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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 31: e3761, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in Spanish, English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to investigate the prevalence of skin lesions and factors associated with the use of N95 respirators among health professionals in Brazil. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 11,368 health professionals using a respondent-driven sampling method adapted for online environments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the association between the "skin lesions with the use of N95 respirators" variable and gender, professional category, workplace, training, COVID-19 diagnosis, and availability of sufficient and high-quality Personal Protective Equipment. RESULTS: the prevalence of skin lesions was 61.8%. Women were 1.203 times (95% CI: 1.154-1.255) more likely to develop a lesion than men. The chances of skin lesions in psychologists (PR=0.805; 95% CI: 0.678-0.956) and dentists (PR=0.884; 95% CI: 0.788-0.992), were lower when compared to Nursing professionals. Professionals with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis and working in the Intensive Care Unit have an increased chance of presenting skin lesions (PR=1.074; 95% CI: 1.042-1.107); (PR=1.203; 95% CI: 1.168-1.241), respectively. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of skin lesions caused by the use of N95 respirators was 61.8% and was associated with female gender, professional category, workplace, training, COVID-19 diagnosis, and availability of sufficient and highquality Personal Protective Equipment. (1) The overall prevalence of skin lesions was 61.8%. (2) The most affected professional category was Nursing. (3) Women were more likely to develop skin lesions than men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Skin Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Skin Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254801

ABSTRACT

Transcranial pulse stimulation (TPS) is a recent development in non-invasive brain stimulations (NIBS) that has been proven to be effective in terms of significantly improving Alzheimer patients' cognition, memory, and execution functions. Nonetheless, there is, currently, no trial evaluating the efficacy of TPS on adults with major depression disorder (MDD) nationwide. In this single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, a 2-week TPS treatment comprising six 30 min TPS sessions were administered to participants. Participants were randomized into either the TPS group or the Waitlist Control (WC) group, stratified by gender and age according to a 1:1 ratio. Our primary outcome was evaluated by the Hamilton depression rating scale-17 (HDRS-17). We recruited 30 participants that were aged between 18 and 54 years, predominantly female (73%), and ethnic Chinese from 1 August to 31 October 2021. Moreover, there was a significant group x time interaction (F(1, 28) = 18.8, p < 0.001). Further, when compared with the WC group, there was a significant reduction in the depressive symptom severity in the TPS group (mean difference = -6.60, p = 0.02, and Cohen's d = -0.93). The results showed a significant intervention effect; in addition, the effect was large and sustainable at the 3-month follow-up. In this trial, it was found that TPS is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among adults with MDD.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Humans , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Pilot Projects , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Cognition , Treatment Outcome , Double-Blind Method
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 588781, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228874

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has had a detrimental impact on individuals' psychological well-being; however, a multi-country comparison on the prevalence of suicidal ideation due to the virus is still lacking. Objectives: To examine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among the general population across 10 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study which used convenience sampling and collected data by conducting an online survey. Participants were sourced from 10 Eastern and Western countries. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to measure the outcome variable of suicidal ideation. Ordinal regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors associated with suicidal ideation. Results: A total of 25,053 participants (22.7% male) were recruited. Results from the analysis showed that the UK and Brazil had the lowest odds of suicidal ideation compared to Macau (p < 0.05). Furthermore, younger age, male, married, and differences in health beliefs were significantly associated with suicidal ideation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings highlight the need for joint international collaboration to formulate effective suicide prevention strategies in a timely manner and the need to implement online mental health promotion platforms. In doing so, the potential global rising death rates by suicide during the pandemic can be reduced.

4.
Int Nurs Rev ; 2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213665

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To measure nurses' compliance with standard precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic, compare findings with previous assessments and describe the barriers affecting nurses' compliance. BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers' compliance with standard precautions is still limited worldwide. Implementation of infection control policies in hospitals is needed internationally, especially during a pandemic. Surprisingly, studies exploring nurses' compliance with standard precautions are lacking during COVID-19. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was adopted in two Italian hospitals. Nurses' compliance with standard precautions was measured through The Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (Italian version). An open-ended question explored the barriers to nurses' compliance with standard precautions. Reporting, followed the STROBE guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 201 nurses were enrolled in 2020. Nurses' compliance with standard precautions was suboptimal. A statistically significant improvement in the compliance rate with standard precautions was observed between pre- and during COVID-19 assessments. High compliance was found in the appropriate use of surgical masks, gloves and sharps disposal. Nurses perceived personal, structural and organizational barriers to standard precautions adherence. CONCLUSION: Nurses' compliance with standard precautions was not 100%, and different factors impeded nurses to work safely. Our findings provide institutional leaders and educators with the basis for implementing policies to optimize nurse safety, well-being and patient care. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICIES: Nurses have the right to work safely, and when the shortage of personal protective equipment and nurses during an emergency threatens healthcare quality worldwide, policymakers are challenged to act by establishing an effective allocation of resources for consistent compliance with standard precautions. Moreover, nurses should actively engage in the implementation of infection control policies to improve safe behaviours among citizens and students accessing hospitals.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199300

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 940281, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199407

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the association of problem gambling with demographics, psychological distress, and gaming behavior in young adult gacha gamers in Hong Kong. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional data was collected in the first and fifth waves of COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong online. Participants who aged 18-25 years and had been playing gacha games over the past 12 months were recruited. Stepwise multiple regression was used to explore the association among risk of problem gambling, gaming behavior, participation in gaming activities and psychological distress. A two-sided p-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results: Three hundred and thirty-seven completed questionnaires were received with no missing data. 34.7% (n = 117) of the participants had non/low-risk of problem gambling. About 40% (n = 136) of them had moderate-risk and the remaining 25% (n = 84) were at high risk of problem gambling. A higher proportion of female participants (78.6%) were found in high-risk group as compared to 39.7% and 55.6% only in the non/low-risk and moderate-risk groups, respectively. The regression model (R 2 = 0.513, F = 71.895, p < 0.001) showed that 51.3% of the variance of the total problem gambling score could be explained by stress, anxiety, monthly expenses on gacha purchases, number of motives for gacha purchase and number of gambling activities engaged. Conclusion: The present study provides empirical evidence to support the association between problem gambling and microtransaction especially for gacha which is the most popular type of video game microtransaction in Asia. The established regression model suggests that gacha gamers with higher risk of problem gambling tend to have greater stress, higher anxiety level, spend more on gacha purchase, have more motives for gacha purchases and engage in more gambling activities. In contrast to the extant literature, higher proportion of female participants in high-risk group indicates that female gacha gamers are also at very high risk of becoming problem gamblers.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1053873, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199533

ABSTRACT

This study aims to propose a pooling approach to simulate the compulsory universal RT-PCR test in Hong Kong and explore the feasibility of implementing the pooling method on a household basis. The mathematical model is initially verified, and then the simulation is performed under different prevalence rates and pooled sizes. The simulated population is based in Hong Kong. The simulation included 10,000,000 swab samples, with a representative distribution of populations in Hong Kong. The samples were grouped into a batch size of 20. If the entire batch is positive, then the group is further divided into an identical group size of 10 for re-testing. Different combinations of mini-group sizes were also investigated. The proposed pooling method was extended to a household basis. A representative from each household is required to perform the RT-PCR test. Results of the simulation replications, indicate a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of 83.62, 64.18, and 48.46% in the testing volume for prevalence rate 1, 3, and 5%, respectively. Combined with the household-based pooling approach, the total number of RT-PCR is 437,304, 956,133, and 1,375,795 for prevalence rates 1, 3, and 5%, respectively. The household-based pooling strategy showed efficiency when the prevalence rates in the population were low. This pooling strategy can rapidly screen people in high-risk groups for COVID-19 infections and quarantine those who test positive, even when time and resources for testing are limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Specimen Handling , Prevalence
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1004558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123476

ABSTRACT

Background: Any infectious disease outbreak may lead to a negative detrimental psychological impact on individuals and the community at large, however; there was no systematic review nor meta-analysis that examined the relationship between the psychological/mental health impact of SARS and COVID-19 outbreak in Asia. Methods and design: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1/1/2000 to 1/6/2020. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the psychological impact on confirmed/suspected cases, healthcare workers and the general public during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak and Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemics. Primary outcomes included prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, aggression, sleeping problems and psychological symptoms. Result: Twenty-three eligible studies (N = 27,325) were included. Random effect model was used to analyze the data using STATA. Of these studies, 11 were related to the SARS outbreak and 12 related to COVID-19 outbreaks. The overall prevalence rate of anxiety during SARS and COVID-19 was 37.8% (95% CI: 21.1-54.5, P < 0.001, I2 = 96.9%) and 34.8% (95% CI: 29.1-40.4), respectively. For depression, the overall prevalence rate during SARS and COVID-19 was 30.9% (95% CI: 18.6-43.1, P < 0.001, I2 = 97.3%) and 32.4% (95% CI: 19.8-45.0, P < 0.001, I2 = 99.8%), respectively. The overall prevalence rate of stress was 9.4% (95% CI: -0.4 -19.2, P = 0.015, I2 = 83.3%) and 54.1% (95% CI: 35.7-72.6, P < 0.001, I2 = 98.8%) during SARS and COVID-19, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSD was 15.1% (95% CI: 8.2-22.0, P < 0.001) during SARS epidemic, calculated by random-effects model (P < 0.05), with significant between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 93.5%). Conclusion: The SARS and COVID-19 epidemics have brought about high levels of psychological distress to individuals. Psychological interventions and contingent digital mental health platform should be promptly established nationwide for continuous surveillance of the increasing prevalence of negative psychological symptoms. Health policymakers and mental health experts should jointly collaborate to provide timely, contingent mental health treatment and psychological support to those in need to reduce the global disease burden. Systematic review registration: CRD42020182787, identifier PROSPER.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Prevalence
9.
The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 26:102595, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007544

ABSTRACT

Introdução Com advento da coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recomendou o uso de máscaras como parte das medidas de prevenção contra a doença e sua utilização por toda população é uma estratégia para reduzir a taxa de transmissibilidade do vírus, atuando como uma barreira física. Destaca-se que a prática do uso de máscaras entre a população é uma intervenção de saúde pública de baixo custo e tem por objetivo a autoproteção e proteção do outro em ambientes públicos, de saúde e domiciliares. Entretanto, tal prática, até então incomum no cotidiano brasileiro, pode ainda ser influenciada ou negligenciada pela propagação de diversas informações e pela disseminação de Fake News relacionados a COVID-19. Esse conjunto de fatores poderia dificultar a adesão ao uso de máscara pela população, sobretudo brasileira. Objetivo Investigar a prática do uso de máscaras entre a população brasileira durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método Estudo transversal online realizado entre a população brasileira nos meses de abril e maio de 2020 e 2021. Os dados foram coletados através de mídias sociais por meio de dois instrumentos: Formulário de Informações Gerais e a Versão para o Português do Brasil da Face Mask Use Scale (FMUS). Para análise de dados no software IBM®SPSS v.22, utilizou-se o Test T de Student e Análise de Variância (ANOVA) para comparação de médias da escala e respostas “sim” ou “não” para contato com a COVID-19. O estudo atendeu a todos os requisitos éticos e foi aprovado pela Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa sob o nº de parecer de aprovação 3.971.512. Resultados Participaram do estudo 24.344 (100%) brasileiros. O escore obtido da FMUS foi de 21,3 (DP = 7,3;Min:6,0;Máx:30) demonstrando a prática do uso de máscaras entre a população brasileira de 71,0%, sendo o escore maior para autoproteção 10,9 (DP = 3,5) do que para proteção do outro 10,3 (DP = 4,1). Dentre as médias dos componentes da escala e os padrões de respostas “sim” ou “não” em relação ao contato com a COVID-19, os indivíduos que afirmaram ter contato com a COVID-19 utilizaram mais máscaras, com destaque para autoproteção, em comparação aos que não tiveram contato com a doença (p = 0,000). Conclusão Torna-se, portanto, evidente que a prática do uso de máscaras entre a população brasileira foi positiva mesmo diante das atuais circunstâncias econômicas desfavoráveis, da falta de incentivo pelas autoridades e pelo fato de seu uso ser recente em países ocidentais, principalmente no Brasil, durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Ag. Financiadora Chamada MCTIC/CNPQ/FNDCT/MS/SCTIE/DECIT Nº 07/2020. Nr. Processo CNPQ Nº401371/2020-4.

10.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999506

ABSTRACT

Objective The objective of this study is to explore the association of problem gambling with demographics, psychological distress, and gaming behavior in young adult gacha gamers in Hong Kong. Materials and methods Cross-sectional data was collected in the first and fifth waves of COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong online. Participants who aged 18–25 years and had been playing gacha games over the past 12 months were recruited. Stepwise multiple regression was used to explore the association among risk of problem gambling, gaming behavior, participation in gaming activities and psychological distress. A two-sided p-value <0.05 was considered as statistical significance. Results Three hundred and thirty-seven completed questionnaires were received with no missing data. 34.7% (n = 117) of the participants had non/low-risk of problem gambling. About 40% (n = 136) of them had moderate-risk and the remaining 25% (n = 84) were at high risk of problem gambling. A higher proportion of female participants (78.6%) were found in high-risk group as compared to 39.7% and 55.6% only in the non/low-risk and moderate-risk groups, respectively. The regression model (R2 = 0.513, F = 71.895, p < 0.001) showed that 51.3% of the variance of the total problem gambling score could be explained by stress, anxiety, monthly expenses on gacha purchases, number of motives for gacha purchase and number of gambling activities engaged. Conclusion The present study provides empirical evidence to support the association between problem gambling and microtransaction especially for gacha which is the most popular type of video game microtransaction in Asia. The established regression model suggests that gacha gamers with higher risk of problem gambling tend to have greater stress, higher anxiety level, spend more on gacha purchase, have more motives for gacha purchases and engage in more gambling activities. In contrast to the extant literature, higher proportion of female participants in high-risk group indicates that female gacha gamers are also at very high risk of becoming problem gamblers.

11.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(10): 3934-3941, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918062

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak had a detrimental impact on the mental health of older adults. This study evaluated the central symptoms and their associations in the network of depressive symptoms and compared the network structure differences between male and female older adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Altogether, 3,946 older adults participated in this study. We evaluated the centrality indicators for network robustness using stability and accuracy tests, and examined the potential differences between the structure and connectivity of depression networks in male and female older adults. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43.7% (95% CI=40.6-46.7%) in males, and 54.8% (95% CI=53.1-56.5%) in females (P<0.05). Sad Mood, Guilt, Motor problems and Lack of Energy were influential symptoms in the network model. Gender differences were found in the network global strength, especially in the following edges: Sad Mood--Guilt, Concentration--Guilt, Anhedonia--Motor, Lack of Energy--Suicide, Appetite--Suicide and Concentration--Suicide. Conclusions: Central symptoms in the depressive symptom network among male and female older adults may be prioritized in the treatment and prevention of depression during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Sex Factors
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2072144, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864929

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy against COVID-19 is prevalent. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination compliance among adults in Hong Kong. An online survey was conducted during an early stage of community-based COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Hong Kong. The questionnaire consisted of vaccine status, sociodemographic information, risk perception of being infected by COVID-19, and exposure to confirmed COVID cases, as well as items on sleep and mental health. The association between these variables and vaccine hesitancy was analyzed. Among the 883 participants (67.5% females, 54.5% aged 18-39), 30.6% had low vaccine hesitancy, 27.4% had high vaccine hesitancy, and 27.5% had vaccine rejection. The likelihood of having high vaccine hesitancy was higher among young (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-7.30) and middle-aged respondents (aOR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.07-5.47) than among old respondents. Moreover, those who were married (aOR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29-0.88), had a full-time job (aOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.29-0.88), and had a greater confidence in the government (aOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.86) were less likely to exhibit vaccine hesitancy. Our findings showed that the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and vaccine resistance were high. Policy makers need specific strategies to target those who may have a high risk of vaccine hesitancy and resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 250, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759698

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The oldest-old are highly vulnerable to sarcopenia. Physical distancing remains a common and effective infection-control policy to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission during the pandemic. Sarcopenia is known to be associated with impaired immunity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and life-space mobility (LSM) are potential strategies for minimizing the risk of sarcopenia. However, a physical distancing policy might jeopardize the practice of MVPA and LSM. The purposes of this study were to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and examine the association between MVPA and LSM with sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional and observational design. The study was conducted in 10 community centres for older people in Hong Kong during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic (September to December 2020). Eligible participants were the oldest-old people aged ≥85 years, who were community-dwelling and had no overt symptoms of cognitive impairment or depression. Key variables included sarcopenia as measured by SARC-F, LSM as measured by a GPS built into smartphones, and MVPA as measured by a wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Variables were described by mean and frequency. A multiple linear regression was employed to test the hypotheses. The dependent variable was sarcopenia and the independent variables included LSM and MVPA. RESULTS: This study recruited 151 eligible participants. Their mean age was 89.8 years and the majority of them were female (n = 93/151, 61.6%). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 24.5% (n = 37/151) with a margin of error of 6.86%. MVPA was negatively associated with sarcopenia in older people (ß = - 0.002, SE = 0.001, p = 0.029). However, LSM was not associated with sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sarcopenia in the community-dwelling oldest-old population is high. MVPA is negatively associated with sarcopenia. LSM is unrelated to sarcopenia. Sarcopenia should be recognized and the oldest-old with sarcopenia should be accorded priority treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Policy , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/prevention & control
14.
Aging Med (Milton) ; 4(4): 272-291, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593111

ABSTRACT

The purposes of this review are to describe the existing research on frailty measurement of older people and to understand their characteristics, with a focus on conceptual definitions, psychometric properties, and diagnostic accuracies. We reviewed the published literature to explore if cross-cultural studies of different types of frailty measurements have been conducted and to determine their applicability in the community setting. Narrative review with limited electronic database search and cross reference searching of included studies was performed. Studies published after year 2001 were searched for using MEDLINE and CINAHL Plus databases with keywords. A total of 5144 search results were obtained, but only 42 frailty measurements were identified in 68 studies. For the type, three different measurements were indicated, namely, self-report instrument (n = 17), clinical observation assessment (n = 19), and mixed frailty assessment instrument (n = 6). Only 12 (29%) measurements examined reliability and validity. Nevertheless, over 35% did not perform any psychometric testing before applying. For diagnosis accuracies, 35 (83%) frailty measurements reported the cut-off value(s) for determining level of the frailty. However, the sensitivity (56%-89.5%) and specificity (52%-91.3%) varied. The applicability was also diverse and some frailty instruments should be only used in some specific population and mode of administration. This review provides an overview of three major types of frailty measurements used in different settings with different purposes. For estimating the prevalence of frailty of older people in a community, the self-report type may be appropriate. The psychometric properties of many reviewed instruments are reported insufficiently. The cut-off value(s) are usually suggested with diverse sensitivity and specificity. Self-report instruments, such as Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), are the most extensively examined in terms of satisfactory psychometric properties. Thus, GFI and TFI, with the current evidence, are recommended to be used in the community setting for frailty screening tools.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348642

ABSTRACT

In response to the worsening situation of the COVID pandemic, this follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of the "third wave" of the outbreak on sleep and mood disturbances among Hong Kong citizens. A total of 339 respondents included in our last study during the second wave (4-11 August 2020) joined this survey (response rate = 51.1%). The questionnaire collected data on sleep conditions, mood, stress, and risk perception. The sleep quality and mood status were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The weighted prevalence of insomnia, anxiety, and depression was 33.6%, 15.3%, and 22.0%, respectively. Compared with the last survey, five out of six sleep parameters significantly worsened despite the lack of difference in the ISI score. The GAD-7 score was significantly lower. Old-aged adults were less likely to maintain good sleep quality compared with middle-aged adults (adjusted OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.04-15.73). Respondents without psychiatric disorder were more likely to be anxiety-free across the two time points (adjusted OR = 7.12, 95% CI: 1.33-38.03). One-third of Hong Kong people reported poor sleeping quality in the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. Policy-makers need to propose a contingent plan to allocate mental health resources to vulnerable subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Follow-Up Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 746-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of hand recontamination is often neglected after using hand washing facilities, which can increase the spread of pathogens. The study aimed to evaluate the hygienic condition of posthandwashing facilities in public washrooms at different timeslots, particularly those near food courts and restaurants located in shopping malls. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in 12 public washrooms that ranged from low-end, middle-end, to high-end category on 3 different timeslots including baseline, T1 (immediate postcleaning) and T2 (1-hour postcleaning, with counting the footfall). Hand-touch surfaces with a high risk of recontamination after handwashing, which included paper tower dispensers, air drying outlets, and exit door handles, were evaluated by the surface adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence method (ATP-value). ATP-values <500 relative light units (RLUs) were considered a good hygiene. Cleaning schedules and footfalls of each sampled washroom were obtained by direct observations. RESULTS: The overall mean ATP value of washroom was 785 RLU (N = 108); the ATP values of female and male washrooms at T2 were 203 and 3,718 RLUs, respectively. The highest ATP value was found on the exit door handles of male washrooms (range = 13-26,695 RLUs, mean = 3,229 RLU). Regarding passed/failed hygiene conditions, there were significant differences in the proportion of exit door handles between genders (P = .018) and timeslots (P = .007) as well as that of paper towel button/screw between timeslots (P= .025). CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid at the exit door handles of male washrooms, where are high risks of cross and re-contamination.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hygiene , Adenosine Triphosphate , Colony Count, Microbial , Female , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Male
17.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e03735, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the practice of using masks by the population of the Brazilian state of Paraíba during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study conducted with adults living in the state of Paraíba through an online instrument from April to May 2020, through the Face Mask Use Scale of Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas da Paraíba. RESULTS: The participants amounted to 1,307 (100.0%) individuals, who were predominantly female (78.0%), aged 35 to 45 (32.3%), married (53.3%) and post-graduates (46.9%). The mean score for the practice of using masks was 18.7 (SD = 8.0; minimum 6.00; maximum 30). The use of masks for self-protection scored 9.8 (DP = 3.9; minimum 3.0; maximum 15.0), whereas the score for protection of others was 8.9 (SD = 4.5; minimum 3.0; maximum 15.0). In the comparison between the scores of the practice of using masks, there was a significant statistical difference for gender, education, age group, and income (p ≤ 0.01). The practice of using masks was more frequent in health environments, 7.3 (DP = 3.2). CONCLUSION: The practice of using masks was predominant among women, people over 35, married, with an income higher than seven minimum wages, and post-graduation. The use of masks for self-protection was higher than for the protection of others and its use in health environments was higher than in the others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 590936, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094175

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 100 countries. Despite the global shortage of face masks, the public has adopted universal mask wearing as a preventive measure in many Asian countries. The COVID-19 mortality rate is higher among older people, who may find that wearing a face mask protects their physical health but jeopardizes their mental health. This study aimed to explore the associations between depressive symptoms, health beliefs, and face mask wearing behaviors among older people. By means of an online survey conducted between March and April 2020, we assessed depressive symptoms, health beliefs regarding COVID-19, and face mask use and reuse among community-dwelling older people. General linear models were employed to explore the associations among these variables. Of the 355 valid participants, 25.6% experienced depressive symptoms. Health beliefs regarding the perceived severity of disease (p = 0.001) and perceived efficacy of practicing preventive measures (p = 0.005) were positively associated with face mask use. Those who reused face masks (p = 0.008) had a stronger belief in disease severity (p < 0.001), had poorer cues to preventive measures (p = 0.002), and were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Mask reuse was significantly associated with depression only among those who perceived the disease as serious (p = 0.025) and those who had poorer cues to preventive measures (p = 0.004). In conclusion, health beliefs regarding perceived severity and efficacy contributed to more frequent face mask use, which was unrelated to depressive symptoms. Older people who had a stronger belief in disease severity had less adequate cues to preventive measures and reused face masks experienced greater depressive symptoms. A moderation effect of health beliefs (i.e., disease severity and cues to preventive measures) on face mask reuse and depression was observed.

19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28:e3360-e3360, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: grc-741692

ABSTRACT

Objective to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. Results 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%;CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%;CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%;CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p&#8804;0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p&#8804;0.001). Conclusion virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19. Objetivo identificar los factores asociados con el uso y la reutilización de máscaras entre brasileños durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Método estudio transversal desarrollado en las cinco regiones brasileñas, entre adultos, aplicándose un formulario electrónico a través de las redes sociales, que contiene información general y relativo al uso de máscaras. Se utilizaron análisis bivariados y regresiones logísticas binarias para identificar los factores asociados con el uso y la reutilización. Resultados 3.981 (100%) personas participaron en el estudio. El uso de máscaras totalizó 95.5% (IC 95%: 94.8-96.1), particularmente las de tejido (72.7%;IC 95%: 71.3-74.1) y la quirúrgicas (27.8%;IC 95%: 26.5-29.2). El porcentaje de reutilización fue del 71,1% (IC 95%: 69,7-72,5). La mayoría (55.8%;IC 95%: 51.7-60.0) que usa exclusivamente una máscara quirúrgica la reutiliza. El género femenino y el contacto previo con personas con síntomas respiratorios aumentaron las posibilidades de uso (p&#8804;0.001). Sin embargo, el sexo femenino disminuyó la posibilidad de reutilizar la máscara quirúrgica (p&#8804;0.001). Conclusión casi todos los participantes informaron haber usado máscaras, siendo aquella de tejido más frecuente. Los hallazgos llaman la atención sobre una práctica arriesgada, la reutilización de la máscara quirúrgica y de papel. Las directrices, políticas públicas y estrategias educativas son necesarias para el desarrollo de prácticas asertivas en el control y la prevención del COVID-19. Objetivo identificar os fatores associados à utilização e à reutilização de máscaras entre brasileiros durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Método estudo transversal desenvolvido nas cinco regiões brasileiras, entre adultos, via formulário eletrônico por meio de mídias sociais, contendo informações gerais e referentes à utilização de máscaras. Foram utilizadas análises bivariadas e regressões logísticas binárias para identificar fatores associados à utilização e à reutilização. Resultados participaram do estudo 3.981 (100%) pessoas. A utilização de máscaras totalizou 95,5%, (IC 95%: 94,8-96,1), com destaque para as de tecido (72,7%;IC 95%: 71,3-74,1) e as cirúrgicas (27,8%;IC 95%: 26,5-29,2). A porcentagem de reutilização foi de 71,1% (IC 95%: 69,7-72,5). A maioria (55,8%;IC 95%: 51,7-60,0) que usa, exclusivamente, máscara cirúrgica reutiliza-a. O sexo feminino e o contato prévio com pessoas com sintomas respiratórios aumentaram as chances de utilização (p&#8804;0,001). Contudo, o sexo feminino diminuiu a possibilidade de reutilização da máscara cirúrgica (p&#8804;0,001). Conclusão a quase totalidade dos participantes relatou utilizar máscaras, sendo mais recorrente a de tecido. Os achados chamam atenção para uma prática de risco, a reutilização da máscara cirúrgica e de papel. Diretrizes, políticas públicas e estratégias educativas são necessárias para o desenvolvimento de práticas assertivas no controle e prevenção da COVID-19.

20.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3360, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. RESULTS: 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%; CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%; CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%; CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p≤0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Reuse , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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