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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 401-404, 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Considering the spread of new genetic variants and their impact on public health, it is important to have assays that are able to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 118 positive nasopharyngeal swabs, first characterized by the Sanger sequencing, using the Simplexa® SARS-CoV-2 Variants Direct assay, with the aim of evaluating the performance of the assay to detect N501Y, G496S, Q498R, Y505H, E484K, E484Q, E484A, and L452R mutations. RESULTS: A total of 111/118 nasopharyngeal swabs were in complete agreement with the Sanger sequencing, whereas the remaining seven samples were not amplified due to the low viral load. The evaluation of the ability of the assay to detect the E484Q mutation was performed using a viral isolate of the SARS-CoV-2 Kappa variant, showing concordance in 15/15 samples. Simplexa® SARS-CoV-2 Variant Direct assay was able to detect mutation pattern of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants with 100% specificity and 94% sensitivity, whereas 100% sensitivity and specificity for the Kappa variant was observed. CONCLUSION: The assay can be useful to obtain faster results, contributing to a prompt surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants; however, it requires to be confirmed by the Sanger method, especially in the case of pattern of mutations that are different from those expected and also requires updates as new variants emerge.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855619

ABSTRACT

A descriptive analysis of common respiratory pathogens (CRPs) detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness during the fall seasons of the past three years, 2019-2021, in the Lazio region, Italy, was conducted to assess whether or not CRP circulation changed because of COVID-19 during the fall season. The results observed in a total of 633 NPSs subjected to molecular diagnosis for CRPs by multiplex PCR assay during the autumn seasons (exactly from week 41 to week 50) were compared with each other. In 2019, in 144 NPSs, the more represented CRPs were rhinovirus/enterovirus (7.6%) and influenza A/B (4.2%). In 2020, 55 (21.6%) out of 255 NPSs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 and, except for one case of Legionella pneumophila, the CRPs detected were exclusively rhinovirus/enterovirus (4.7%). In 2021, among 234 NPSs, 25.6% resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2, 14.5% for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and 12.8% for rhinovirus/enterovirus. Compared with 2019, in 2020, CRP circulation was severely limited to a few cases; in 2021, instead, infections by RSV (detected also among adults), rhinovirus/enterovirus, and other respiratory pathogens were observed again, while influenza was practically absent. The comparison of the CRPs detected in the NPSs depicts a different circulation in the Lazio region during the last three fall seasons. CRP monitoring has a direct impact on the prevention and control strategies of respiratory infectious diseases, such as the non-pharmacological interventions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should investigate the impact of specific interventions on the spread of respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complex Regional Pain Syndromes , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834408

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Comparative analysis between different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. We present an emulation trial from observational data to compare effectiveness of Bamlanivimab/Etesevimab (BAM/ETE) and Casirivimab/Imdevimab (CAS/IMD) in outpatients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in a real-world scenario of variants of concern (VoCs) from Alpha to Delta. Methods: Allocation to treatment was subject to mAbs availability, and the measured factors were not used to determine which combination to use. Patients were followed through day 30. Viral load was measured by cycle threshold (CT) on D1 (baseline) and D7.Primary outcome was time to COVID-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause over days 0-30. Weighted pooled logistic regression and marginal structural Cox model by inverse probability weights were used to compare BAM/ETE vs. CAS/IMD. ANCOVA was used to compare mean D7 CT values by intervention. Models were adjusted for calendar month, MASS score and VoCs. We evaluated effect measure modification by VoCs, vaccination, D1 CT levels and enrolment period. Results: COVID19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 15 of 237 patients in the BAM/ETE group (6.3%) and in 4 of 196 patients in the CAS/IMD group (2.0%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk] 72%; p=0.024). Subset analysis carried no evidence that the effect of the intervention was different across stratification factors. There was no evidence in viral load reduction from baseline through day 7 across the two groups (+0.17, 95% -1.41;+1.74, p=0.83). Among patients who experienced primary outcome, none showed a negative RT-PCR test in nasopharyngeal swab (p=0.009) and 82.4% showed still high viral load (p<0.001) on D7. Conclusions: In a pre-Omicron epidemiologic scenario, CAS/IMD reduced risk of clinical progression of COVID-19 compared to BAM/ETE. This effect was not associated with a concomitant difference in virological response.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Observation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 815870, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are proving to be very effective in preventing severe illness; however, although rare, post-vaccine infections have been reported. The present study focuses on virological and serological features of 94 infections that occurred in Lazio Region (Central Italy) between 27 December 2020, and 30 March 2021, after one or two doses of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: We evaluated clinical features, virological (viral load; viral infectiousness; genomic characterisation), and serological (anti-nucleoprotein Ig; anti-Spike RBD IgG; neutralising antibodies, nAb) characteristics of 94 post-vaccine infections at the time of diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) and serum samples were collected in the framework of the surveillance activities on SARS-CoV-2 variants established in Lazio Region (Central Italy) and analysed at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani" in Rome. RESULTS: The majority (92.6%) of the post-vaccine infections showed pauci/asymptomatic or mild clinical course, with symptoms and hospitalisation rate significantly less frequent in patients infected after full vaccination course as compared to patients who received a single dose vaccine. Although differences were not statistically significant, viral loads and isolation rates were lower in NPSs from patients infected after receiving two vaccine doses as compared to patients with one dose. Most cases (84%) had nAb in serum at the time of infection diagnosis, which is a sub-group of vaccinees, were found similarly able to neutralise Alpha and Gamma variants. Asymptomatic individuals showed higher nAb titres as compared to symptomatic cases (median titre: 1:120 vs. 1:40, respectively). Finally, the proportion of post-vaccine infections attributed either to Alpha and Gamma variants was similar to the proportion observed in the contemporary unvaccinated population in the Lazio region, and mutational analysis did not reveal enrichment of a defined set of Spike protein substitutions depending on the vaccination status. CONCLUSION: Our study conducted using real-life data, emphasised the importance of monitoring vaccine breakthrough infections, through the characterisation of virological, immunological, and clinical features associated with these events, in order to tune prevention measures in the next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal (NPS)/oropharyngeal swabs is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load monitoring. Oral fluid (OF) is an alternate clinical sample, easy and safer to collect and could be useful for COVID-19 diagnosis, monitoring viral load and shedding. METHODS: Optimal assay conditions and analytical sensitivity were established for the commercial Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay adapted to OF matrix. The assay was used to test 337 OF and NPS specimens collected in parallel from 164 hospitalized patients; 50 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from a subgroup of severe COVID-19 cases were also analysed. RESULTS: Using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct on OF matrix, 100% analytical detection down to 1 TCID50/mL (corresponding to 4 × 103 copies (cp)/mL) was observed. No crossreaction with other viruses transmitted through the respiratory toute was observed. Parallel testing of 337 OF and NPS samples showed highly concordant results (κ = 0.831; 95 % CI = 0.771-0.891), and high correlation of Ct values (r = 0.921; p < 0.0001). High concordance and elevated correlation was observed also between OF and BAL. Prolonged viral RNA shedding was observed up to 100 days from symptoms onset (DSO), with 32% and 29% positivity observed in OF and NPS samples, respectively, collected between 60 and 100 DSO. CONCLUSIONS: Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays on OF have high sensitivity and specificity to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and provide an alternative to NPS for diagnosis and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1468-1476, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171669

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Compared to RT-PCR, lower performance of antigen detection assays, including the Lumipulse G SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay, may depend on specific testing scenarios. METHODS: We tested 594 nasopharyngeal swab samples from individuals with COVID-19 (RT-PCR cycle threshold [Ct] values ≤ 40) or non-COVID-19 (Ct values >40) diagnoses. RT-PCR positive samples were assigned to diagnostic, screening, or monitoring groups of testing. RESULTS: With a limit of detection of 1.2 × 104 SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies/mL, Lumipulse showed positive percent agreement (PPA) of 79.9% (155/194) and negative percent agreement of 99.3% (397/400), whereas PPAs were 100% for samples with Ct values of <18 or 18-<25 and 92.5% for samples with Ct values of 25-<30. By three groups, Lumipulse showed PPA of 87.0% (60/69), 81.1% (43/53), or 72.2% (52/72), respectively, whereas PPA was 100% for samples with Ct values of <18 or 18-<25, and was 94.4, 80.0, or 100% for samples with Ct values of 25-<30, respectively. Additional testing of RT-PCR positive samples for SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA showed that, by three groups, PPA was 63.8% (44/69), 62.3% (33/53), or 33.3% (24/72), respectively. PPAs dropped to 55.6, 20.0, or 41.7% for samples with Ct values of 25-<30, respectively. All 101 samples with a subgenomic RNA positive result had a Lumipulse assay's antigen positive result, whereas only 54 (58.1%) of remaining 93 samples had a Lumipulse assay's antigen positive result. CONCLUSIONS: Lumipulse assay was highly sensitive in samples with low RT-PCR Ct values, implying repeated testing to reduce consequences of false-negative results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167629

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic methods based on SARS-CoV-2 antigens detection are a promising alternative to SARS-CoV-2 RNA amplification. We evaluated the automated chemiluminescence-based Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay on saliva samples, using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay as a reference test. Analytical performance was established on a pool of healthy donors' saliva samples spiked with the 2019-nCoV/Italy-INMI1 isolate, whereas clinical performance was assessed on fresh saliva specimens collected from hospitalized patients with suspect or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.65 Log TCID50/mL, corresponding to 18,197 copies/mL of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Antigen concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 RNA were highly correlated (r = 0.99; p < 0.0001). Substantial agreement (80.3%) and significant correlation (r = -0.675; p = 0.0006) were observed between Lumipulse® G assay results and Ct values on clinical samples, with 52.4% sensitivity and specificity 94.1%. Sensitivity exceeded 90.0% when calculated on samples with Ct < 25, and specificity was 100% when excluding samples from recovered patients with previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, chemiluminescence-based antigen assay may be reliably applied to saliva samples to identify individuals with high viral loads, more likely to transmit the virus. However, the low positive predictive value in a context of low SARS-CoV-2 prevalence underscores the need for confirmatory testing in SARS-CoV-2 antigen-positive cases.

10.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136455

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is a dramatic health, social and economic global challenge. There is urgent need to maximize testing capacity. Rapid Antigen Tests (RAT) represent good candidates for point-of-care and mass surveillance testing to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2-infected people, counterbalancing lower sensitivity vs. gold standard molecular tests with fast results and possible recurrent testing. We describe the results obtained with the testing algorithm implemented at points of entry (airports and ports) in the Lazio Region (Italy), using the STANDARD F COVID-19 Antigen Fluorescence ImmunoAssay (FIA), followed by molecular confirmation of FIA-positive samples. From mid-August to mid-October 2020, 73,643 RAT were reported to the Regional Surveillance Information System for travelers at points of entry in Lazio Region. Of these, 1176 (1.6%) were FIA-positive, and the proportion of RT-PCR-confirmed samples was 40.5%. Our data show that the probability of confirmation was directly dependent from the semi-quantitative FIA results. In addition, the molecularly confirmed samples were those with high levels of virus and that were actually harboring infectious virus. These results support public health strategies based on early mass screening campaigns by RAT in settings where molecular testing is not feasible or easily accessible, such as points of entry. This approach would contribute to promptly controlling viral spread through travel, which is now of particular concern due to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Mass Screening/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Italy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Point-of-Care Testing , ROC Curve , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 532-539, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available about the predictors and outcomes associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding (VS). METHODS: A retrospective study including COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian hospital between March 1 and July 1, 2020. Predictors of viral clearance (VC) and prolonged VS from the upper respiratory tract were assessed by Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. The causal relation between VS and clinical outcomes was evaluated through an inverse probability weighted Cox model. RESULTS: The study included 536 subjects. The median duration of VS from symptoms onset was 18 days. The estimated 30-day probability of VC was 70.2%. Patients with comorbidities, lymphopenia at hospital admission, or moderate/severe respiratory disease had a lower chance of VC. The development of moderate/severe respiratory failure, delayed hospital admission after symptoms onset, baseline comorbidities, or D-dimer >1000ng/mL at admission independently predicted prolonged VS. The achievement of VC doubled the chance of clinical recovery and reduced the probability of death/mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory disease severity, comorbidities, delayed hospital admission and inflammatory markers negatively predicted VC, which resulted to be associated with better clinical outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of prompt hospitalization of symptomatic patients, especially where signs of severity or comorbidities are present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
12.
Front Genet ; 12: 625607, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106023

ABSTRACT

We report phylogenetic and mutational analysis by NGS of six SARS-CoV-2 strains from patients flying from Bangladesh to Italy (July 2020). Data suggest that no further circulation of such imported strains occurred in Italy, stating the efficacy of early screening at the point of entry and supporting the importance of molecular epidemiology in monitoring the efficacy of control measures.

13.
J Dermatol ; 48(5): 651-656, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096631

ABSTRACT

It is not yet entirely clear what is the relevance of skin symptoms and what clinical implications are related to their appearance in COVID-19 patients. We describe two cases of COVID-19-associated pneumonia, which presented skin manifestations in advanced stage of illness, when nasopharyngeal swabs became negative for SARS-CoV-2. The first case presented erythematous, maculopapular lesions; the second developed petechial, vesicular and blood-encrusted lesions on the limbs. Histopathology documented perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, with prevalent CD4+ T-cells in both patients. The research of SARS-CoV-2 in tissues with real time RT-PCR was negative. Basal keratinocytes displayed C4d deposits in one case, who developed laboratory signs indicative of a procoagulative condition at the same time as the skin rash. Skin manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection seem to be clinically relevant and further studies are necessary to assess if they are linked to systemic complications, lack of viral clearance or cascades of immune responses induced by the virus, even in patients affected by mild pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , COVID-19 Testing , Erythema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa403, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unclear. We report the detection of viral RNA from different anatomical districts and the antibody profile in the first 2 COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Italy. METHODS: We tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clinical samples, either respiratory and nonrespiratory (ie, saliva, serum, urine, vomit, rectal, ocular, cutaneous, and cervico-vaginal swabs), longitudinally collected from both patients throughout the hospitalization. Serological analysis was carried out on serial serum samples to evaluate IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibody levels. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected since the early phase of illness, lasting over 2 weeks in both upper and lower respiratory tract samples. Virus isolate was obtained from acute respiratory samples, while no infectious virus was rescued from late respiratory samples with low viral RNA load, collected when serum antibodies had been developed. Several other specimens came back positive, including saliva, vomit, rectal, cutaneous, cervico-vaginal, and ocular swabs. IgM, IgA, and IgG were detected within the first week of diagnosis, with IgG appearing earlier and at higher titers. Neutralizing antibodies developed during the second week, reaching high titers 32 days after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in different body samples, which may be associated with broad tropism and different spectra of clinical manifestations and modes of transmission. Profiling antibody response and neutralizing activity can assist in laboratory diagnosis and surveillance actions.

16.
J Infect Dis ; 222(11): 1807-1815, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of the pathological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel zoonotic pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emanate from tissue biopsies, case reports, and small postmortem studies restricted to the lung and specific organs. Whole-body autopsy studies of COVID-19 patients have been sparse. METHODS: To further define the pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 across all body organs, we performed autopsies on 22 patients with COVID-19 (18 with comorbidities and 4 without comorbidities) who died at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS Hospital, Rome, Italy. Tissues from the lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow (but not the brain) were examined. Only lung tissues were subject to transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: COVID-19 caused multisystem pathology. Pulmonary and cardiovascular involvement were dominant pathological features. Extrapulmonary manifestations included hepatic, kidney, splenic, and bone marrow involvement, and microvascular injury and thrombosis were also detected. These findings were similar in patients with or without preexisting medical comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection causes multisystem disease and significant pathology in most organs in patients with and without comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy/methods , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Spleen/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Vascular Diseases/virology
17.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890060

ABSTRACT

Major epidemics, including some that qualify as pandemics, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and most recently COVID-19, affect the lung. Tuberculosis (TB) remains the top infectious disease killer, but apart from syndemic TB/HIV little is known regarding the interaction of viral epidemics and pandemics with TB. The aim of this consensus-based document is to describe the effects of viral infections resulting in epidemics and pandemics that affect the lung (MERS, SARS, HIV, influenza A (H1N1)pdm/09 and COVID-19) and their interactions with TB. A search of the scientific literature was performed. A writing committee of international experts including the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Public Health Emergency (ECDC PHE) team, the World Association for Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders (WAidid), the Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN), and members of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Mycobacterial Infections (ESGMYC) was established. Consensus was achieved after multiple rounds of revisions between the writing committee and a larger expert group. A Delphi process involving the core group of authors (excluding the ECDC PHE team) identified the areas requiring review/consensus, followed by a second round to refine the definitive consensus elements. The epidemiology and immunology of these viral infections and their interactions with TB are discussed with implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of airborne infections (infection control, viral containment and workplace safety). This consensus document represents a rapid and comprehensive summary on what is known on the topic.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epidemics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology
20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(10): 2977-2980, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 and is under evaluation for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in plasma, bronchoalveolar aspirate (BAS) and CSF in two critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Remdesivir was administered at 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 12 days of 100 mg in two critically ill patients. Blood samples were collected immediately after (C0) and at 1 (C1) and 24 h (C24) after intravenous administration on day 3 until day 9. BAS samples were collected on Days 4, 7 and 9 from both patients while one CSF on Day 7 was obtained in one patient. Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured in these samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. RESULTS: We observed higher concentrations of remdesivir at C0 (6- to 7-fold higher than EC50 from in vitro studies) and a notable decay at C1. GS-441524 plasma concentrations reached a peak at C1 and persisted until the next administration. Higher concentrations of GS-441524 were observed in the patient with mild renal dysfunction. Mean BAS/plasma concentration ratios of GS-441524 were 2.3% and 6.4% in Patient 1 and Patient 2, respectively. The CSF concentration found in Patient 2 was 25.7% with respect to plasma. GS-441524 levels in lung and CNS suggest compartmental differences in drug exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of remdesivir and GS-441524 in recovered COVID-19 patients. Further study of the pharmacokinetic profile of remdesivir, GS-441524 and the intracellular triphosphate form are required.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
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