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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809849


With the growing prevalence and complex pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, many patients fail to achieve treatment goals despite guidelines and possibilities for treatment individualization. One of the identified root causes of this failure is clinical inertia. We explored this phenomenon, its possible predictors, and groups of patients affected the most, together with offering potential paths for intervention. Our research was a cross-sectional study conducted during 2021 involving 52 physicians and 543 patients of primary healthcare institutions in Belgrade, Serbia. The research instruments were questionnaires based on similar studies, used to collect information related to the factors that contribute to developing clinical inertia originating in both physicians and patients. In 224 patients (41.3%), clinical inertia was identified in patients with poor overall health condition, long diabetes duration, and comorbidities. Studying the changes made to the treatment, most patients (53%) had their treatment adjustment more than a year ago, with 19.3% of patients changing over the previous six months. Moreover, we found significant inertia in the treatment of patients using modern insulin analogues. Referral to secondary healthcare institutions reduced the emergence of inertia. This assessment of primary care physicians and their patients pointed to the high presence of clinical inertia, with an overall health condition, comorbidities, diabetes duration, current treatment, last treatment change, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose measuring frequency, BMI, patient referral, diet adjustment, and physician education being significant predictors.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Physicians, Primary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656673


In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1427-1432, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-360923


People with diabetes compared with people without exhibit worse prognosis if affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly when compromising metabolic control and concomitant cardiovascular disorders are present. This Perspective seeks to explore newly occurring cardio-renal-pulmonary organ damage induced or aggravated by the disease process of COVID-19 and its implications for the cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes, especially taking into account potential interactions with mechanisms of cellular intrusion of SARS-CoV-2. Severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 can precipitate myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart failure, and arrhythmias as well as an acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure. They may evolve along with multiorgan failure directly due to SARS-CoV-2-infected endothelial cells and resulting endotheliitis. This complex pathology may bear challenges for the use of most diabetes medications in terms of emerging contraindications that need close monitoring of all people with diabetes diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whenever possible, continuous glucose monitoring should be implemented to ensure stable metabolic compensation. Patients in the intensive care unit requiring therapy for glycemic control should be handled solely by intravenous insulin using exact dosing with a perfusion device. Although not only ACE inhibitors and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers but also SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, pioglitazone, and probably insulin seem to increase the number of ACE2 receptors on the cells utilized by SARS-CoV-2 for penetration, no evidence presently exists that shows this might be harmful in terms of acquiring or worsening COVID-19. In conclusion, COVID-19 and related cardio-renal-pulmonary damage can profoundly affect cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2