 0.5 per 1 000 000 population) was among the lowest in the world. Aggressive escalation of border control correlated with reductions in Rt from 1.35 to 0.57 and 0.92 to 0.18, and aversions of 450 and 1650 local infections during the first and second waves, respectively. Implementing COVID-19 tests for overseas returners correlated with an upsurge of asymptomatic case detection, and shortened containment delay in the second wave. Medium-sized cluster events in the first wave were family gatherings, whereas those in the second wave were leisure activities among youngsters. Containment delay was associated with older age (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p=0.040), male gender (AOR=1.41, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.96, p=0.039) and local cases (AOR=11.18, 95% CI 7.43 to 16.83, p<0.001), and with significant improvement in the second wave compared with the first wave (average: 6.8 vs 3.7 days). A higher incidence rate was observed for males, raising possibility of gender predilection in susceptibility of developing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prompt and stringent all-round containment strategies represent successful measures in pandemic control. These findings could inform formulation and implementation of pandemic mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1096-1105, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong (HK) is a densely populated city near the epicentre of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Stringent border control together with aggressive case finding, contact tracing, social distancing and quarantine measures were implemented to halt the importation and spread of the virus. METHODS: We performed an epidemiological study using government information covering the first 100 confirmed cases to examine the epidemic curve, incidence, clusters, reproduction number (Rt), incubation period and time to containment. RESULTS: A total of 93 of the 100 cases were HK residents (6 infected in Mainland China, 10 on the Diamond Princess Cruise). Seven were visitors infected in Mainland China before entering HK. The majority (76%) were aged ≥45 years, and the incidence increased with age (P < 0.001). Escalation of border control measures correlated with a decrease in the proportion (62.5% to 0%) of cases imported from Mainland China, and a reduction in Rt (1.07 to 0.75). The median incubation period was 4.2 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-4.5; 5th and 95th percentiles: 1.3 and 14.0). Most clusters with identifiable epidemiological links were households involving 2-4 people. Three medium-spreading events were identified: two from New Year gatherings (6-11 people), and another from environmental contamination of a worship hall (12 people). Despite intensified contact tracing, containment was delayed in 78.9% of cases (mean = 5.96 days, range = 0-24 days). An unusual transmission in a multi-storey building via faulty toilet plumbing was suspected with >100 residents evacuated overnight. Our analysis indicated that faulty plumbing was unlikely to be the source of this transmission. CONCLUSION: Timely stringent containment policies minimized the importation and transmission of COVID-19 in HK.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Psychological Distance , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 26(3): 299-310, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627025

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506041

ABSTRACT

We detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on disposable wooden chopsticks used by 5 consecutive asymptomatic and postsymptomatic patients admitted for isolation and care at our hospital. Although we did not assess virus viability, our findings may suggest potential for transmission through shared eating utensils.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fomites/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Hong Kong , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Wood/virology
12.
Gastroenterology ; 159(3): 944-955.e8, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects gastrointestinal tissues, little is known about the roles of gut commensal microbes in susceptibility to and severity of infection. We investigated changes in fecal microbiomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization and associations with severity and fecal shedding of virus. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of fecal samples from 15 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, from February 5 through March 17, 2020. Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care). We compared microbiome data with those from 6 subjects with community-acquired pneumonia and 15 healthy individuals (controls). We assessed gut microbiome profiles in association with disease severity and changes in fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significant alterations in fecal microbiomes compared with controls, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and depletion of beneficial commensals, at time of hospitalization and at all timepoints during hospitalization. Depleted symbionts and gut dysbiosis persisted even after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (determined from throat swabs) and resolution of respiratory symptoms. The baseline abundance of Coprobacillus, Clostridium ramosum, and Clostridium hathewayi correlated with COVID-19 severity; there was an inverse correlation between abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (an anti-inflammatory bacterium) and disease severity. Over the course of hospitalization, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides massiliensis, and Bacteroides ovatus, which downregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in murine gut, correlated inversely with SARS-CoV-2 load in fecal samples from patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study of 15 patients with COVID-19, we found persistent alterations in the fecal microbiome during the time of hospitalization, compared with controls. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal levels of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Strategies to alter the intestinal microbiota might reduce disease severity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Dysbiosis/virology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-34896

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report the first eight cases of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, describing the treatments and supportive care they received and their 28-day outcomes. DESIGN: Multicentre retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Three multidisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: All adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Hong Kong between 22 January and 11 February 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Eight out of 49 patients with COVID-19 (16%) were admitted to Hong Kong ICUs during the study period. The median age was 64.5 years (range, 42–70) with a median admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 6 (IQR, 4–7). Six patients (75%) required mechanical ventilation, six patients (75%) required vasopressors and two (25%) required renal replacement therapy. None of the patients required prone ventilation, nitric oxide or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The median times to shock reversal and extubation were 9 and 11 days respectively. At 28 days, one patient (12%) had died and the remaining seven (88%) all survived to ICU discharge. Only one of the survivors (14%) still required oxygen at 28 days. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 often require a moderate duration of mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. Most of these patients recover and survive to ICU discharge with supportive care using lung protective ventilation strategies, avoiding excess fluids, screening and treating bacterial co-infection, and timely intubation. Lower rather than upper respiratory tract viral burden correlates with clinical severity of illness.

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