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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 114(2): 387-393, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872926

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to disrupt the provision of cardiac procedural services due to overwhelming interval surges in COVID-19 cases and the associated crisis of cardiac intervention deferment. Despite the availability of widespread testing, highly efficacious vaccines, and intensive public health efforts, the pandemic is entering its third year, where new severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 variants have increased the likelihood that patients scheduled for a cardiac intervention will contract COVID-19 in the perioperative period. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Workforce on Critical Care, the STS Workforce on Adult Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, and the Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons have developed this document, endorsed by the STS and affirmed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology, to provide guidance for cardiac procedure deferment and intervention timing for preoperative patients diagnosed with COVID-19. This document is intended for the perioperative cardiac surgical team and outlines the present state of the pandemic, the impact of COVID-19 on intervention outcome, and offers a recommended algorithm for individualized cardiac procedure triage and timing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Surgeons , Adult , Canada , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods
2.
CJC Open ; 4(6): 520-531, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679544

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Complications and mortality are higher at lower-volume centres. Most Canadian ECLS institutions are low-volume centres. Protocols offer one way to share best practices among institutions to improve outcomes. Whether Canadian centres have ECLS protocols, and whether these protocols are comprehensive and homogenous across centres, is unknown. Methods: Purposeful sampling with mixed methods was used. A Delphi panel defined key elements relevant to the ECLS process. Documentation used in the delivery of ECLS services was requested from programs. Institutional protocols were assessed using deductive coding to determine the presence of key elements. Results: A total of 37 key elements spanning 5 domains (referral, initiation, maintenance, termination, and administration) were identified. Documentation from 13 institutions across 10 provinces was obtained. Institutions with heart or lung transplantation programs had more-complete documentation than did non-transplantation programs. Only 5 key elements were present in at least 50% of protocols (anticoagulation strategy, ventilation strategy, defined referral process, selection criteria, weaning process), and variation was seen in how institutions approached each of these elements. Conclusions: The completeness of ECLS protocols varies across Canada. Programs describe variable approaches to key elements. This variability might represent a lack of evidence or consensus in these areas and creates the opportunity for collaboration among institutions to share protocols and best practice. The key-element framework provides a common language that programs can use to develop ECLS programs, initiate quality-improvement projects, and identify research agendas.


Introduction: L'assistance cardiorespiratoire extracorporelle (ACRE) est associée à des taux élevés de morbidité et de mortalité. Les taux de complications et de mortalité sont plus élevés dans les centres à volume plus faible. La plupart des établissements qui offrent l'ACRE au Canada sont des centres à volume faible. Les protocoles constituent un moyen de partager des pratiques exemplaires entre les établissements afin d'améliorer les résultats. On ignore si les centres du Canada ont des protocoles d'ACRE, et si ces protocoles sont exhaustifs et homogènes dans tous les centres. Méthodes: Nous avons utilisé un échantillonnage dirigé par méthodes mixtes. Le panel Delphi a défini les éléments fondamentaux pertinents au processus d'ACRE. La documentation utilisée pour la prestation de services d'ACRE a été demandée aux programmes. Nous avons évalué les protocoles des établissements au moyen du processus inductif de codification pour déterminer la présence d'éléments fondamentaux. Résultats: Nous avons relevé un total de 37 éléments fondamentaux couvrant cinq domaines (aiguillage, amorce, maintien, cessation et administration). La documentation provenait de 13 établissements de 10 provinces. Les établissements qui ont des programmes de transplantation cardiaque ou pulmonaire avaient une documentation plus complète que les programmes sans transplantation. Seuls cinq éléments fondamentaux étaient présents dans au moins 50 % des protocoles (stratégie d'anticoagulation, stratégie de ventilation, processus défini d'aiguillage, critères de sélection, processus de sevrage), et une variation était observée dans la façon dont les établissements considéraient chacun de ces éléments. Conclusions: Au Canada, l'exhaustivité des protocoles d'ACRE varie. Les programmes décrivent la variabilité des approches des éléments fondamentaux. Cette variabilité qui pourrait représenter le manque de données probantes ou de consensus dans ces domaines ouvre la voie à la collaboration des établissements au partage des protocoles et des pratiques exemplaires. Le cadre des éléments fondamentaux contribue à offrir un langage commun que peuvent utiliser les programmes pour élaborer des programmes d'ACRE, amorcer des projets d'amélioration de la qualité et établir des programmes de recherche.

3.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(8): 1260-1262, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252584

ABSTRACT

It is now widely recognized that COVID-19 illness can be associated with significant intermediate and potentially longer-term physical limitations. The term, "long COVID-19" is used to define any patient with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection (ie, after 4 weeks). It is postulated that cardiac injury might be linked to symptoms that persist after resolution of acute infection, as part of this syndrome. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Rapid Response Team has generated this document to provide guidance to health care providers on the optimal management of patients with suspected cardiac complications of long COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Myocarditis/therapy , Patient Care Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/trends , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
4.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(5): 790-793, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965375

ABSTRACT

Hospitals and ambulatory facilities significantly reduced cardiac care delivery in response to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The deferral of elective cardiovascular procedures led to a marked reduction in health care delivery with a significant impact on optimal cardiovascular care. International and Canadian data have reported dramatically increased wait times for diagnostic tests and cardiovascular procedures, as well as associated increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the wake of the demonstrated ability to rapidly create critical care and hospital ward capacity, we advocate a different approach during the second and possible subsequent COVID-19 pandemic waves. We suggest an approach, informed by local data and experience, that balances the need for an expected rise in demand for health care resources to ensure appropriate COVID-19 surge capacity with continued delivery of essential cardiovascular care. Incorporating cardiovascular care leaders into pandemic planning and operations will help health care systems minimise cardiac care delivery disruptions while maintaining critical care and hospital ward surge capacity and continuing measures to reduce transmission risk in health care settings. Specific recommendations targeting the main pillars of cardiovascular care are presented: ambulatory, inpatient, procedural, diagnostic, surgical, and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans
5.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(2): 204-213, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758319

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Montreal has been the epicentre of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Canada. Given the regional disparities in incidence and mortality in the general population, we aimed to describe local characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients in Montreal. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort of consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal with confirmed COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Between 20 March and 13 May 2020, 75 patients were admitted, with a median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of 62 [53-72] yr and high rates of obesity (47%), hypertension (67%), and diabetes (37%). Healthcare-related infections were responsible for 35% of cases. The median [IQR] day 1 sequential organ failure assessment score was 6 [3-7]. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was used in 57% of patients for a median [IQR] of 11 [5-22] days. Patients receiving IMV were characterized by a moderately decreased median [IQR] partial pressure of oxygen:fraction of inspired oxygen (day 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138-276]; day 10 = 173 [147-227]) and compliance (day 1 = 48 [38-58] mL/cmH2O; day 10 = 34 [28-42] mL/cmH2O) and very elevated estimated dead space fraction (day 1 = 0.60 [0.53-0.67]; day 10 = 0.72 [0.69-0.79]). Overall hospital mortality was 25%, and 21% in the IMV patients. Mortality was 82% in patients ≥ 80 yr old. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Montreal were similar to those reported in the existing literature. We found an increased physiologic dead space, supporting the hypothesis that pulmonary vascular injury may be central to COVID-19-induced lung damage.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Montréal a été l'épicentre de la pandémie du coronavirus (COVID-19) au Canada. Étant donné les disparités régionales dans l'incidence et la mortalité dans la population générale, nous avons tenté de décrire les caractéristiques locales, les traitements et le devenir des patients atteints de la COVID-19 en état critique à Montréal. MéTHODE: Notre étude de cohorte rétrospective monocentrique a inclus tous les patients adultes admis consécutivement à l'unité de soins intensifs de l'Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal avec un diagnostic confirmé de COVID-19. RéSULTATS: Soixante-quinze patients ont été admis entre le 20 mars et le 13 mai 2020. Ceux-ci avaient un âge médian [écart interquartile (ÉIQ)] de 62 [53­72] ans et présentaient une incidence élevée d'obésité (47 %), d'hypertension (67 %) et de diabète (37 %). Les transmissions associées aux soins de santé étaient responsables de 35 % des cas. Au jour 1, le score SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment ­ évaluation séquentielle de défaillance des organes) médian [ÉIQ] était de 6 [3­7]. La ventilation mécanique invasive (VMI) a été utilisée chez 57 % des patients, pour une durée médiane [ÉIQ] de 11 [5­22] jours. Les patients ayant reçu une VMI étaient caractérisés par une médiane [ÉIQ] modérément réduite de la pression partielle de la fraction d'oxygène inspiré (jour 1 PaO2:FiO2 = 177 [138­276]; jour 10 = 173 [147­227]), de la compliance (jour 1 = 48 [38­58] mL/cmH2O; jour 10 = 34 [28­42] mL/cmH2O), ainsi que par une fraction d'espace mort estimé très élevée (jour 1 = 0,60 [0,53-0,67]; jour 10 = 0,72 [0,69-0,79]). La mortalité hospitalière était de 25 % globalement, et de 21 % chez les patients avec VMI. La mortalité a atteint 82 % chez les patients agés de ≥ 80 ans. CONCLUSION: Les caractéristiques et le devenir des patients en état critique atteints de la COVID-19 à Montréal étaient semblables à ceux rapportés dans la littérature existante. Nous avons observé un espace mort physiologique augmenté, ce qui appuie l'hypothèse que des lésions vasculaires pulmonaires seraient primordiales dans les lésions pulmonaires induites par la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Canada , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1313-1316, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733905

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical questions for the cardiovascular leader and practitioner. Attention has been redirected from a system that focuses on individual patient benefit toward one that focuses on protecting society as a whole. Challenging resource allocation questions highlight the need for a clearly articulated ethics framework that integrates principled decision making into how different cardiovascular care services are prioritized. A practical application of the principles of harm minimisation, fairness, proportionality, respect, reciprocity, flexibility, and procedural justice is provided, and a model for prioritisation of the restoration of cardiovascular services is outlined. The prioritisation model may be used to determine how and when cardiovascular services should be continued or restored. There should be a focus on an iterative and responsive approach to broader health care system needs, such as other disease groups and local outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cardiology Service, Hospital , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Ethics, Institutional , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Cardiology Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Organizational , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/ethics , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1317-1321, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597883

ABSTRACT

Cardiac rehabilitation programs across Canada have suspended in-person services as a result of large-scale physical distancing recommendations designed to flatten the COVID-19 pandemic curve. Virtual cardiac rehabilitation (VCR) offers an alternate mechanism of care delivery, capable of providing similar patient outcomes and safety profiles compared with centre-based programs. To minimize care gaps, all centres should consider developing and implementing a VCR program. The process of this rapid implementation, however, can be daunting. Centres should initially focus on the collation, utilization, and repurposing of existing resources, equipment, and technology. Once established, programs should then focus on ensuring that quality indicators are met and care processes are protocolized. This should be followed by the development of sustainable VCR solutions to account for care gaps that existed before COVID-19, and to improve cardiac rehabilitation delivery, moving forward. This article reviews the potential challenges and obstacles of this process and aims to provide pragmatic guidance to aid clinicians and administrators during this challenging time.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Telerehabilitation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Canada , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Models, Organizational , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Telerehabilitation/methods , Telerehabilitation/organization & administration
8.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(9): 1550-1553, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620877

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can complicate novel pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents the final possible rescue strategy. Variations in practice, combined with a paucity of rigourous guidelines, may complicate blood-product resource availability and allocation during a pandemic. We conducted a literature review around venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) transfusion practices for platelets, packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate, and antithrombin. Pertinent society guidelines were examined, and the practice of Canadian ECLS experts was sampled through an environmental scan. This paper represents a synthesis of these explorations, combined with input from the Canadian Cardiovascular Critical Care (CANCARE) Society, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Critical Care Society. We offer a pragmatic guidance document for restrictive transfusion thresholds in nonbleeding patients on VV-ECMO, which may attenuate transfusion-related complications and simultaneously shield national blood product inventory from strain during pandemic-induced activation of the National Plan for the Management of Shortages of Labile Blood Components.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Anemia/blood , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/therapy , Anticoagulants/classification , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , COVID-19 , Canada , Consensus , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(7): 1139-1143, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-172998

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a profound global effect. Its rapid transmissibility has forced whole countries to adopt strict measures to contain its spread. As part of necessary pandemic planning, most Canadian cardiac surgical programs have prioritized and delayed elective procedures in an effort to reduce the burden on the health care system and to mobilize resources in the event of a pandemic surge. While the number of COVID-19 cases continue to increase worldwide, new cases have begun to decline in many jurisdictions. This "flattening of the curve" has inevitably prompted discussions around reopening of the economy, relaxing some public health restrictions, and resuming nonurgent health care delivery. This document provides a template for cardiac surgical programs to begin to ramp-up the delivery of cardiac surgery in a deliberate and graded fashion as the COVID-19 pandemic burden begins to ease that is guided by 3 principles. First, all recommendations from public health authorities regarding COVID-19 containment must continue to be followed to minimize disease spread, ensure patient safety, and protect health care personnel. Second, patients awaiting elective cardiac surgery need to be proactively managed, reprioritizing those with high-risk anatomy or whose clinical status is deteriorating. Finally, case volumes should be steadily increased in a mutually agreed upon fashion and must balance the clinical needs of patients awaiting surgery against the overall requirements of the health care system.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Canada , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Safety Management/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data
10.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(6): 952-955, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-77143

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic.1 At that time, only 118,000 cases had been reported globally, 90% of which had occurred in 4 countries.1 Since then, the world landscape has changed dramatically. As of March 31, 2020, there are now nearly 800,000 cases, with truly global involvement.2 Countries that were previously unaffected are currently experiencing mounting rates of the novel coronavirus infection with associated increases in COVID-19-related deaths. At present, Canada has more than 8000 cases of COVID-19, with considerable variation in rates of infection among provinces and territories.3 Amid concerns over growing resource constraints, cardiac surgeons from across Canada have been forced to make drastic changes to their clinical practices. From prioritizing and delaying elective cases to altering therapeutic strategies in high-risk patients, cardiac surgeons, along with their heart teams, are having to reconsider how best to manage their patients. It is with this in mind that the Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons (CSCS) and its Board of Directors have come together to formulate a series of guiding statements. With strong representation from across the country and the support of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, the authors have attempted to provide guidance to their colleagues on the subjects of leadership roles that cardiac surgeons may assume during this pandemic: patient assessment and triage, risk reduction, and real-time sharing of expertise and experiences.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Canada , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Comorbidity , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Risk Management/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Triage/organization & administration
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