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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ideal test for COVID-19 would combine the sensitivity of laboratory-based PCR with the speed and ease of use of point-of-care (POC) or home-based rapid antigen testing. We evaluated clinical performance of the Diagnostic Analyzer for Selective Hybridization (DASH) SARS-CoV-2 POC rapid PCR test. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with and without symptoms of COVID-19 at four clinical sites where we collected two bilateral anterior nasal swabs and information on COVID-19 symptoms, vaccination, and exposure. One swab was tested with the DASH SARS-CoV-2 POC PCR and the second in a central laboratory using Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 PCR. We assessed test concordance and calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values using Xpert as the "gold standard". RESULTS: We enrolled 315 and analyzed 313 participants with median age 42 years; 65% were female, 62% symptomatic, 75% had received ≥2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and 16% currently SARS-CoV-2 positive. There were concordant results for 307 tests indicating an overall agreement for DASH of 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 0.99] compared to Xpert. DASH performed at 0.96 [95% CI 0.86, 1.00] sensitivity and 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 1.00] specificity, with a positive predictive value of 0.85 [95% CI 0.73, 0.96] and negative predictive value of 0.996 [95% CI 0.99, 1.00]. The six discordant tests between DASH and Xpert all had high Ct values (>30) on the respective positive assay. DASH and Xpert Ct values were highly correlated (R = 0.89 [95% CI 0.81, 0.94]). CONCLUSIONS: DASH POC SARS-CoV-2 PCR was accurate, easy to use, and provided fast results (approximately 15 minutes) in real-life clinical settings with an overall performance similar to an EUA-approved laboratory-based PCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003917

ABSTRACT

Summary The effects of mutations in continuously emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 are a major concern for the performance of rapid antigen tests. To evaluate the impact of mutations on 17 antibodies used in 11 commercially available antigen tests with emergency use authorization we measured antibody binding for all possible Nucleocapsid point mutations using a mammalian surface-display platform and deep mutational scanning. The results provide a complete map of the antibodies’ epitopes and their susceptibility to mutational escape. Our data predict no vulnerabilities for detection of mutations found in variants of concern. We confirm this using the commercial tests and sequence-confirmed COVID-19 patient samples. The antibody escape mutational profiles generated here serve as a valuable resource for predicting the performance of rapid antigen tests against past, current, as well as any possible future variants of SARS-CoV-2, establishing the direct clinical and public health utility of our system.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272971, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993506

ABSTRACT

Viability of saliva samples stored for longer than 28 days has not been reported in the literature. The COVID-19 pandemic has spawned new research evaluating various sample types, thus large biobanks have been started. Residual saliva samples from university student surveillance testing were retested on SalivaDirect and compared with original RT-PCR (cycle threshold values) and quantitative antigen values for each month in storage. We conclude that saliva samples stored at -80°C are still viable in detecting SARS-CoV-2 after 12 months of storage, establishing the validity of these samples for future testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/chemistry , Specimen Handling
4.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961056

ABSTRACT

Detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is essential for diagnosis, treatment, and infection control. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fails to distinguish acute from resolved infections, as RNA is frequently detected after infectiousness. We hypothesized that nucleocapsid in blood marks acute infection with the potential to enhance isolation and treatment strategies. In a retrospective serosurvey of inpatient and outpatient encounters, we categorized samples along an infection timeline using timing of SARS-CoV-2 testing and symptomatology. Among 1860 specimens from 1607 patients, the highest levels and frequency of antigenemia were observed in samples from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antigenemia was higher in seronegative individuals and in those with severe disease. In our analysis, antigenemia exhibited 85.8% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity as a biomarker for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, antigenemia sensitively and specifically marks acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further study is warranted to determine whether antigenemia may aid individualized assessment of active COVID-19.

5.
Cell Rep Methods ; 2(5): 100222, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing accelerated in an unparalleled fashion. As a result, there has been an increased need for accurate, robust, and easy-to-use POC testing in a variety of non-traditional settings (i.e., pharmacies, drive-thru sites, schools). While stakeholders often express the desire for POC technologies that are "as simple as digital pregnancy tests," there is little discussion of what this means in regards to device design, development, and assessment. The design of POC technologies and systems should take into account the capabilities and limitations of the users and their environments. Such "human factors" are important tenets that can help technology developers create POC technologies that are effective for end-users in a multitude of settings. Here, we review the core principles of human factors and discuss lessons learned during the evaluation process of SARS-CoV-2 POC testing.

6.
Lab Chip ; 22(8): 1469-1473, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805673

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has proven the need for point-of-care diagnosis of respiratory diseases and microfluidic technology has risen to the occasion. Mesa Biotech (San Diego, CA) originally developed the Accula platform for the diagnosis of influenza A and B and then extended the platform to SARS-CoV-2. Mesa Biotech has experienced tremendous success, culminating in acquisition by Thermo Fisher for up to $550m USD. The Accula microfluidics platform accomplished the leap from the lab to commercial product through clever design and engineering choices. Through information obtained from interviews with key Mesa Biotech leaders and publicly-available documents, we describe the keys to Mesa's success and how they might inform other lab-on-a-chip companies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Biotechnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microfluidics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
iScience ; 25(3): 103968, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701995

ABSTRACT

As the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants brings the global pandemic to new levels, the performance of current rapid antigen tests against variants of concern and interest (VOC/I) is of significant public health concern. Here, we report assessment of the Abbot BinaxNOW COVID-19 Antigen Self-Test. Using genetically sequenced remnant clinical samples collected from individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2, we assessed the performance of BinaxNOW against the variants that currently pose public health threats. We measured the limit of detection of BinaxNOW against various VOC/I in a blinded manner. BinaxNOW successfully detected the Omicron (B.1.1.529), Mu (B.1.621), Delta (B.1.617.2), Lambda (C.37), Gamma (P.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Eta (B.1.525), and P.2 variants and at low viral concentrations. BinaxNOW also detected the Omicron variant in individual remnant clinical samples. Overall, these data indicate that this inexpensive and simple-to-use, FDA-authorized and broadly distributed rapid test can reliably detect Omicron, Delta, and other VOC/I.

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S89-S89, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564872

ABSTRACT

Background Detection and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants is of great public health importance. Broadly accessible and inexpensive assays are needed to enhance variant surveillance and detection globally. We developed and validated a single-reaction multiplex real-time RT-PCR (the Spike SNP assay) to detect specific mutations associated with variants of concern (VOC). Methods A single primer pair was designed to amplify a 348 bp region of spike. Probes were initially designed with locked nucleic acids (LNAs) to increase probe melting temperature, shorten probe length, and specifically detect 417K, E484K, and N501Y (Figure). The assay was optimized and evaluated using characterized variant sample pools. Clinical evaluation was performed on a convenience set of residual nasopharyngeal swabs, and variant calls were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing in a subset of samples. Following the initial evaluation, unmodified probes (without LNAs) were designed to detect L452R, L452Q, and E484Q. Figure. Spike SNP distinguishes mutations occurring in different lineages (A-C). Representative results of variant detection a single Spike SNP run are shown for mutations in the codons for 4177K (A) and mutations that encode 484K (B) and 501Y (C). Curves show dilutions of the following variants: blue, BEI 52286 (wild type);pink B.1.1.7;purple, B1.525;and green, P.1. Variant pools were used for B.1.17, B.1.525, and P.1 strains. Curves are displayed for a given dilution in each channel and result interpretation is shown (D). Results The lower limit of 95% detection was 2.46 to 2.48 log10 GE/mL for the three targets (~1-2 GE/reaction). Among 253 nasopharyngeal swabs with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the Spike SNP assay was positive in 238 (94.1%), including all samples with Ct values < 30 (220/220) for the N2 target and 18/33 samples with N2 Ct values ≥ 30. Results were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing in 50/50 samples (100%). Subsequent addition of the 452R probe did not affect performance for the original targets, and probes for 452Q and 484Q performed similarly to LNA-modified probes. Conclusion The Spike SNP assay provides fast, inexpensive and sensitive detection of specific mutations associated with SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, and the assay can be quickly modified to detect new mutations in the receptor binding domain. Similar analytical performance of LNA-modified and unmodified probes presents options for future assay customization that balance the shorter probe length (LNAs) and increased accessibility (unmodified). The Spike SNP assay, if implemented across laboratories offering SARS-CoV-2 testing, could greatly increase capacity for variant detection and surveillance globally. Disclosures Colleen S. Kraft, MD, MSc, Rebiotix (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member

10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0144621, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522905

ABSTRACT

To provide an accessible and inexpensive method to surveil for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations, we developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay, the Spike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay, to detect specific mutations in the spike receptor binding domain. A single primer pair was designed to amplify a 348-bp region of spike, and probes were initially designed to detect K417, E484K, and N501Y. The assay was evaluated using characterized variant sample pools and residual nasopharyngeal samples. Variant calls were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing in a subset of samples. Subsequently, a fourth probe was designed to detect L452R. The lower limit of 95% detection was 2.46 to 2.48 log10 genome equivalents (GE)/ml for the three initial targets (∼1 to 2 GE/reaction). Among 253 residual nasopharyngeal swabs with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the Spike SNP assay was positive in 238 (94.1%) samples. All 220 samples with threshold cycle (CT) values of <30 for the SARS-CoV-2 N2 target were detected, whereas 18/33 samples with N2 CT values of ≥30 were detected. Spike SNP results were confirmed by sequencing in 50/50 samples (100%). Addition of the 452R probe did not affect performance for the original targets. The Spike SNP assay accurately identifies SARS-CoV-2 mutations in the receptor binding domain, and it can be quickly modified to detect new mutations that emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2887-2891, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369635

ABSTRACT

Among symptomatic outpatients, subgenomic RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nasal midturbinate swab specimens was concordant with antigen detection but remained detectable in 13 (82.1%) of 16 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from antigen-negative persons. Subgenomic RNA in midturbinate swab specimens might be useful for routine diagnostics to identify active virus replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14903, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320242

ABSTRACT

The impact of repeated sample collection on COVID-19 test performance is unknown. The FDA and CDC currently recommend the primary collection of diagnostic samples to minimize the perceived risk of false-negative findings. We therefore evaluated the association between repeated sample collection and test performance among 325 symptomatic patients undergoing COVID-19 testing in Atlanta, GA. High concordance was found between consecutively collected mid-turbinate samples with both molecular (n = 74, 100% concordance) and antigen-based (n = 147, 97% concordance, kappa = 0.95, CI = 0.88-1.00) diagnostic assays. Repeated sample collection does not decrease COVID-19 test performance, demonstrating that multiple samples can be collected for assay validation and clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Turbinates/virology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14604, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315611

ABSTRACT

While there has been significant progress in the development of rapid COVID-19 diagnostics, as the pandemic unfolds, new challenges have emerged, including whether these technologies can reliably detect the more infectious variants of concern and be viably deployed in non-clinical settings as "self-tests". Multidisciplinary evaluation of the Abbott BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card (BinaxNOW, a widely used rapid antigen test, included limit of detection, variant detection, test performance across different age-groups, and usability with self/caregiver-administration. While BinaxNOW detected the highly infectious variants, B.1.1.7 (Alpha) first identified in the UK, B.1.351 (Beta) first identified in South Africa, P.1 (Gamma) first identified in Brazil, B.1.617.2 (Delta) first identified in India and B.1.2, a non-VOC, test sensitivity decreased with decreasing viral loads. Moreover, BinaxNOW sensitivity trended lower when devices were performed by patients/caregivers themselves compared to trained clinical staff, despite universally high usability assessments following self/caregiver-administration among different age groups. Overall, these data indicate that while BinaxNOW accurately detects the new viral variants, as rapid COVID-19 tests enter the home, their already lower sensitivities compared to RT-PCR may decrease even more due to user error.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Self-Testing , Humans , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
J Biol Chem ; 295(46): 15438-15453, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975108

ABSTRACT

Widespread testing for the presence of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals remains vital for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the advent of an effective treatment. Challenges in testing can be traced to an initial shortage of supplies, expertise, and/or instrumentation necessary to detect the virus by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), the most robust, sensitive, and specific assay currently available. Here we show that academic biochemistry and molecular biology laboratories equipped with appropriate expertise and infrastructure can replicate commercially available SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR test kits and backfill pipeline shortages. The Georgia Tech COVID-19 Test Kit Support Group, composed of faculty, staff, and trainees across the biotechnology quad at Georgia Institute of Technology, synthesized multiplexed primers and probes and formulated a master mix composed of enzymes and proteins produced in-house. Our in-house kit compares favorably with a commercial product used for diagnostic testing. We also developed an environmental testing protocol to readily monitor surfaces for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Our blueprint should be readily reproducible by research teams at other institutions, and our protocols may be modified and adapted to enable SARS-CoV-2 detection in more resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Technology Transfer , Universities/economics , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Am J Hematol ; 96(2): 174-178, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954382
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