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1.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 12: 20406207211048364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients present with both elevated D-dimer and a higher incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE). This single-centre retrospective observational study investigated the prevalence of early PE in COVID-19 patients and its relation to D-dimer at presentation. METHODS: The study included 1038 COVID-19-positive patients, with 1222 emergency department (ED) attendances over 11 weeks (16 March to 31 May 2020). Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for PE was performed in 123 patients within 48 h of ED presentation, of whom 118 had D-dimer results. The remaining 875 attendances had D-dimer performed. RESULTS: CTPA performed in 11.8% of patients within 48 h of ED presentation confirmed PE in 37.4% (46/123). Thrombosis was observed at all levels of pulmonary vasculature with and without right ventricular strain. In the CTPA cohort, patients with PE had significantly higher D-dimer, prothrombin time, C-reactive protein, troponin, total bilirubin, neutrophils, white cell count and lower albumin compared with non-PE patients. However, there was no difference in the median duration of inpatient stay or mortality. A receiver operator curve analysis demonstrated that D-dimer could discriminate between PE and non-PE COVID-19 patients (area under the curve of 0.79, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 43% (n = 62/145) of patients with D-dimer >5000 ng/ml had CTPA with PE confirmed in 61% (n = 38/62), that is, 26% of >5000 ng/ml cohort. The sensitivity and specificity were related to D-dimer level; cutoffs of 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ng/ml, respectively, had a sensitivity of 93%, 90%, 90% and 86%, and a specificity of 38%, 54%, 59% and 68%, and if implemented, an additional 229, 141, 106 and 83 CTPAs would be required. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested an increased PE prevalence in COVID-19 patients attending ED with an elevated D-dimer, and patients with levels >5000 ng/ml might benefit from CTPA to exclude concomitant PE.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1866-1878, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Troponin elevation is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We used multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess myocardial injury in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients (64 ± 12 years, 70% male) with severe COVID-19 infection [all requiring hospital admission, 48 (32%) requiring ventilatory support] and troponin elevation discharged from six hospitals underwent convalescent CMR (including adenosine stress perfusion if indicated) at median 68 days. Left ventricular (LV) function was normal in 89% (ejection fraction 67% ± 11%). Late gadolinium enhancement and/or ischaemia was found in 54% (80/148). This comprised myocarditis-like scar in 26% (39/148), infarction and/or ischaemia in 22% (32/148) and dual pathology in 6% (9/148). Myocarditis-like injury was limited to three or less myocardial segments in 88% (35/40) of cases with no associated LV dysfunction; of these, 30% had active myocarditis. Myocardial infarction was found in 19% (28/148) and inducible ischaemia in 26% (20/76) of those undergoing stress perfusion (including 7 with both infarction and ischaemia). Of patients with ischaemic injury pattern, 66% (27/41) had no past history of coronary disease. There was no evidence of diffuse fibrosis or oedema in the remote myocardium (T1: COVID-19 patients 1033 ± 41 ms vs. matched controls 1028 ± 35 ms; T2: COVID-19 46 ± 3 ms vs. matched controls 47 ± 3 ms). CONCLUSIONS: During convalescence after severe COVID-19 infection with troponin elevation, myocarditis-like injury can be encountered, with limited extent and minimal functional consequence. In a proportion of patients, there is evidence of possible ongoing localized inflammation. A quarter of patients had ischaemic heart disease, of which two-thirds had no previous history. Whether these observed findings represent pre-existing clinically silent disease or de novo COVID-19-related changes remain undetermined. Diffuse oedema or fibrosis was not detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(5): 1323-1331, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is infrequently complicated by bacterial co-infection, but antibiotic prescriptions are common. We used community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as a benchmark to define the processes that occur in bacterial pulmonary infections, testing the hypothesis that baseline inflammatory markers and their response to antibiotic therapy could distinguish bacterial co-infection from COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of CAP (lobar consolidation on chest radiograph) and COVID-19 (PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2) patients admitted to Royal Free Hospital (RFH) and Barnet Hospital (BH), serving as independent discovery and validation cohorts. All CAP and >90% COVID-19 patients received antibiotics on hospital admission. RESULTS: We identified 106 CAP and 619 COVID-19 patients at RFH. Compared with COVID-19, CAP was characterized by elevated baseline white cell count (WCC) [median 12.48 (IQR 8.2-15.3) versus 6.78 (IQR 5.2-9.5) ×106 cells/mL, P < 0.0001], C-reactive protein (CRP) [median 133.5 (IQR 65-221) versus 86.0 (IQR 42-160) mg/L, P < 0.0001], and greater reduction in CRP 48-72 h into admission [median ΔCRP -33 (IQR -112 to +3.5) versus +14 (IQR -15.5 to +70.5) mg/L, P < 0.0001]. These observations were recapitulated in the independent validation cohort at BH (169 CAP and 181 COVID-19 patients). A multivariate logistic regression model incorporating WCC and ΔCRP discriminated CAP from COVID-19 with AUC 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.94). Baseline WCC >8.2 × 106 cells/mL or falling CRP identified 94% of CAP cases, and excluded bacterial co-infection in 46% of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that in COVID-19, absence of both elevated baseline WCC and antibiotic-related decrease in CRP can exclude bacterial co-infection and facilitate antibiotic stewardship efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1387

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients frequently have acute myocardial injury with elevated troponin levels. Underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We use

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