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2.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(33): 3808-3816, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to SARS-CoV-2 614D (wild type [WT]) strain and variants of concern after the primary 2-dose and booster vaccination. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with NSCLC and 53 healthy volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery assay and live virus Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay, respectively. RESULTS: A majority of patients with NSCLC generated binding and neutralizing antibody titers comparable with the healthy vaccinees after mRNA vaccination, but a subset of patients with NSCLC (25%) made poor responses, resulting in overall lower (six- to seven-fold) titers compared with the healthy cohort (P = < .0001). Although patients age > 70 years had lower immunoglobulin G titers (P = < .01), patients receiving programmed death-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Neutralizing antibody titers to the B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta), and in particular, B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were significantly lower (P = < .0001) compared with the 614D (WT) strain. Booster vaccination led to a significant increase (P = .0001) in the binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the WT and Omicron variant. However, 2-4 months after the booster, we observed a five- to seven-fold decrease in neutralizing titers to WT and Omicron viruses. CONCLUSION: A subset of patients with NSCLC responded poorly to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and had low neutralizing antibodies to the B.1.1.529 Omicron variant. Booster vaccination increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers to Omicron, but antibody titers declined after 3 months. These data highlight the concern for patients with cancer given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , RNA, Messenger
4.
Sci Adv ; 8(40): eadd2032, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053092

ABSTRACT

In this study, by characterizing several human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from single B cells of the COVID-19-recovered individuals in India who experienced ancestral Wuhan strain (WA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 during early stages of the pandemic, we found a receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific mAb 002-S21F2 that has rare gene usage and potently neutralized live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron sublineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 µg/ml. Structural studies of 002-S21F2 in complex with spike trimers of Omicron and WA.1 showed that it targets a conformationally conserved epitope on the outer face of RBD (class 3 surface) outside the ACE2-binding motif, thereby providing a mechanistic insights for its broad neutralization activity. The discovery of 002-S21F2 and the broadly neutralizing epitope it targets have timely implications for developing a broad range of therapeutic and vaccine interventions against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron sublineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia ; 22(9):S281-S282, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033826

ABSTRACT

Context: Patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is highly recommended for these patients but their antibody responses after the initial vaccination series is impaired, particularly when measured against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Objective: To assess antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after booster vaccination in NHL/CLL patients. Design: We designed a single center, prospective, observational study and collected blood and clinical data on 69 patients who received an approved booster dose. Antibody binding against SARS-CoV-2 spike of the original strain and of variants of concern were measured using a multiplex assay. Live-virus neutralization against Delta, Omicron, and the ancestral WA1/2020 strains were measured by focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Correlation between vaccine response and clinical factors were determined. Results: Median anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG binding titers were 8.6-fold lower in NHL/CLL patients without prior SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to healthy individuals. IgA and IgM titers were similarly reduced. Among the 51 patients with available pre- and post-booster samples, only 45% achieved a >3.16 fold-increase in IgG titers after booster (median fold increase = 2.58 vs 41.0 for healthy vaccinees). A substantial decrease in IgG binding to variant SARS-CoV-2 spike, particularly from B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants, was observed. However, reductions were similar to healthy vaccinees (median fold reduction: 4.82 vs 4.83, respectively). Neutralizing antibody titers against WA1/2020 strain were detected in 44% of patients but only 16% of patients had neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron before booster vaccination. Neutralizing titers against WA1/2020 and Omicron were detected in 61% and 43% of patients after booster respectively, though mean titers against Omicron were 11.5-fold lower than WA1/2020. Clinical correlates to vaccine response including treatment status will be presented. Conclusions: Antibody binding and live-virus neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants including Omicron are lower in NHL/CLL patients compared to healthy individuals even after booster vaccination. Our study reinforces the need to prioritize anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactic and treatment agents to protect this highly immunosuppressed population. Funding: Winship Cancer Institute and Emory University Institutional Funds, NCI U54 CA260563, P30CA138292, NIH P51 OD011132, HHSN272201400004C, U19AI090023, R35CA197603.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911693

ABSTRACT

Several approaches have produced an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since millions of people are exposed to influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, it is of great interest to develop a two-in-one vaccine that will be able to protect against infection of both viruses. We have developed a hybrid vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses using influenza virus-like particles (VLP) incorporated by protein transfer with glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored SARS-CoV-2 RBD fused to GM-CSF as an adjuvant. GPI-RBD-GM-CSF fusion protein was expressed in CHO-S cells, purified and incorporated onto influenza VLPs to develop the hybrid vaccine. Our results show that the hybrid vaccine induced a strong antibody response and protected mice from both influenza virus and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 challenges, with vaccinated mice having significantly lower lung viral titers compared to naive mice. These results suggest that a hybrid vaccine strategy is a promising approach for developing multivalent vaccines to prevent influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(26): 3020-3031, 2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated vaccine-induced antibody responses in patients with NHL/CLL against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants of concern including B.1.167.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from 121 patients with NHL/CLL receiving two doses of vaccine were collected longitudinally. Antibody binding against the full-length spike protein, the receptor-binding, and N-terminal domains of the original strain and of variants was measured using a multiplex assay. Live-virus neutralization against Delta, Omicron, and the early WA1/2020 strains was measured using a focus reduction neutralization test. B cells were measured by flow cytometry. Correlation between vaccine response and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G-binding titers were 85-fold lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy controls, with seroconversion occurring in only 67% of patients. Neutralization titers were also lower and correlated with binding titers (P < .0001). Treatment with anti-CD20-directed therapies within 1 year resulted in 136-fold lower binding titers. Peripheral blood B-cell count also correlated with vaccine response. At 3 months from last anti-CD20-directed therapy, B-cell count ≥ 4.31/µL blood around the time of vaccination predicted response (OR 7.46, P = .04). Antibody responses also correlated with age. Importantly, neutralization titers against Delta and Omicron were reduced six- and 42-fold, respectively, with 67% of patients seropositive for WA1/2020 exhibiting seronegativity for Omicron. CONCLUSION: Antibody binding and live-virus neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern including Delta and Omicron were substantially lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy vaccinees. Anti-CD20-directed therapy < 1 year before vaccination and number of circulating B cells strongly predict vaccine response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
9.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 55, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860374

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants enhance the magnitude and the durability of the immune response to vaccines. However, there is a paucity of comparative studies on the nature of the immune responses stimulated by leading adjuvant candidates. In this study, we compared five clinically relevant adjuvants in mice-alum, AS03 (a squalene-based adjuvant supplemented with α-tocopherol), AS37 (a TLR7 ligand emulsified in alum), CpG1018 (a TLR9 ligand emulsified in alum), O/W 1849101 (a squalene-based adjuvant)-for their capacity to stimulate immune responses when combined with a subunit vaccine under clinical development. We found that all four of the adjuvant candidates surpassed alum with respect to their capacity to induce enhanced and durable antigen-specific antibody responses. The TLR-agonist-based adjuvants CpG1018 (TLR9) and AS37 (TLR7) induced Th1-skewed CD4+ T cell responses, while alum, O/W, and AS03 induced a balanced Th1/Th2 response. Consistent with this, adjuvants induced distinct patterns of early innate responses. Finally, vaccines adjuvanted with AS03, AS37, and CpG1018/alum-induced durable neutralizing-antibody responses and significant protection against the B.1.351 variant 7 months following immunization. These results, together with our recent results from an identical study in non-human primates (NHPs), provide a comparative benchmarking of five clinically relevant vaccine adjuvants for their capacity to stimulate immunity to a subunit vaccine, demonstrating the capacity of adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines to provide durable protection against the B.1.351 variant. Furthermore, these results reveal differences between the widely-used C57BL/6 mouse strain and NHP animal models, highlighting the importance of species selection for future vaccine and adjuvant studies.

10.
Sci Immunol ; 7(72): eabo0226, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769818

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should induce broadly cross-reactive humoral and T cell responses to protect against emerging variants of concern (VOCs). Here, we inactivated the furin cleavage site (FCS) of spike expressed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus vaccine (MVA/SdFCS) and found that FCS inactivation markedly increased spike binding to human ACE2. After vaccination of mice, the MVA/SdFCS vaccine induced eightfold higher neutralizing antibodies compared with MVA/S, which expressed spike without FCS inactivation, and protected against the Beta variant. We next added nucleocapsid to the MVA/SdFCS vaccine (MVA/SdFCS-N) and tested its immunogenicity and efficacy via intramuscular (IM), buccal (BU), or sublingual (SL) routes in rhesus macaques. IM vaccination induced spike-specific IgG in serum and mucosae (nose, throat, lung, and rectum) that neutralized the homologous (WA-1/2020) and heterologous VOCs, including Delta, with minimal loss (<2-fold) of activity. IM vaccination also induced both spike- and nucleocapsid-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the blood. In contrast, the SL and BU vaccinations induced less spike-specific IgG in secretions and lower levels of polyfunctional IgG in serum compared with IM vaccination. After challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, the IM route induced robust protection, the BU route induced moderate protection, and the SL route induced no protection. Vaccine-induced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody effector functions positively correlated with protection, but only the effector functions correlated with early protection. Thus, IM vaccination with MVA/SdFCS-N vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses, protecting against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 VOC more effectively than other routes of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Vaccinia , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100529, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649941

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant emerged in November 2021 and consists of several mutations within the spike. We use serum from mRNA-vaccinated individuals to measure neutralization activity against omicron in a live-virus assay. At 2-4 weeks after a primary series of vaccinations, we observe a 30-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron. Six months after the initial two-vaccine doses, sera from naive vaccinated subjects show no neutralizing activity against omicron. In contrast, COVID-19-recovered individuals 6 months after receiving the primary series of vaccinations show a 22-fold reduction, with the majority of the subjects retaining neutralizing antibody responses. In naive individuals following a booster shot (third dose), we observe a 14-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron, and over 90% of subjects show neutralizing activity. These findings show that a third dose is required to provide robust neutralizing antibody responses against the omicron variant.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
13.
Science ; 374(6573):1343-1353, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1567412

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane against several variants of concern (VOCs) after vaccination with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine messenger RNA-1273 (mRNA-1273). We evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received a primary vaccination series of mRNA-1273 and were boosted about 6 months later with either homologous mRNA-1273 or heterologous mRNA-1273.b, which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351 Beta variant. After boost, animals had increased neutralizing antibody responses across all VOCs, which was sustained for at least 8 weeks after boost. Nine weeks after boost, animals were challenged with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant. Viral replication was low to undetectable in bronchoalveolar lavage and significantly reduced in nasal swabs in all boosted animals, suggesting that booster vaccinations may be required to sustain immunity and protection. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Science is the property of American Association for the Advancement of Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Science ; 374(6573): 1343-1353, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483979

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane against several variants of concern (VOCs) after vaccination with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine messenger RNA-1273 (mRNA-1273). We evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received a primary vaccination series of mRNA-1273 and were boosted about 6 months later with either homologous mRNA-1273 or heterologous mRNA-1273.ß, which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351 Beta variant. After boost, animals had increased neutralizing antibody responses across all VOCs, which was sustained for at least 8 weeks after boost. Nine weeks after boost, animals were challenged with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant. Viral replication was low to undetectable in bronchoalveolar lavage and significantly reduced in nasal swabs in all boosted animals, suggesting that booster vaccinations may be required to sustain immunity and protection.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary , Macaca mulatta , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Virus Replication
15.
Science ; 373(6561):1372-1377, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1426840

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)Ð competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Science is the property of American Association for the Advancement of Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3587, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387350

ABSTRACT

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we developed a trimeric form of the RBD and show that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provides protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques. The trimeric form induces higher neutralizing antibody titer compared to monomer with as low as 1µg antigen dose. In mice, adjuvanting the protein with a TLR7/8 agonist formulation alum-3M-052 induces 100-fold higher neutralizing antibody titer and superior protection from infection compared to alum. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes significant loss of innate cells and pathology in the lung, and vaccination protects from changes in innate cells and lung pathology. These results demonstrate RBD trimer protein as a suitable candidate for vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Stearic Acids/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Stearic Acids/immunology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of pre-existing endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity on SARS-CoV-2 serologic and clinical responses are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effects of prior exposure to HCoV Betacoronavirus HKU1 spike protein on serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after intramuscular administration in mice. We also sought to understand the baseline seroprevalence of HKU1 spike antibodies in healthy children and to measure their correlation with SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies in children hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). METHODS: Groups of 5 mice were injected intramuscularly with two doses of alum-adjuvanted HKU1 spike followed by SARS-CoV-2 spike; or the reciprocal regimen of SARS-Cov-2 spike followed by HKU1 spike. Sera collected 21 days following each injection was analyzed for IgG antibodies to HKU1 spike, SARS-CoV-2 spike, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Sera from children hospitalized with acute COVID-19, MIS-C or healthy controls (n = 14 per group) were analyzed for these same antibodies. RESULTS: Mice primed with SARS-CoV-2 spike and boosted with HKU1 spike developed high titers of SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies; however, mice primed with HKU1 spike and boosted with SARS-CoV-2 spike were unable to mount neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. HKU1 spike antibodies were detected in all children with acute COVID-19, MIS-C, and healthy controls. Although children with MIS-C had significantly higher HKU1 spike titers than healthy children (GMT 37239 vs. 7551, P = 0.012), these titers correlated positively with both SARS-CoV-2 binding (r = 0.7577, P<0.001) and neutralizing (r = 0.6201, P = 0.001) antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Prior murine exposure to HKU1 spike protein completely impeded the development of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with original antigenic sin. In contrast, the presence of HKU1 spike IgG antibodies in children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C was not associated with diminished neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
18.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1306-1315, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366822

ABSTRACT

B.1.351 is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant most resistant to antibody neutralization. We demonstrate how the dose and number of immunizations influence protection. Nonhuman primates received two doses of 30 or 100 µg of Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine, a single immunization of 30 µg, or no vaccine. Two doses of 100 µg of mRNA-1273 induced 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution neutralizing antibody titers against live SARS-CoV-2 p.Asp614Gly and B.1.351 of 3,300 and 240, respectively. Higher neutralizing responses against B.1.617.2 were also observed after two doses compared to a single dose. After challenge with B.1.351, there was ~4- to 5-log10 reduction of viral subgenomic RNA and low to undetectable replication in bronchoalveolar lavages in the two-dose vaccine groups, with a 1-log10 reduction in nasal swabs in the 100-µg group. These data establish that a two-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 will be critical for providing upper and lower airway protection against major variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mesocricetus , Primates/virology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
19.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356908

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)­competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
20.
Science ; 373(6561): eabj0299, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334532

ABSTRACT

Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. Here, nonhuman primates (NHPs) received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 to 100 µg of the mRNA-1273 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs after SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and most strongly correlated with levels of anti­S antibody and neutralizing activity. Lower antibody levels were needed for reduction of viral replication in the lower airway than in the upper airway. Passive transfer of mRNA-1273­induced immunoglobulin G to naïve hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Thus, mRNA-1273 vaccine­induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Passive , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mesocricetus , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccine Potency , Virus Replication
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