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1.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 343: 130139, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240621

ABSTRACT

Owing to the over-increasing demands in resisting and managing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, development of rapid, highly sensitive, accurate, and versatile tools for monitoring total antibody concentrations at the population level has been evolved as an urgent challenge on measuring the fatality rate, tracking the changes in incidence and prevalence, comprehending medical sequelae after recovery, as well as characterizing seroprevalence and vaccine coverage. To this end, herein we prepared highly luminescent quantum dot nanobeads (QBs) by embedding numerous quantum dots into polymer matrix, and then applied it as a signal-amplification label in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). After covalently linkage with the expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RSSP), the synthesized QBs were used to determine the total antibody levels in sera by virtue of a double-antigen sandwich immunoassay. Under the developed condition, the QB-LFIA can allow the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies within 15 min with about one order of magnitude improvement in analytical sensitivity compared to conventional gold nanoparticle-based LFIA. In addition, the developed QB-LFIA performed well in clinical study in dynamic monitoring of serum antibody levels in the whole course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, we successfully developed a promising fluorescent immunological sensing tool for characterizing the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and confirming the acquired immunity to COVID-19 by evaluating the SRAS-CoV-2 total antibody level in the crowd.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(7)2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCirculating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA may represent a more reliable indicator of infection than nasal RNA, but quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) lacks diagnostic sensitivity for blood samples.METHODSA CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay that sensitively detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA was employed to analyze viral RNA kinetics in longitudinal plasma samples from nonhuman primates (NHPs) after virus exposure; to evaluate the utility of blood SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis in adults cases confirmed by nasal/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR results; and to identify suspected COVID-19 cases in pediatric and at-risk adult populations with negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results. All blood samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR to allow direct comparisons.RESULTSCRISPR-augmented RT-PCR consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the plasma of experimentally infected NHPs from 1 to 28 days after infection, and these increases preceded and correlated with rectal swab viral RNA increases. In a patient cohort (n = 159), this blood-based assay demonstrated 91.2% diagnostic sensitivity and 99.2% diagnostic specificity versus a comparator RT-qPCR nasal/nasopharyngeal test, whereas RT-qPCR exhibited 44.1% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity for the same blood samples. This CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR assay also accurately identified patients with COVID-19 using one or more negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results.CONCLUSIONResults of this study indicate that sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood by CRISPR-augmented RT-PCR permits accurate COVID-19 diagnosis, and can detect COVID-19 cases with transient or negative nasal swab RT-qPCR results, suggesting that this approach could improve COVID-19 diagnosis and the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 infection clearance, and predict the severity of infection.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov. NCT04358211.FUNDINGDepartment of Defense, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Center for Research Resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Macaca mulatta , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885210

ABSTRACT

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Copper/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Equipment Design , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , HIV Core Protein p24/analysis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Polyethyleneimine/chemistry , Reagent Strips/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 164: 112316, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628702

ABSTRACT

Recent research suggests that SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals can be highly infectious while asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic, and that an infected person may infect 5.6 other individuals on average. This situation highlights the need for rapid, sensitive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assays capable of high-throughput operation that can preferably utilize existing equipment to facilitate broad, large-scale screening efforts. We have developed a CRISPR-based assay that can meet all these criteria. This assay utilizes a custom CRISPR Cas12a/gRNA complex and a fluorescent probe to detect target amplicons produced by standard RT-PCR or isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), to allow sensitive detection at sites not equipped with real-time PCR systems required for qPCR diagnostics. We found this approach allowed sensitive and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, with a sample-to-answer time of ~50 min, and a limit of detection of 2 copies per sample. CRISPR assay diagnostic results obtained nasal swab samples of individuals with suspected COVID-19 cases were comparable to paired results from a CDC-approved quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay performed in a state testing lab, and superior to those produced by same assay in a clinical lab, where the RT-qPCR assay exhibited multiple invalid or inconclusive results. Our assay also demonstrated greater analytical sensitivity and more robust diagnostic performance than other recently reported CRISPR-based assays. Based on these findings, we believe that a CRISPR-based fluorescent application has potential to improve current COVID-19 screening efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fluorescent Dyes , Genes, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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