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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760370

ABSTRACT

Most methods for measuring environmental lead (Pb) content are time consuming, expensive, hazardous, and restricted to specific analytical systems. To provide a facile, safe tool to detect Pb, we created pMet-lead, a portable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb-biosensor. The pMet-lead device comprises a 3D-printed frame housing a 405-nm laser diode-an excitation source for fluorescence emission images (YFP and CFP)-accompanied by optical filters, a customized sample holder with a Met-lead 1.44 M1 (the most recent version)-embedded biochip, and an optical lens aligned for smartphone compatibility. Measuring the emission ratios (Y/C) of the FRET components enabled Pb detection with a dynamic range of nearly 2 (1.96), a pMet-lead/Pb dissociation constant (Kd) 45.62 nM, and a limit of detection 24 nM (0.474 µg/dL, 4.74 ppb). To mitigate earlier problems with a lack of selectivity for Pb vs. zinc, we preincubated samples with tricine, a low-affinity zinc chelator. We validated the pMet-lead measurements of the characterized laboratory samples and unknown samples from six regions in Taiwan by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Notably, two unknown samples had Y/C ratios significantly higher than that of the control (3.48 ± 0.08 and 3.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.79 ± 0.02), along with Pb concentrations (10.6 ppb and 15.24 ppb) above the WHO-permitted level of 10 ppb in tap water, while the remaining four unknowns showed no detectable Pb upon ICP-MS. These results demonstrate that pMet-lead provides a rapid, sensitive means for on-site Pb detection in water from the environment and in living/drinking supply systems to prevent potential Pb poisoning.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Smartphone , Water
2.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(11): 1028-1037, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect countries worldwide. To inhibit the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), testing of patients, contact tracing, and quarantine of their close contacts have been used as major nonpharmaceutical interventions. The advantages of antigen tests, such as low cost and rapid turnaround, may allow for the rapid identification of larger numbers of infectious persons. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Biomed Central databases from inception to January 2, 2021. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 with reference standards were included. We included studies that provided sufficient data to construct a 2 × 2 table on a per-patient basis. Only articles in English were reviewed. Summary sensitivity and specificity for antigen tests were generated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 8624 participants were included. The meta-analysis for antigen testing generated a pooled sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 66%-88%; 14 studies, 8624 patients) and a pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%; 14 studies, 8624 patients). The subgroup analysis of studies that reported specimen collection within 7 days after symptom onset showed a pooled sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 78%-99%; four studies, 1342 patients) and pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 97%-100%; four studies, 1342 patients). Regarding the applicability, the patient selection, index tests, and reference standards of studies in our meta-analysis matched the review title. CONCLUSION: Antigen tests have moderate sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Antigen tests might have a higher sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 within 7 days after symptom onset. Based on our findings, antigen testing might be an effective method for identifying contagious individuals to block SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S139-S140, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602193

ABSTRACT

Background In early months of COVID-19 pandemic, SGH recorded a year-on-year increase in antibiotic (ABx) use for community acquired acute respiratory infection (CA ARI) from Feb-Apr 2019 (48.7 defined daily doses (DDD)/100 bed-days) to 2020 (50.8 DDD/100 bed-days). To address concerns of misuse, the antibiotic stewardship unit (ASU) expanded prospective audit feedback (PAF) to CA ARI patients admitted to ARI wards, with low procalcitonin (PCT). PAF was conducted on day 2-3 of ABx, on weekdays. Doctors received feedback to stop/modify when ABx was deemed inappropriate. Here, we describe the impact of ASU’s adaptive approach to curb rising ABx use in patients admitted for ARI during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A Pre- & Post-intervention study was conducted. All patients started on ABx (ceftriaxone/co-amoxiclav/piptazo/carbapenems/levofloxacin) for CA ARI & PCT < 0.5µg/L were analysed. Those who died ≤48h of admission;admitted to intensive care;required ABx escalation;>1 infective sites;complex lung infection were excluded. Primary objective was to compare the proportion of ABx stopped ≤4 days (time to final infection diagnosis) Pre (22/3-18/4/20) & Post (21/4-13/7/20). Results 184 (Pre) & 528 (Post) ABx courses were analysed. ASU audited 51 (Pre) & 380 (Post) courses with the rest discontinued/discharged before review. Patients were largely similar in both periods;a third had low likelihood of bacterial infection (C reactive protein < 30mg/L). In Post, 73 feedback was given to stop ABx (often because symptoms suggested viral/fluid overload) & 18 to switch to oral ABx. 82 (90%) feedback was accepted. No ABx was restarted ≤48h or deaths ≤30 days due to ARI. 1 patient had C. difficile diarrhoea a day after ABx cessation as per ASU feedback. Proportion of all ABx stopped ≤4 days was higher in Post than Pre [27/184 (15%) vs 152/528 (29%), p< 0.01]. Median duration of therapy of IV ABx was reduced (6.5 vs 3 days, p< 0.01), with corresponding shorter median length of stay (10.5 vs 6 days, p< 0.01). Conclusion PAF directly and indirectly reduced ABx duration in patients treated for CA ARI as prescribers become more conscious about stopping ABx when investigations show low likelihood of bacterial infection. ASU must remain agile during pandemics to detect emerging problems and adapt processes to counter early. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 699227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506271

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health crisis affecting over 200 countries worldwide. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-associated end-stage respiratory failure. However, the exact effect of ECMO in the management of these patients, especially with regards to complications and mortality, is unclear. Methods: This is the largest retrospective study of ECMO treated COVID-19 patients in China. A total of 50 ECMO-treated COVID-19 patients were recruited. We describe the main characteristics, the clinical features, ventilator parameters, ECMO-related variables and management details, and complications and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that required ECMO support. Results: For those patients with ECMO support, 21 patients survived and 29 died (mortality rate: 58.0%). Among those who survived, PaO2 (66.3 mmHg [59.5-74.0 mmHg] and PaO2/FiO2 (68.0 mmHg [61.0-76.0 mmHg]) were higher in the survivors than those of non-survivors (PaO2: 56.8 mmHg (49.0-65.0 mmHg), PaO2/FiO2 (58.2 mmHg (49.0-68.0 mmHg), all P < 0.01) prior to ECMO. Patients who achieved negative fluid balance in the early resuscitation phase (within 3 days) had a higher survival rate than those who did not (P = 0.0003). Conclusions: In this study of 50 cases of ECMO-treated COVID-19 patients, a low PO2/FIO2 ratio before ECMO commencement may indicate a poor prognosis. Negative fluid balance in the early resuscitation phase during ECMO treatment was a predictor of increased survival post-ECMO treatment.

5.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487920

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(11): 1028-1037, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect countries worldwide. To inhibit the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), testing of patients, contact tracing, and quarantine of their close contacts have been used as major nonpharmaceutical interventions. The advantages of antigen tests, such as low cost and rapid turnaround, may allow for the rapid identification of larger numbers of infectious persons. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Biomed Central databases from inception to January 2, 2021. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 with reference standards were included. We included studies that provided sufficient data to construct a 2 × 2 table on a per-patient basis. Only articles in English were reviewed. Summary sensitivity and specificity for antigen tests were generated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 8624 participants were included. The meta-analysis for antigen testing generated a pooled sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 66%-88%; 14 studies, 8624 patients) and a pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%; 14 studies, 8624 patients). The subgroup analysis of studies that reported specimen collection within 7 days after symptom onset showed a pooled sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 78%-99%; four studies, 1342 patients) and pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 97%-100%; four studies, 1342 patients). Regarding the applicability, the patient selection, index tests, and reference standards of studies in our meta-analysis matched the review title. CONCLUSION: Antigen tests have moderate sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Antigen tests might have a higher sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 within 7 days after symptom onset. Based on our findings, antigen testing might be an effective method for identifying contagious individuals to block SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(8): 745-753, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398166

ABSTRACT

The detrimental impact of the heavy metal lead (Pb) on human health has been studied for years. The fact that Pb impairs human body has been established from countless painful and sad historical events. Nowadays, World Health Organization and many developmental countries have established regulations concerning the use of Pb. Measuring the blood lead level (BLL) is so far the only way to officially evaluate the degree of Pb exposure, but the so-called safety value (10 µg/dL in adults and 5 µg/dL in children) seems unreliable to represent the security checkpoint for children through daily intake of drinking water or physical contact with a lower contaminated level of Pb contents. In general, unsolved mysteries about the Pb toxicological mechanisms still remain. In this review article, we report on the methods to prevent Pb poison for further Pb toxicological research. We establish high-sensitivity Pb monitoring, and also report on the use of fluorescent biosensors such as genetically-encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors built for various large demands such as the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We also contribute to the development and optimization of the FRET-based Pb biosensors. Our well-performed version of Met-lead 1.44 M1 has achieved a limit of detection of 10 nM (2 ppb; 0.2 µg/dL) and almost 5-fold in dynamic range (DR) supported for the real practical applications-that is, the in-cell Pb sensing device for blood and blood-related samples, and the Pb environmental detections in vitro. The perspective of our powerful Pb biosensor incorporated with a highly sensitive bio-chip of the portable device for quick Pb measurements will be addressed for further manipulation.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Lead/analysis , Environment
8.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3554-3560, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320417

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenatio (ECMO) for rescue therapy of respiratory failure in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ECMO in the treatment of COVID-19 compared with conventional ventilation support. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected on extremely critical patients with COVID-19 from January 2020 to March 2020 in intensive care unit of a hospital in charge by national rescue team in Wuhan, China, the epicenter of pandemic. Patients were classified into the ECMO group and the conventional ventilation non-ECMO group. Clinical characteristics, technical characteristics, laboratory results, mortality, and complications of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: 88 patients with extremely critical COVID-19 were screened; 34 received ECMO support and 31 received conventional ventilation support. Both groups had comparable characteristics at baseline in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities. Before ECMO or conventional therapy, patients in the two groups had sever acute respiratory distress syndrome with a mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2 /FiO2 ) ratio of 69.6 and 75.4, respectively. At the time of reporting, patients in the ECMO had significantly lower in-hospital mortality compared with the control group (58.8 vs. 93.5%, p = .001). CONCLUSION: ECMO is shown to decrease the mortality of extremely critical ill COVID-19 patients compared with the conventional treatment. Although complications occurred frequently, ECMO could still be a rescue therapy for the treatment of COVID-19 during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 827-832, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320351

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to the normal operation of the healthcare system. On a worldwide scale, hospitals suspended nonurgent surgeries and outpatient visits to downsize clinical loadings to redistribute manpower to counteract the pandemic's impact. So far, there is no evidence-based guideline defining a clear line between urgent and nonurgent indications of intravitreal injections (IVI). Herein, we aimed to summarize IVI algorithm modifications and discuss the patient prioritization according to medical needs in the hostile environment in the COVID crisis. Assessing current literature, we found that neovascular age-related macular degeneration is considered the utmost priority among conditions that require IVI. Other conditions assigned with a high priority include monocular or quasi-monocular patients (only one eye > 20/40), neovascular glaucoma, and new patients with significant vision loss. Although patients with central retinal vein occlusion and proliferative diabetic retinopathy are not advised to delay treatments, we found no consistent evidence that correlated with a worse outcome. Diabetic macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion patients undertaking treatment delay should be regularly followed up every 2 to 3 months. Serving as the principle of management behind the algorithm modifications, the reduction of both patient visit and IVI therapy counts should be reckoned together with the risk of permanent visual loss and COVID infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Humans , Hygiene , Patient Safety
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 821-826, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317943

ABSTRACT

Different dietary nutrients have distinct effects, including enhancing immune response activity and supporting mucous membrane integrity. These effects are critical in fighting against pathogenic agents, which cover coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the coronavirus disease that shuts down globally. Recent researches have shown that micronutrient deficiency is commonly associated with compromised immune responses, respiratory tract infections, or even susceptibility to COVID-19. The relationship between Vit A and infection is its role in mucosal epithelium integrity (skin and mucous membrane), the supplementation could be an option for assisted-treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a possible prevention of lung infection. Vit C/ascorbic acid stimulates oxygen radical scavenging activity of the skin and enhances epithelial barrier function. Ascorbic acid alone or with other natural compounds (baicalin and theaflavin) may inhibit the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in human small alveolar epithelial cells and limited the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D receptors can be expressed by immune cells, and different immune cells (macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells) can convert Vit D into its active form 1,25-(OH)2 D. Oral vitamin D intake can be a readily way to restrict the viral infection through downregulation of ACE2 receptor and to attenuate the disease severity by decreasing the frequency of cytokine storm and pulmonary pro-inflammatory response. Vit E supports T-cell mediated functions, optimization of Th1 response, and suppression of Th2 response. Vitamin E supplementation can lower the production of superoxides and may favors the antioxidants and benefit the progress of COVID-19 treatment. Zinc plays an essential role in both innate and adaptive immune systems and cytokine production, and Zinc-dependent viral enzymes to initiate the infectious process have proved the Zinc levels are directly associated with symptoms relieved of COVID-19. Iron is an essential component of enzymes involved in the activation of immune cells, lower iron levels predispose to severe symptoms of SARS-CoV-2, and monitoring the status can predict the disease severity and mortality. Selenium participates in the adaptive immune response by supporting antibody production and development. Deficiency can reduce antibody concentration, decreased cytotoxicity of NK cells, compromised cellular immunity, and an attenuated response to vaccination. The COVID-19 vaccines including three broad categories, protein-based vaccines, gene-based vaccines (mRNA vaccines and DNA vaccines), combination of gene and protein-based vaccines. Micronutrients are involved in immunity from the virus entering the human to innate immune response and adaptive immune response. Micronutrients are indispensable in immune response of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Micronutrients/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Iron/physiology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Selenium/physiology , Vitamins/physiology , Zinc/physiology
11.
Int J Dermatol Venereol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292185

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus infection has brought a great challenge in prevention and control of the national epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. During the fight against the epidemic of COVID-19, properly carrying out pre-examination and triage for patients with skin lesions and fever has been a practical problem encountered in hospitals for skin diseases as well as clinics of dermatology in general hospitals. Considering that certain skin diseases may have symptom of fever, and some of the carriers of 2019 novel coronavirus and patients with COVID-19 at their early stage may do not present any symptoms of COVID-19, to properly deal with the visitors to clinics of dermatology, the Chinese Society of Dermatology organized experts to formulate the principles and procedures for pre-examination and triage of visitors to clinics of dermatology during the epidemic of COVID-19.

12.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 3-8, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124973

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mainly an infectious disease of the respiratory system transmitted through air droplets, and pulmonary symptoms constitute main presentations of this disease. However, COVID-19 demonstrates a clinically diverse manifestation ranging from asymptomatic presentation to critically illness with severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, or multiple organ failure. Accumulating evidences demonstrated that COVID-19 has extrapulmonary involvement, including neurological, smelling sensation, cardiovascular, digestive, hepatobiliary, renal, endocrinologic, dermatologic system, and others. Over a third of COVID-19 patients manifest a wide range of neurological symptoms involving the central/peripheral nervous system. Underlying cardiovascular comorbidities were associated with detrimental outcomes, meanwhile the occurrence of cardiovascular complications correlate to poor survival. Gastrointestinal symptoms frequently occur and have been associated with a longer period of illness. Impaired hepatic functions were associated with the severity of the disease. Higher rate of acute kidney injury was reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Endocrinologic presentations of COVID-19 include exacerbating hyperglycemia, euglycemic ketosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. The most common cutaneous manifestation was acro-cutaneous (pernio or chilblain-like) lesions, and other skin lesions consist of maculopapular rash, vesicular lesions, livedoid/necrotic lesions, exanthematous rashes, and petechiae. This review article summarized the general clinical signs and symptoms, radiologic features, and disease manifestation with progression in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Skin Diseases/etiology
13.
Journal of Biomedical & Laboratory Sciences ; 32(4):191-198, 2020.
Article in English | Airiti Library | ID: covidwho-1098343

ABSTRACT

The high infectious and mortality rates of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, together with the nosocomial and community infections caused by many other important pathogenic microbes are currently making huge threats to human health worldwide. The ultraviolet (UV) light has been widely applied in biomedical industry, especially in eradication of pathogenic microbes for decades. Recent advances, especially UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), showed many advantages. UV-LEDs have been reported to be effective in killing microbes, however, there are still many unsatisfactory issues which affects the killing effectiveness. Furthermore, so far, the efficacy of UV-LEDs in killing SARS-CoV-2 is also not well evaluated. In this study, we designed and developed a portable UVC-LED device and tested its microbes killing effects. The amounts of pathogens including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, non-tuberculous Mycobacteria, Candida albicans and SARS-CoV-2 were significantly decreased after irradiation for one second. A very highly efficient killing efficacy with killing 99.9% microbes was achieved within three seconds. Moreover, irradiation by the UVC-LED device also significantly decreased the germs on the mask, phone screen and elevator button. Therefore, an innovative UVC-LED device that can effectively kill microorganisms regardless of bacteria, yeast or SARS-CoV-2 was presented. 造成高傳染性和死亡率的冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)大流行,以及許多其他重要病原微生物引起的醫院和社區感染,目前正對全世界的人類健康構成巨大威脅。紫外線(UV)已廣泛應用於生物醫學產業,尤其是在清除病原微生物方面已有數十年的歷史,最近尤其是紫外線發光二極管(UV-LED)的進展顯示出許多優點。已有報導證實UV-LED可有效的殺死微生物,但是仍然存在許多因素可能影響清除微生物的效力。此外到目前為止,還沒有清楚地評估UV-LED在殺死SARS-CoV-2病毒的功效。在本篇研究中,我們設計並開發了一種可攜式UVC-LED設備,並測試了其清除微生物的效果。照射一秒鐘後,包括大腸桿菌,綠膿桿菌,金黃色葡萄球菌,非結核分枝桿菌,白色念珠菌和SARS-CoV-2在內的數量明顯減少。在三秒鐘內達到了非常高效的清除功效,殺死了99.9%的微生物。此UVC-LED設備也可顯著減少口罩、手機螢幕和電梯按鈕上的微生物數量。因此,本研究提出了一種創新的UVC-LED裝置,可以有效地殺死微生物,包括細菌,酵母菌或SARS-CoV-2病毒。

14.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5190

ABSTRACT

A review. This tech. guide, introducing the requirements for biosafety exptl. activities such as blood sample collection, testing, storage, and disposal is reviewed according to the guidelines and consensus, combined with the tech. principles related to therapeutic drug monitoring.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010670

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927591

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
17.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-360479

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune response in the COVID-19 patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet the detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 205 COVID-19 patients and controls to create a comprehensive immune landscape. Lymphopenia and active T and B cell responses were found to coexist and associated with age, sex and their interactions with COVID-19. Diverse epithelial and immune cell types were observed to be virus-positive and showed dramatic transcriptomic changes. Elevation of ANXA1 and S100A9 in virus-positive squamous epithelial cells may enable the initiation of neutrophil and macrophage responses via the ANXA1-FPR1 and S100A8/9-TLR4 axes. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis and designing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTSO_LILarge-scale scRNA-seq analysis depicts the immune landscape of COVID-19 C_LIO_LILymphopenia and active T and B cell responses coexist and are shaped by age and sex C_LIO_LISARS-CoV-2 infects diverse epithelial and immune cells, inducing distinct responses C_LIO_LICytokine storms with systemic S100A8/A9 are associated with COVID-19 severity C_LI

19.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13310, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767240

ABSTRACT

Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection. It is necessary to strictly follow standards of wearing protective equipment and specification of sterilizing and cleaning. Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier. At the same time, using moisturizing products is highly recommended to achieve better protection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Skin/pathology , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Emollients/administration & dosage , Gloves, Protective , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
20.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(8): 712-718, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733326

ABSTRACT

Recently, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was quickly identified as the causal pathogen leading to the outbreak of SARS-like illness all over the world. As the SARS-CoV-2 infection pandemic proceeds, many efforts are being dedicated to the development of diverse treatment strategies. Increasing evidence showed potential therapeutic agents directly acting against SARS-CoV-2 virus, such as interferon, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, viral entry blockers, neuraminidase inhibitor, vaccine, antibody agent targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome, natural killer cells, and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibitor. To date, several direct anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents have demonstrated promising in vitro and clinical efficacy. This article reviews the current and future development of direct acting agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Development , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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