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1.
Sociological Spectrum ; 43:S15-S15, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20241050
2.
New Directions for Evaluation ; 2023(177):95-103, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20238377

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its related health, social, economic and geopolitical shocks have greatly increased the demand for internal evaluation as a way of helping organizations, especially those in the public sector, adapt to ongoing challenges and new realities. To help meet the demand, this chapter discusses the recent trend to educate managers, front-line supervisors and other organization professionals to be nonspecialist internal evaluators—individuals who are not evaluation specialists. Three experienced internal evaluators and educators share real-world examples of their successful strategies for educating nonspecialist internal evaluators. They conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and suggestions for the road ahead. © 2023 The Authors. New Directions for Evaluation published by American Evaluation Association and Wiley Periodicals LLC.

3.
International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education ; : 1-15, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230929

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Covid-19 has posed serious challenges to schools and teachers as it forced schools to close and traditional face-to-face teaching was suspended. How did Hong Kong geography teachers respond to these challenges in the first nine months of the outbreak? How did they adapt to the social distancing measures such as school closure? Why did they adapt in the way they did? The researchers interviewed 18 teachers with different lengths of teaching experiences and teaching students of different academic abilities to answer these questions. It was found that even though there were few specific suggestions from the Government and their schools, the teachers interviewed, as a whole, have taken self-initiated steps to adapt teaching strategies and proactively try various means to help their students continue to learn under the constraints of the Pandemic.

4.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S89, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322242

ABSTRACT

Intro: Oral antiviral agents with differing modes of action are now available for the treatment of COVID-19. However, potentially life-threatening drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may occur if patients' underlying co-morbidities are treated with medications that are contraindicated with ritonavir-containing antivirals. This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of potential DDIs (pDDIs) with ritonavir-containing COVID-19 oral antiviral therapy among the Australian population. Method(s): Adult patients supplied with >=1 medication between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019, were identified in the PBS10 dataset, a longitudinal, random 10% sample of the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data for supplied prescriptions. Patients receiving medications that have pDDIs with a ritonavir-containing COVID-19 antiviral treatment were classified as the pDDI group, using data sources from University of Liverpool, Lexicomp, or the US Food and Drugs Administration. Finding(s): Over 1,434,000 patients in the PBS10 were supplied with >=1 medication during the study period. The majority (58.8%) had been prescribed at least one medication with pDDI with ritonavir-containing treatment. Among all patients with pDDIs, 43.3% of them were major or contraindicated, followed by moderate (15.1%), and minor pDDIs (1.9%). Patients with cancer had the highest prevalence of contraindicated or major pDDIs (79.5%), followed by dementia and/or Alzheimer's (77.2%), and diabetes (73.8%). Elderly patients (>=60 years old) also had a higher prevalence of contradicted or major pDDI (65.4%) than the general patient population. Conclusion(s): Our results demonstrated that one-third of the Australian adult population in the PBS10 dataset may be classified as contraindicated with ritonavir-containing COVID-19 therapies. The prevalence of pDDI is much higher in elderly patients and in patients with certain co-morbidities. Health care providers will need to evaluate patients carefully should they be eligible for COVID-19 oral antiviral treatments. Alternative therapies should be considered as patients may be precluded from being treated with ritonavir-containing therapies owing to pDDIs.Copyright © 2023

5.
Aims Medical Science ; 10(1):37-45, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307702

ABSTRACT

Aims: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic but estimates from low-resource settings are limited. We examined the odds of DKA among emergency department (ED) visits in the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (DHS) (1) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID era, ( 2) without active COVID infections, and (3) stratified by effect modifiers to identify impacted sub-groups. Methods: We estimated the odds of DKA from 400,187 ED visits pre-COVID era (March 2019-Feb 2020) and 320,920 ED visits during the COVID era (March 2020-Feb 2021). Our base model estimated the odds of DKA based on the COVID era. Additional specifications stratified by effect modifiers, controlled for confounders, and limited to visits without confirmed COVID-19 disease. Results: After adjusting for triage acuity and interaction terms for upper respiratory infections and payor, the odds of DKA during the COVID era were 27% higher compared to the pre-COVID era (95%CI 14-41%, p < 0.001). In stratified analyses, visits with private payors had a 112% increased odds and visits with Medicaid had a 20% increased odds of DKA during the COVID era (95%CI 7-36%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: We identified increased odds of DKA during the COVID pandemic, robust to a variety of specifications. We found differential effects by the payor;with increased odds during COVID for privately-insured patients.

7.
2022 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2275601

ABSTRACT

Childcare, a critical infrastructure, played an important role to create community resiliency during the COVID-19 pandemic. By finding pathways to remain open, or rapidly return to operations, the adaptive capacity of childcare providers to offer care in the face of unprecedented challenges functioned to promote societal level mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic impacts, to assist families in their personal financial recoveries, and to provide consistent, caring, and meaningful educational experiences for society's youngest members. This paper assesses the operational adaptations of childcare centers as a key resource and critical infrastructure during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Greater Rochester, NY metropolitan region. Our findings evaluate the policy, provider mitigation, and response actions documenting the challenges they faced and the solutions they innovated. Implications for this research extend to climate-induced disruptions, including fires, water shortages, electric grid cyberattacks, and other disruptions where extended stay-at-home orders or service critical interventions are implemented. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2250546

ABSTRACT

The demand for gloves (e.g., disposable gloves, medical gloves) is increasing due to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Stability in the supply chain in the glove industry is important, and thus strategies are used to solve the problem of the shortage of nitrile gloves. The blending of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with polyurethane (PU) and the use of the nanocomposite concept is among the feasible approaches. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nanokaolin (NK) on the tensile and chemical properties of carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/polyurethane (PU) latex blends. Three different loadings of NK (10, 20, and 30 parts per hundred rubber) were added to the NBR/PU (at a blending ratio of 85/15). The zeta potential showed that all the NBR compounds exhibit good colloidal stability. The incorporation of NK increased the crosslink density and tensile strength of the NBR/PU latex blends. The highest tensile strength was achieved when the NK loading was 20 phr. All the NBR blends and nanocomposites (NBR/PU-based) possess tensile properties that fulfill the requirements for glove application. The chemical resistance of NBR compounds was increased by the incorporation of NK due to the higher crosslink density and barrier properties contributed by the NK. © The Author(s) 2023.

9.
StatPearls Publishing ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073327

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir also referred to as ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir, is an oral combination medication used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It consists of nirmatrelvir, a protease inhibitor targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease, and ritonavir, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitor. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir was authorized for emergency use on December 22, 2021. It is currently one of the highly-effective oral antiviral medications available to treat COVID-19. This activity reviews the medication's indications and contraindications. It also reviews the mechanism of action, administration, monitoring, adverse effects, toxicity, and other elements related to treating patients with COVID-19. Information in this activity is pertinent to all members of the interprofessional healthcare team, including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and other health professionals, who manage the care of patients with COVID-19.

10.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:416-427, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069329

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on the pandemic have focused on the DOs and DON'Ts of recovery remedies, but few have investigated the pandemic-spawned fundamental internal problems of the enterprises in order to diminish the impacts of the mega-crisis and relieve the need for recovery efforts. It is incontestable that employees are one of the major victims of the pandemic crisis;their negative emotions caused by the increasing career and financial instability have heightened the challenges of their enterprises that are striking for survival. This research has identified a breakthrough that extends the effect of CSR efforts from the traditional societal focus to internal employees, to whom CSR is found to mediate the undesirable escape habits and anti-crisis behaviours resulted from crises. This strengthens the understanding and value of CSR, while presents management with a novel mixed strategy to stabilize employee emotions and assemble their competence to get through a crisis.

11.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(11): 1525-1538, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027451

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Benefit from convalescent plasma therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been inconsistent in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving critically ill patients. As COVID-19 patients are immunologically heterogeneous, we hypothesized that immunologically similar COVID-19 subphenotypes may differ in their treatment responses to convalescent plasma and explain inconsistent findings between RCTs . METHODS: We tested this hypothesis in a substudy involving 1239 patients, by measuring 26 biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, endothelial biomarkers) within the randomized, embedded, multifactorial, adaptive platform trial for community-acquired pneumonia (REMAP-CAP) that assigned 2097 critically ill COVID-19 patients to either high-titer convalescent plasma or usual care. Primary outcome was organ support free days at 21 days (OSFD-21) . RESULTS: Unsupervised analyses identified three subphenotypes/endotypes. In contrast to the more homogeneous subphenotype-2 (N = 128 patients, 10.3%; with elevated type i and type ii effector immune responses) and subphenotype-3 (N = 241, 19.5%; with exaggerated inflammation), the subphenotype-1 had variable biomarker patterns (N = 870 patients, 70.2%). Subphenotypes-2, and -3 had worse outcomes, and subphenotype-1 had better outcomes with convalescent plasma therapy compared with usual care (median (IQR). OSFD-21 in convalescent plasma vs usual care was 0 (- 1, 21) vs 10 (- 1, to 21) in subphenotype-2; 1.5 (- 1, 21) vs 12 (- 1, to 21) in suphenotype-3, and 0 (- 1, 21) vs 0 (- 1, to 21) in subphenotype-1 (test for between-subphenotype differences in treatment effects p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: We reported three COVID-19 subphenotypes, among critically ill adults, with differential treatment effects to ABO-compatible convalescent plasma therapy. Differences in subphenotype prevalence between RCT populations probably explain inconsistent results with COVID-19 immunotherapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
12.
Formosan Journal of Surgery ; 55(4):158-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010413

ABSTRACT

The authors reported the clinical course of a 58-year-old female suffering from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hemorrhage after the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Emergent decompressive craniectomy was performed, and aggressive blood transfusion was given. Nevertheless, progressive intracerebral hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia developed. A delayed diagnosis was made on a rare complication of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with a positive result of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies (PF4 Ab). The patient died 4 days postoperative due to brainstem failure.

13.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(11): 2149-2156, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930621

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid dysfunction in COVID-19 carries clinical and prognostic implications. In this study, we developed a prediction score (ThyroCOVID) for abnormal thyroid function (TFT) on admission amongst COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to Queen Mary Hospital were prospectively recruited during July 2020-May 2021. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured on admission. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent determinants of abnormal TFTs. ThyroCOVID was developed based on a clinical model with the lowest Akaike information criteria. RESULTS: Five hundred and forty six COVID-19 patients were recruited (median age 50 years, 45.4% men, 72.9% mild disease on admission). 84 patients (15.4%) had abnormal TFTs on admission. Patients with abnormal TFTs were more likely to be older, have more comorbidities, symptomatic, have worse COVID-19 severity, higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads and more adverse profile of acute-phase reactants, haematological and biochemical parameters. ThyroCOVID consisted of five parameters: symptoms (malaise), comorbidities (ischaemic heart disease/congestive heart failure) and laboratory parameters (lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, and SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values). It was able to identify abnormal TFT on admission with an AUROC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.67-0.79). The optimal cut-off of 0.15 had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 65.2%, negative predictive value of 93.5% and positive predictive value of 28.1% in identifying abnormal TFTs on admission amongst COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: ThyroCOVID, a prediction score to identify COVID-19 patients at risk of having abnormal TFT on admission, was developed based on a cohort of predominantly non-severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triiodothyronine , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
14.
Virus Outbreaks and Tourism Mobility: Strategies to Counter Global Health Hazards ; : 147-160, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891266

ABSTRACT

Macao survived the COVID-19 pandemic with only 46 confirmed cases and zero death (Macao Government Information Bureau, 2020). As one of the densest tourism cities in the world, Macao was as vulnerable as any other cities under severe outbreak. The success was the result of instant responses from government, support from large enterprises and cooperation of the community. The pandemic fighting process was examined in five phases, in which a few key criteria were demonstrated in managing the crisis. Despite the positive result, the Macao government also learnt a lesson in future planning when the pandemic once again revealed the weakness of sole dependence on the tourism industry. © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited.

15.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights ; : 18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853380

ABSTRACT

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to develop a holistic resilience framework and its contributing factors for organizations in the hospitality and tourism industry for coping with uncertain environments, such as those brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper is based on a broad review of the literature on organizational resilience and strategic leadership. A conceptual framework is developed and discussed. Findings - This study develops a holistic "strategic leadership-enhanced organizational resilience framework" that addresses the actions and mindsets required by hospitality and tourism organizations to attain organizational resilience and health. Research limitations/implications - This study fills the research gap in corporate resilience frameworks for hospitality and tourism. This study has practical implications for the industry by suggesting specific actions that companies can take to enhance their organizational health and resiliency under environmental uncertainty. Originality/value - Previous studies suggested only partial strategic resilience responses. This study constructs a holistic "strategic leadership-enhanced organizational resilience framework" in the hospitality and tourism context.

17.
21st European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases, ECML PKDD 2021 ; 1525 CCIS:259-266, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1750520

ABSTRACT

Natural language processing (NLP) plays a significant role in tools for the COVID-19 pandemic response, from detecting misinformation on social media to helping to provide accurate clinical information or summarizing scientific research. However, the approaches developed thus far have not benefited all populations, regions or languages equally. We discuss ways in which current and future NLP approaches can be made more inclusive by covering low-resource languages, including alternative modalities, leveraging out-of-the-box tools and forming meaningful partnerships. We suggest several future directions for researchers interested in maximizing the positive societal impacts of NLP. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

19.
Sociological Spectrum ; 42:S21-S21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1728387
20.
2021 IEEE Virtual IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672692

ABSTRACT

Childcare, a service critical infrastructure, was under stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic highlighted the need for robust capacity in childcare to support the function of workers within healthcare and emergency response, both service-based infrastructures;however the national response locking down businesses pushed many children back into the home, reducing demand for childcare and threatening childcare facilities' fiscal viability to remain in business. For many providers, the pandemic and its economic fallout are far from over, meaning the ultimate resiliency of childcare provision is yet to be determined. This paper is part of a larger study that examines the experiences of such childcare providers at the local level in the metropolitan region of Rochester, NY USA. The study provides a method to assess their critical operational capacities, and the longer term findings will assess the effectiveness of their adaptive decision-making to determine whether a specific combination of focused planning, COVID-19 case management strategies, economic decisions, and enrollment capacity resumption promoted recovery and resiliency to sustain the robust level of childcare service provision that communities need in times of crisis and beyond. Implications for this research extend to disruption of all kinds that require human capital, especially climate-induced disruptions, including fires, water shortages, etc. and technological disruptions such as electric grid instability, cyberattacks, and such. © 2021 IEEE.

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