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3.
Cancer Research Communications ; 2(12):1684-1692, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194265

ABSTRACT

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) patients elicit inadequate antibody responses after initial SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and remain at high risk of severe COVID-19 disease. We investigated IgG, IgA, and IgM responses after booster vaccination against recent SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron BA.5 in 67 patients. Patients had lower fold increase and total anti-spike binding titers after booster than healthy individuals. Antibody responses negatively correlated with recent anti-CD20 therapy and low B cell numbers. Antibodies generated after booster demonstrated similar binding properties against SARS-CoV-2 variants compared to those generated by healthy controls with lower binding against Omicron variants. Importantly, 43% of patients showed anti-Omicron BA.1 neutralizing antibodies after booster and all these patients also had anti-Omicron BA.5 neutralizing antibodies. NHL/CLL patients demonstrated inferior antibody responses after booster vaccination, particularly against Omicron variants. Prioritization of prophylactic and treatment agents and vaccination of patients and close contacts with updated vaccine formulations are essential.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163101

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impact of "Internet Plus Health Education” on coping with care burden and pressure in urinary stoma caregivers in the era of COVID-19. Materials and methods: Eighty caregivers of patients with urinary ostomy were equally randomized to experimental and control groups. Caregivers in the experimental group received digital nursing education intervention, which involved nursing intervention of Internet Plus Health Education (IPHE), and those in the control group received conventional care instructions. Six months later, care burden and emotional pressure were assessed in all caregivers using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Results: Before the intervention, the ZBI and SCSQ scores were comparable between both groups (p > 0.05). After the intervention, the ZBI scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than in the control group and vice versa for SCSQ scores (p < 0.01). Furthermore, after the intervention, the family care satisfaction scale (FCSS) of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Providing "Internet Plus Health Education” to urinary stoma caregivers can reduce their care burden and enhance their pressure-coping ability in the COVID-19 era.

5.
Journal of Virology ; : e0162622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137422

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, not only causes diarrhea in piglets but also possesses the potential to infect humans. To better understand host-virus genetic dependencies and find potential therapeutic targets for PDCoV, we used a porcine single-guide RNA (sgRNA) lentivirus library to screen host factors related to PDCoV infection in LLC-PK1 cells. The solute carrier family 35 member A1 (SLC35A1), a key molecule in the sialic acid (SA) synthesis pathway, was identified as a host factor required for PDCoV infection. A knockout of SLC35A1 caused decreases in the amounts of cell surface sialic acid (SA) and viral adsorption;meanwhile, trypsin promoted the use of SA in PDCoV infection. By constructing and assessing a series of recombinant PDCoV strains with the deletion or mutation of possible critical domain or amino acid residues for SA binding in the S1 N-terminal domain, we found that S T182 might be a PDCoV SA-binding site. However, the double knockout of SLC35A1 and amino peptidase N (APN) could not block PDCoV infection completely. Additionally, we found that different swine enteric coronaviruses, including transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus, are differentially dependent on SA. Overall, our study uncovered a collection of host factors that can be exploited as drug targets against PDCoV infection and deepened our understanding of the relationship between PDCoV and SA. IMPORTANCE Identifying the host factors required for replication will be helpful to uncover the pathogenesis mechanisms and develop antivirals against the emerging coronavirus porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). Herein, we performed a genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 knockout screen, the results of which revealed that the solute carrier family 35 member A1 (SLC35A1) is a host factor required for PDCoV infection that acts by regulating cell surface sialic acid (SA). We also identified the T182 site in the N-terminal domain of PDCoV S1 subunit as being associated with the SA-binding site and found that trypsin promotes the use of cell surface SA by PDCoV. Furthermore, different swine enteric coronaviruses use SLC35A1 differently for infection. This is the first study to screen host factors required for PDCoV replication using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 functional knockout, thereby providing clues for developing antiviral drugs against PDCoV infection.

6.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21(Supplement 2):S30-S31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2114678

ABSTRACT

Background: Promoting adherence to preventative inhaled therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging despite a clear association with better outcomes. Motivation to maintain adherence is one aspect of the complex process required for sustained behavior change. Fear is recognized as an acute motivator, and the COVID-19 pandemic created a significant fear stimulus, especially in people with underlying respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to explore changes in nebulizer use in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): This 16-center cohort study involved more than 60% of adult CF centers in England through the CFHealthHub learning health system. CFHealthHub was established in 2015 to help promote adherence to nebulized therapy. It provides people with CF and their clinicians objective usage information through nebulizers with real-time electronic data capture capability. We explored the association between the first U.K. national lockdown (March 23, 2020, to May 28, 2020) and nebulizer use, using the mixed-effect multilevel model adjusted for potential confounders including age (fitted as a nonlinear term), sex, and deprivation index. Result(s): We included 581 adults with CF participating in CFHealthHub between September 1, 2019, and August 21, 2020. Mean age was 34;49% participants were female. The range of mean weekly nebulizations per patient increased from 9 to 12 to 12 to 14 in the week after the first U.K. national lockdown before decreasing to 11 to 12 throughout the rest of the study period (Figure 1). The association between lockdown and nebulizer Figure 1: Mean weekly nebulizations in 581 adults with cystic fibrosis at 16 U.K. centers between September 2019 and August 2020.(Figure Presented) use was attenuated after adjusting for age, sex, and deprivation index (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96, 95% CI, 0.89-1.07). Conclusion(s): We did not find a sustained change in nebulizer use in response to the firstU.K. national lockdown. This may support the assertion that behavior change with respect to sustained increased nebulizer use may not be achieved when focusing on motivational aspects, especially fear, alone Copyright © 2022, European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved

7.
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology ; 11(6):S16-S17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2086370

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The percentage of pathology trainees who are underrepresented minorities is low. The DEI committee established a "Science, Medicine, and Cytology" summer pilot program to improve exposure to cytopathology focusing on DEI. Material(s) and Method(s): An online course was developed during the Covid-19 pandemic targeting underrepresented minorities at the high school and college level, and consisted of several didactic sessions, presenting the most common procedures involving cytologists, including fine-needle aspiration, rapid onsite evaluation, and smearing techniques. Interviews of cytopathologists were also included. Participants were surveyed for their demographic information and for an evaluation of the course. Result(s): 23 participants completed the survey (Table 1). The highest level of education was high school 16 (70%), college 6 (26%), and other 1 (4%). Self-identified demographics included 2 (9%) Hispanic, 9 (36%) Asian/Asian American, 2 (8%) Black /Black American, 6 (24%) White/Caucasian, 2 (8%) African, 1 (4%) Muslim American and 1 (4%) Sudanese. Household highest level of education was high school 2 (9%), some college 1 (4%), completed college 9 (39%), completed graduate program 9 (39%), 2 (9%) preferred not to answer. 14 (61%) participants have a family member in healthcare. The program met expectations for 20 (87%). The program format was effective and appropriate for their level of education for 23 (100%). The content helpful for 22 (96%). 13 (57%) considered healthcare as a potential career. 5 (22%) considered cytology as a career (Table 2). Conclusion(s): Evaluations were excellent, generating awareness of medicine and cytopathology. Individuals with families in healthcare were overrepresented, as there were barriers in reaching underrepresented minorities. The population that signed up was influenced by our ability offer the course online. Expansion to a wider audience would increase the number of attendees. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented] Copyright © 2022

9.
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research ; 21:403-423, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056935

ABSTRACT

Aim/Purpose The goal of this study was twofold: first, to examine how learners’ behavioral engagement types affect their final grades in an online programming course;and second, to explore which factors most strongly affect student performance in an online programming course and their connection to the types of cognitive en-gagement. Background During the COVID-19 pandemic situation, information technology educational methods and teaching have been transforming rapidly into online or blended. In this situation, students learn course content through digital learning manage-ment systems (LMSs), and the behavioral data derived from students’ interac-tions with these digital systems is important for instructors and researchers. However, LMSs have some limitations. For computer science students, the tradi-tional learning management system is not enough because the coding behavior cannot be analyzed. Through the OpenEdu platform, we collected log data from 217 undergraduates enrolled in a Python programming course offered by Feng Chia University in Taiwan in the spring semester of 2021. Methodology We applied the evaluation framework of learning behavioral engagement con-ducted on a massive open online course (MOOC) platform and integrated it with the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. PLS-SEM is widely used in academic research and is appropriate for causal models and small sample sizes. Therefore, this kind of analysis is consistent with the purpose of our study. Contribution In today’s fast-paced world of information technology, online learning is be-coming an important form of learning around the world. Especially in com-puter science, programming courses teach many skills, such as problem-solving, teamwork, and creative thinking. Our study contributes to the understanding of how behavioral engagements in distance programming learning affect student achievement directly and through cognitive engagement. The results can serve as a reference for practitioners of distance programming education. Findings Our results demonstrate that: (1) online time and video-watching constructs had significant effects on the self-assessment construct, self-assessment and video-watching constructs had significant effects on the final grade construct, and online document reading was not a significant factor in both self-assessments and final grades;(2) video watching had a most significant effect than other be-havioral constructs in an online programming course;(3) cognitive engagement types are inextricably linked to the development of a behavioral engagement framework for online programming learning. The mediation analysis and the im-portance-performance map analysis supported the importance of cognitive en-gagement. Recommendations for Practitioners (1) Online education platform developers and university policymakers should pay close attention to the development of self-assessment systems and design such systems based on students’ cognitive skills. (2) Instructors are advised to put substantial effort into the creation of videos for each course session and to actively promote students’ interest in the course material. Recommendations for Researchers The empirical results reported in this study allow a better understanding of the connection between behavioral engagement and final achievement. However, there are still great challenges in trying to explore more kinds of engagement, like emotional or social engagement. It would be interesting to deepen the re-sults obtained by integrating programming behavior like debugging and testing. Impact on Society Online programming courses allow students to improve their coding skills and computer science background. Students’ behavioral engagement strongly affects their academic achievement, their ability to complete a course successfully, and the quality of the learning process. Our work can encourage more people who are different majors in society to learn coding in an online environment even not only computer science students. Moreover, the fin ings of this study can be rec-ommendations for understanding students’ learning behavior and the develop-ment of distance programming learning. Future Research We suggest for future studies: (1) include a wider range of participants, such as students enrolled in MOOCs environments;(2) include more log data items that can express various students’ behavior, depending on the reliability and validity of the research model;and (3) conduct more detailed studies of the effects of emotional engagement as well as additional aspects of students’ social engage-ment to elucidate the factors affecting students’ behavioral participation and performance more thoroughly © 2022, Journal of Information Technology Education: Research.All Rights Reserved.

10.
Progress in Chemistry ; 34(7):1610-1618, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056250

ABSTRACT

Biomolecular condensates form various cellular membraneless organelles and play diverse biological functions as a result of their specific physicochemical properties. For example, biomolecular condensates are able to perceive changes in the external environment, regulate the cellular concentration of proteins, modulate different signaling pathways and selectively partition hub proteins as well as nucleic acids. Abnormal formation and changes of biomolecular condensates are closely related to human diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and viral diseases such as COVID-19. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play key roles in the formation and regulation of biomolecular condensates. In this review, we analyze the roles that IDPs and small molecules play in biomolecular condensates formation and regulation, propose the possibility of rationally regulating biomolecular condensates through ligand design targeting IDPs, and discuss the challenges of understanding biomolecular condensate formation and regulation mechanisms and for discovering novel chemical compounds to modulate biomolecular condensates. © 2022 Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

11.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880800

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines capable of inducing broad and cross-reactive humoral and T cell responses help to fight against emerging variants. In this study we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine expressing furin-cleavage site inactivated stabilized spike (SdFCS) and nucleocapsid (N) delivered via intramuscular (IM), buccal or sublingual (SL) routes in rhesus macaques (RMs). Methods: Three groups (n=5/group) of RMs were immunized with MVA/SdFCS-N vaccine on weeks 0 and 4, via IM, buccal, or SL route. An additional group (control) received non-recombinant MVA via IM. IM vaccinations were delivered using needle and SL and buccal vaccinations were delivered using a needle-free injection device. All RMs were challenged with B.1.617.2 strain (Delta) of SARS-CoV-2 at week 8 via intratracheal and intranasal routes simultaneously. Various humoral and cellular immune parameters were determined post vaccination and challenge. SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) was measured to monitor virus replication in the upper (nose) and lower (lung) respiratory tract. Results: IM vaccination induced strong RBD-specific IgG antibody in serum, nose, throat, lung, and rectum. The serum antibody showed strong live virus neutralizing activity against WA-1/2020 (median of 415) and B.1.617.2 strains (median of 317). Serum from IM vaccinated animals also demonstrated strong non-neutralizing effector functions such as ADCD, ADCP and ADNKA. In addition, IM vaccination induced strong CD4 and CD8 T cell response in the blood that was directed against both S and N. In contrast, the SL and buccal vaccination-induced antibody showed lower neutralization titer against WA-1/2020 (143 and 302, respectively), and showed 4.5-fold lower cross reactivity neutralization titer against B.1.617.2 compared to WA-1/2020. Following challenge with B.1.617.2, the IM group RMs showed superior protection with 3 of the 5 animals being negative in upper and lower respiratory airways at Day 2. In contrast, no significant protection was observed in the SL group. Vaccine induced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody effector functions showed direct association with protection. Conclusion: Our findings showed that IM vaccination with improved MVA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses and protect against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Delta challenge in RMs. They also showed IM vaccinations are superior to oral vaccinations.

12.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine ; 48, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1587799

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Jade Screen Project (JSP) was initiated in March 2020 by Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) practitioners to help support UK frontline workers in the prevention, treatment and recovery from Covid-19. Methods: The JSP Management group was formed in March 2020. A selective review was conducted of available English and Chinese language sources describing the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Data on herbs, formulae and approaches to management were extracted, formulated into statements, and circulated to an international group of expert practitioners. Agreement on these were rated on a 7 point Likert scale and aggregated to generate a broad consensus on good practice resulting in preventative and acute treatment guidelines. Forty-eight CHM practitioners were recruited to work voluntarily on the project and trained in the use of the guidelines. Funds were raised to enable provision of free herbs. Practitioner networks and social media were used to publicise the project. Results: Currently the JSP has 140 patients registered for treatment (74 for prevention, 6 for acute infection, and 60 for recovery). Recruitment has been primarily by word-of-mouth and includes a geographically and ethnically diverse population with a wide range of occupations from bus driver to surgeon. Data are being collected quantitatively using a modified MYMOP outcome measure and via in-depth qualitative interviews. Preliminary data suggests that CHM may have a useful role in assisting in the recovery from chronic COVID-19 related disease. Conclusion: The JSP is an example of a practitioner led initiative to provide accessible integrative care to a vulnerable population at a time of great need. It has generated treatment guidelines, created a network of trained practitioners, and provided free herbal treatment to a diverse group of CHM naive people. Preliminary data suggest further research into the role of CHM to assist recovery from chronic COVID-19 infection is warranted Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine;COVID-19;Integrative care;Prevention;Treatment

15.
Acta Psychologica Sinica ; 53(9):992-1002, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1346596

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak increases public mental stress and pandemic-related trauma. Timely and comprehensive online mental health services have been deployed across China. Hotline counselors can be exposed to the stress and trauma experienced by callers indirectly. They may experience secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of their empathetic engagement with traumatized clients, and they may also experience vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). The present study examined negative and positive change in hotline counselors concurrently and explored the mechanisms of both positive and negative outcomes. Participants were 776 counselors (81% female, average age = 42.57 ± 7.90, average years of experience = 12.44 ± 5.92) recruited from MOE-CCNU Mental Health Service Platform, the biggest official telephone-based and online psychological support platform in China during COVID-19 period. Empathy and VPTG were measured by revised Chinese versions of self-report questionnaires. STS was assessed by the corresponding subscale of the Professional Quality of Life Scale. The Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire was used to assess participants’ search for life meaning. Mindfulness was evaluated by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied. After controlling age, trauma cases and total cases, counselors’ empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Results revealed that empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Mindfulness mediated this association between empathy and STS. Search for meaning mediated the relationship between empathy and VPTG. Additionally, the association between empathy and VPTG was also mediated through other four significant mediating pathways: (a) secondary trauma stress, (b) secondary traumatic stress and search for meaning, (c) mindfulness and search for meaning, and (d) mindfulness and secondary trauma stress and search for meaning. Our findings support that empathy lead to both positive and negative outcomes among hotline counselors during COVID-19 period in China, highlighting dialectical insights into trauma workers’ experiences. When counselors engage in others’ traumatic experience, their vicarious negative emotional experience may be a pathway to growth, and search for life meaning is an important factor in that growth. © 2021, Science Press. All rights reserved.

16.
IEEE Eurasia Conf. IOT, Commun. Eng., ECICE ; : 385-387, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1050266

ABSTRACT

The application of humanoid robots has been popular in the field of healthcare and education. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, most people are isolated at home. People in isolation are constantly looking for new entertainment activities. Therefore, entertaining robots would become people's best partner in home isolation. In this article, the possibility of an entertainment robot for isolated people from the perspective of human factors is studied. NAO is an autonomous, programmable humanoid robot developed by the French Aldebaran Robot Company. Because of its cute appearance and ability to talk to people, we use NAO for this study. When isolated at home, parents might need to work at home and not have time to spend time with their children. A robot for children has entertaining capabilities such as playing soccer and dancing to teach soccer knowledge to children. Experimental results show that NAO can learn to search and kick a ball and dance to entertain children at home in the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2020 IEEE.

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