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1.
Cell reports ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2306169

ABSTRACT

Most existing studies characterising SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are peptide based. This does not allow evaluation of whether tested peptides are processed and presented canonically. In this study, we use recombinant vaccinia virus (rVACV)-mediated expression of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and SARS-CoV-2 infection of ACE-2-transduced B cell lines to evaluate overall T cell responses in a small cohort of recovered COVID-19 patients and uninfected donors vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. We show that rVACV expression of SARS-CoV-2 antigen can be used as an alternative to SARS-CoV-2 infection to evaluate T cell responses to naturally processed spike antigens. In addition, rVACV system can be used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of memory T cells to variants of concern (VOCs) and to identify epitope escape mutants. Finally, our data show that both natural infection and vaccination could induce multi-functional T cell responses with overall T cell responses remaining despite the identification of escape mutations. Graphical Yin et al. utilize two informative systems for evaluating overall T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and variants, enabling greater understanding of T cell responses to the virus, cross-reactivity to viral variants and the differences between vaccine- and infection-induced immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and other emerging viruses in the future.

2.
Vaccine ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2298051

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) has been observed to vary against antigenically distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC). Here we report the final analysis of VE and safety from COV005: a phase 1b/2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of primary series AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination in South African adults aged 18–65 years. South Africa's first, second, and third waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections were respectively driven by the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus (wild type, WT), and SARS-CoV-2 Beta and Delta VoCs. VE against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection was 90.6% for WT, 6.7% for Beta and 77.1% for Delta. No cases of severe COVID-19 were documented ahead of unblinding. Safety was consistent with the interim analysis, with no new safety concerns identified. Notably, South Africa's Delta wave occurred ≥ 9 months after primary series vaccination, suggesting that primary series AZD1222 vaccination offers a good durability of protection, potentially due to an anamnestic response. Clinical trial identifier: CT.gov NCT04444674

3.
Wellcome Open Res ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2296089

ABSTRACT

Background: There are limited data on the immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in African populations. Here we report the immunogenicity and safety of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine from a phase 1/2 single-blind, randomised, controlled trial among adults in Kenya conducted as part of the early studies assessing vaccine performance in different geographical settings to inform Emergency Use Authorisation. Methods: : We recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) 400 healthy adults aged ≥18 years in Kenya to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control rabies vaccine, each as a two-dose schedule with a 3-month interval. The co-primary outcomes were safety, and immunogenicity assessed using total IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 28 days after the second vaccination. Results: : Between 28 th October 2020 and 19 th August 2021, 400 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=200) or rabies vaccine (n=200). Local and systemic adverse events were self-limiting and mild or moderate in nature. Three serious adverse events were reported but these were deemed unrelated to vaccination. The geometric mean anti-spike IgG titres 28 days after second dose vaccination were higher in the ChAdOx1 group (2773 ELISA units [EU], 95% CI 2447, 3142) than in the rabies vaccine group (61 EU, 95% CI 45, 81) and persisted over the 12 months follow-up. We did not identify any symptomatic infections or hospital admissions with respiratory illness and so vaccine efficacy against clinically apparent infection could not be measured. Vaccine efficacy against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was 38.4% (95% CI -26.8%, 70.1%;p=0.188). Conclusions: : The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy against asymptomatic infection of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 among Kenyan adults was similar to that observed elsewhere in the world, but efficacy against symptomatic infection or severe disease could not be measured in this cohort. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registration: PACTR202005681895696 (11/05/2020)

4.
J Infect ; 86(6): 574-583, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous COVID vaccine priming schedules are immunogenic and effective. This report aims to understand the persistence of immune response to the viral vectored, mRNA and protein-based COVID-19 vaccine platforms used in homologous and heterologous priming combinations, which will inform the choice of vaccine platform in future vaccine development. METHODS: Com-COV2 was a single-blinded trial in which adults ≥ 50 years, previously immunised with single dose 'ChAd' (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AZD1222, Vaxzevria, Astrazeneca) or 'BNT' (BNT162b2, tozinameran, Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech), were randomised 1:1:1 to receive a second dose 8-12 weeks later with either the homologous vaccine, or 'Mod' (mRNA-1273, Spikevax, Moderna) or 'NVX' (NVX-CoV2373, Nuvaxovid, Novavax). Immunological follow-up and the secondary objective of safety monitoring were performed over nine months. Analyses of antibody and cellular assays were performed on an intention-to-treat population without evidence of COVID-19 infection at baseline or for the trial duration. FINDINGS: In April/May 2021, 1072 participants were enrolled at a median of 9.4 weeks after receipt of a single dose of ChAd (N = 540, 45% female) or BNT (N = 532, 39% female) as part of the national vaccination programme. In ChAd-primed participants, ChAd/Mod had the highest anti-spike IgG from day 28 through to 6 months, although the heterologous vs homologous geometric mean ratio (GMR) dropped from 9.7 (95% CI (confidence interval): 8.2, 11.5) at D28 to 6.2 (95% CI: 5.0, 7.7) at D196. The heterologous/homologous GMR for ChAd/NVX similarly dropped from 3.0 (95% CI:2.5,3.5) to 2.4 (95% CI:1.9, 3.0). In BNT-primed participants, decay was similar between heterologous and homologous schedules with BNT/Mod inducing the highest anti-spike IgG for the duration of follow-up. The adjusted GMR (aGMR) for BNT/Mod compared with BNT/BNT increased from 1.36 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.58) at D28 to 1.52 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.90) at D196, whilst for BNT/NVX this aGMR was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.64) at day 28 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.78) at day 196. Heterologous ChAd-primed schedules produced and maintained the largest T-cell responses until D196. Immunisation with BNT/NVX generated a qualitatively different antibody response to BNT/BNT, with the total IgG significantly lower than BNT/BNT during all follow-up time points, but similar levels of neutralising antibodies. INTERPRETATION: Heterologous ChAd-primed schedules remain more immunogenic over time in comparison to ChAd/ChAd. BNT-primed schedules with a second dose of either mRNA vaccine also remain more immunogenic over time in comparison to BNT/NVX. The emerging data on mixed schedules using the novel vaccine platforms deployed in the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest that heterologous priming schedules might be considered as a viable option sooner in future pandemics. ISRCTN: 27841311 EudraCT:2021-001275-16.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Pandemics , Single-Blind Method , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
5.
Med (New York, NY) ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2272796

ABSTRACT

Background Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. However, the maintenance of such responses – and hence protection from disease – requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (Protective immunity from T cells in Healthcare workers (PITCH), within the larger SARS-CoV-2 immunity & reinfection evaluation (SIREN) study) we previously observed that prior infection impacted strongly on subsequent cellular and humoral immunity induced after long and short dosing intervals of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Methods Here, we report longer follow up of 684 HCWs in this cohort over 6-9 months following two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccination and up to 6 months following a subsequent mRNA booster vaccination. Findings We make three observations: Firstly, the dynamics of humoral and cellular responses differ;binding and neutralising antibodies declined whereas T and memory B cell responses were maintained after the second vaccine dose. Secondly, vaccine boosting restored IgG levels, broadened neutralising activity against variants of concern including omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5, and boosted T cell responses above the 6-month level post dose 2. Thirdly, prior infection maintained its impact driving larger and broader T cell responses compared with never-infected people – a feature maintained until 6 months after the third dose. Conclusions Broadly cross-reactive T cell responses are well maintained over time – especially in those with combined vaccine and infection-induced immunity ("hybrid” immunity) – and may contribute to continued protection against severe disease. Funding Department for Health and Social Care, Medical Research Council Graphical abstract Moore et al. studied antibody and cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccines before and after dose 3. Antibody responses waned, but T cell responses were well maintained. T cells recognised Omicron variants better and for longer than antibodies. Differences due to vaccine regimen and previous infection evened out over time.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine rollout is lagging in Africa, where there has been a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination with the ChAdOx-nCoV19 (AZD1222) vaccine on antibody responses through to 180 days. METHODS: We did an unmasked post-hoc immunogenicity analysis after the first and second doses of AZD1222 in a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1b-2a study done in seven locations in South Africa. AZD1222 recipients who were HIV-uninfected, were stratified into baseline seropositive or seronegative groups using the serum anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) immunoglobulin G (IgG) electroluminescence immunoassay to establish SARS-CoV-2 infection before the first dose of AZD1222. Binding IgG to spike (anti-S) and receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) were measured before the first dose (day 0), second dose (day 28), day 42, and day 180. Neutralising antibody (NAb) against SARS-CoV-2 variants D614G, beta, delta, gamma, and A.VOI.V2, and omicron BA1 and BA.4 variants, were measured by pseudovirus assay (day 28, day 42, and day 180). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04444674, and the Pan African Clinicals Trials Registry, PACTR202006922165132. FINDINGS: Of 185 individuals who were randomly assigned to AZD1222, we included 91 individuals who were baseline seropositive and 58 who were baseline seronegative, in the final analysis. In the seropositive group, there was little change of anti-S IgG (and anti-RBD IgG) or neutralising antibody (NAb) titres at day 42 compared with at day 28. Anti-S (and anti-RBD) IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher throughout in the seropositive compared with the seronegative group, including at day 180 (GMCs 517·8 [95% CI 411·3-651·9] vs 82·1 [55·2-122·3] BAU/mL). Also D614G NAb geometric mean titres (GMTs) were higher in the seropositive group than the seronegative group, as was the percentage with titres of at least 185 (80% putative risk reduction threshold [PRRT] against wild-type-alpha COVID-19), including at day 180 (92·0% [74·0-99·0] vs 18·2% [2·3-51·8). Similar findings were observed for beta, A.VOI.V2, and gamma. For delta, BA.1, and BA.4, NAb GMTs and the proportion with titres above the PRRT were substantially higher in the seropositive compared with seronegative group at day 28 and day 42, but no longer differed between the groups by day 180. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of AZD1222 in the general African population, where COVID-19 vaccine coverage is low and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity is 90%, could enhance the magnitude and quality of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Medical Research Council, the UK Research and Innovation, the UK National Institute for Health Research, and the South African Medical Research Council. TRANSLATION: For the Zulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2175558, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284830

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster (HZ) results from waning immunity following childhood infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) but is preventable by vaccination with recombinant HZ vaccine or live HZ vaccine (two doses or one dose, respectively). Vaccine efficacy declines with age, live HZ vaccine is contraindicated in immunosuppressed individuals, and severe local reactogenicity of recombinant HZ vaccine is seen in up to 20% of older adults, indicating a potential need for new vaccines. Nonreplicating chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors combine potent immunogenicity with well-established reactogenicity and safety profiles. We evaluated the cellular and humoral immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 encoding VZV envelope glycoprotein E (ChAdOx1-VZVgE) in mice using IFN-γ ELISpot, flow cytometry with intracellular cytokine staining, and ELISA. In outbred CD-1 mice, one dose of ChAdOx1-VZVgE (1 × 107 infectious units) elicited higher gE-specific T cell responses than two doses of recombinant HZ vaccine (1 µg) or one dose of live HZ vaccine (1.3 × 103 plaque-forming units). Antibody responses were higher with two doses of recombinant HZ vaccine than with two doses of ChAdOx1-VZVgE or one dose of live HZ vaccine. ChAdOx1-VZVgE boosted T cell and antibody responses following live HZ vaccine priming. The frequencies of polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing more than one cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2) were higher with ChAdOx1-VZVgE than with the conventional vaccines. Results were similar in young and aged BALB/c mice. These findings support the clinical development of ChAdOx1-VZVgE for prevention of HZ in adults aged 50 years or over, including those who have already received conventional vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Animals , Mice , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Cytokines , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
8.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 101(6): 479-488, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259473

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines have reduced the morbidity and mortality caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection; however, the elderly remain the most at risk. Understanding how vaccines generate protective immunity and how these mechanisms change with age is key for informing future vaccine design. Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are important for killing virally infected cells, and vaccines that induce antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in addition to humoral immunity provide an extra layer of immune protection. This is particularly important in cases where antibody titers are suboptimal, as can occur in older individuals. Here, we show that in aged mice, spike epitope-specific CD8+ T cells are generated in comparable numbers to younger animals after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination, although phenotypic differences exist. This demonstrates that ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 elicits a good CD8+ T-cell response in older bodies, but that typical age-associated features are evident on these vaccine reactive T cells.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with HIV on antiretroviral therapy with good CD4 T cell counts make effective immune responses following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on longer term responses and the impact of a booster dose. METHODS: Adults with HIV were enrolled into a single arm open label study. Two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were followed twelve months later by a third heterologous vaccine dose. Participants had undetectable viraemia on ART and CD4 counts >350 cells/µl. Immune responses to the ancestral strain and variants of concern were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA, MesoScale Discovery (MSD) anti-spike platform, ACE-2 inhibition, Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. FINDINGS: 54 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. 43 received a third dose (42 with BNT162b2; 1 with mRNA-1273) one year after the first dose. After the third dose, total anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titres (MSD), ACE-2 inhibition and IgG ELISA results were significantly higher compared to Day 182 titres (P < 0.0001 for all three). SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses measured by AIM against SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 peptide pools were significantly increased after a third vaccine compared to 6 months after a first dose, with significant increases in proliferative CD4 + and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 after boosting. Responses to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants were boosted, although to a lesser extent for Omicron. CONCLUSIONS: In PWH receiving a third vaccine dose, there were significant increases in B and T cell immunity, including to known VOCs.

10.
AIDS ; 37(1): 105-112, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell responses 14 days after single-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination in black Africans with and without HIV in South Africa, as well as determine the effect of AZD1222 vaccination on cell-mediated immune responses in people with HIV (PWH) with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A total of 70 HIV-uninfected people and 104 PWH were prospectively enrolled in the multicentre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase Ib/IIa trial (COV005). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from trial participants 14 days after receipt of first dose of study treatment (placebo or AZD1222 vaccine). T-cell responses against the full-length spike (FLS) glycoprotein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and mutated S-protein regions found in the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants were assessed using an ex-vivo ELISpot assay. RESULTS: Among AZD1222 recipients without preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection, T-cell responses to FLS of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were similarly common in PWH and HIV-uninfected people (30/33, 90.9% vs. 16/21, 76.2%; P = 0.138); and magnitude of response was similar among responders (78 vs. 56 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.255). Among PWH, AZD1222 vaccinees with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, displayed a heightened T-cell response magnitude compared with those without prior infection (186 vs. 78 SFCs/106 PBMCs; P = 0.001); and similar response rate (14/14, 100% vs. 30/33, 90.9%; P = 0.244). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate comparable T-cell responses following AZD1222 vaccination in HIV-uninfected people and PWH on stable antiretroviral therapy. Our results additionally show that hybrid immunity acquired through SARS-CoV-2 infection and AZD1222 vaccination, induce a heightened T-cell response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
11.
Nat Med ; 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233232

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity varies between individuals, and immune responses correlate with vaccine efficacy. Using data from 1,076 participants enrolled in ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine efficacy trials in the United Kingdom, we find that inter-individual variation in normalised antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) at 28 days following first vaccination shows genome-wide significant association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles. The most statistically significant association with higher levels of anti-RBD antibody was HLA-DQB1*06 (P = 3.2 × 10-9), which we replicate in 1,677 additional vaccinees. Individuals carrying HLA-DQB1*06 alleles were less likely to experience PCR-confirmed breakthrough infection during the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent Alpha-variant waves compared with non-carriers (HR 0.63, 0.42-0.93, P = 0.02). We identify a distinct S-derived peptide that is predicted to bind differentially to HLA-DQB1*06 compared with other similar alleles, and find evidence of increased spike-specific memory B-cell responses in HLA-DQB1*06 carriers at 84 days following first vaccination. Our results demonstrate association of HLA type with COVID-19 vaccine antibody response and risk of breakthrough infection, with implications for future vaccine design and implementation.

12.
Cell Rep Med ; : 100845, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221486

ABSTRACT

Emergence from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been facilitated by the rollout of effective vaccines. Successful vaccines generate high-affinity plasma blasts and long-lived protective memory B cells. Here, we show a requirement for T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and the germinal center reaction for optimal serum antibody and memory B cell formation after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. We found that Tfh cells play an important role in expanding antigen-specific B cells while identifying Tfh-cell-dependent and -independent memory B cell subsets. Upon secondary vaccination, germinal center B cells generated during primary immunizations can be recalled as germinal center B cells again. Likewise, primary immunization GC-Tfh cells can be recalled as either Tfh or Th1 cells, highlighting the pluripotent nature of Tfh cell memory. This study demonstrates that ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-induced germinal centers are a critical source of humoral immunity.

13.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 211(3): 280-287, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222599

ABSTRACT

The trajectory of immune responses following the primary dose series determines the decline in vaccine effectiveness over time. Here we report on maintenance of immune responses during the year following a two-dose schedule of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222, in the absence of infection, and also explore the decay of antibody after infection. Total spike-specific IgG antibody titres were lower with two low doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines (two low doses) (P = 0.0006) than with 2 standard doses (the approved dose) or low dose followed by standard dose vaccines regimens. Longer intervals between first and second doses resulted in higher antibody titres (P < 0.0001); however, there was no evidence that the trajectory of antibody decay differed by interval or by vaccine dose, and the decay of IgG antibody titres followed a similar trajectory after a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Trends in post-infection samples were similar with an initial rapid decay in responses but good persistence of measurable responses thereafter. Extrapolation of antibody data, following two doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, demonstrates a slow rate of antibody decay with modelling, suggesting that antibody titres are well maintained for at least 2 years. These data suggest a persistent immune response after two doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 which will likely have a positive impact against serious disease and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 127: 11-16, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many regions of Africa have experienced lower COVID-19 morbidity and mortality than Europe. Pre-existing humoral responses to endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) may cross-protect against SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the neutralizing capacity of SARS-CoV-2 spike reactive and nonreactive immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies in prepandemic samples. METHODS: To investigate the presence of pre-existing immunity, we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using spike antigens from reference SARS-CoV-2, HCoV HKU1, OC43, NL63, and 229E using prepandemic samples from Kilifi in coastal Kenya. In addition, we performed neutralization assays using pseudotyped reference SARS-CoV-2 to determine the functionality of the identified reactive antibodies. RESULTS: We demonstrate the presence of HCoV serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies, which cross-react with the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We show pseudotyped reference SARS-CoV-2 neutralization by prepandemic serum, with a mean infective dose 50 of 1: 251, which is 10-fold less than that of the pooled convalescent sera from patients with COVID-19 but still within predicted protection levels. The prepandemic naso-oropharyngeal fluid neutralized pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 at a mean infective dose 50 of 1: 5.9 in the neutralization assay. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for pre-existing functional humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Kilifi, coastal Kenya and adds to data showing pre-existing immunity for COVID-19 from other regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Kenya/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Immunoglobulin A , Antibodies, Viral
15.
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147546

ABSTRACT

Objectives Many regions of Africa have experienced lower COVID-19 morbidity and mortality compared to Europe. Pre-existing humoral responses to endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) may cross-protect against SARS-CoV-2. We investigated neutralizing capacity of SARS-CoV-2 spike reactive and non-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies in pre-pandemic samples. Methods To investigate the presence of pre-existing immunity, we performed ELISA using spike antigens from reference SARS-CoV-2, HCoV HKU1, OC43, NL63 and 229E using pre-pandemic samples from Kilifi in coastal Kenya. Additionally, we performed neutralization assays using pseudotyped reference SARS-CoV-2 to determine functionality of the identified reactive antibodies. Results We demonstrate presence of HCoV serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies which cross-react with the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We show pseudotyped reference SARS-CoV-2 neutralization by pre-pandemic serum with a mean ID50 of 1:251, which is ten-fold less than that of pooled convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients but still within predicted protection levels. The pre-pandemic naso-oropharyngeal fluid neutralized pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 at a mean ID50 of 1:5.9 in the neutralization assay. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for pre-existing functional humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Kilifi, coastal Kenya and adds to data showing pre-existing immunity for COVID-19 from other regions.

16.
Cell Rep ; 42(1): 111903, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158574

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have caused successive global waves of infection. These variants, with multiple mutations in the spike protein, are thought to facilitate escape from natural and vaccine-induced immunity and often increase in affinity for ACE2. The latest variant to cause concern is BA.2.75, identified in India where it is now the dominant strain, with evidence of wider dissemination. BA.2.75 is derived from BA.2 and contains four additional mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Here, we perform an antigenic and biophysical characterization of BA.2.75, revealing an interesting balance between humoral evasion and ACE2 receptor affinity. ACE2 affinity for BA.2.75 is increased 9-fold compared with BA.2; there is also evidence of escape of BA.2.75 from immune serum, particularly that induced by Delta infection, which may explain the rapid spread in India, where where there is a high background of Delta infection. ACE2 affinity appears to be prioritized over greater escape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies
18.
Lancet ; 399(10342): 2212-2225, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. METHODS: COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 × 1010 viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). FINDINGS: Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years; due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40·2°C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50; 95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1·48 [95% CI 1·07-2·07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2·96 [1·89-4·62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. FUNDING: AstraZeneca and the UK Department of Health and Social Care through the UK National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meningococcal Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(11): 1049-1060, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which might influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose booster programmes. Here, we report exploratory analyses from the Com-COV trial, assessing the effect of 4-week versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and the persistence of immune response up to 6 months after homologous and heterologous priming schedules using the vaccines BNT162b2 (tozinameran, Pfizer/BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). METHODS: Com-COV was a participant-masked, randomised immunogenicity trial. For these exploratory analyses, we used the trial's general cohort, in which adults aged 50 years or older were randomly assigned to four homologous and four heterologous vaccine schedules using BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with 4-week or 12-week priming intervals (eight groups in total). Immunogenicity analyses were done on the intention-to-treat (ITT) population, comprising participants with no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline or for the trial duration, to assess the effect of priming interval on humoral and cellular immune response 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, in addition to the effects on reactogenicity and safety. The Com-COV trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, 69254139 (EudraCT 2020-005085-33). FINDINGS: Between Feb 11 and 26, 2021, 730 participants were randomly assigned in the general cohort, with 77-89 per group in the ITT analysis. At 28 days and 6 months post-second dose, the geometric mean concentration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG was significantly higher in the 12-week interval groups than in the 4-week groups for homologous schedules. In heterologous schedule groups, we observed a significant difference between intervals only for the BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group at 28 days. Pseudotyped virus neutralisation titres were significantly higher in all 12-week interval groups versus 4-week groups, 28 days post-second dose, with geometric mean ratios of 1·4 (95% CI 1·1-1·8) for homologous BNT162b2, 1·5 (1·2-1·9) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2, 1·6 (1·3-2·1) for BNT162b2-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and 2·4 (1·7-3·2) for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. At 6 months post-second dose, anti-spike IgG geometric mean concentrations fell to 0·17-0·24 of the 28-day post-second dose value across all eight study groups, with only homologous BNT162b2 showing a slightly slower decay for the 12-week versus 4-week interval in the adjusted analysis. The rank order of schedules by humoral response was unaffected by interval, with homologous BNT162b2 remaining the most immunogenic by antibody response. T-cell responses were reduced in all 12-week priming intervals compared with their 4-week counterparts. 12-week schedules for homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-BNT162b2 were up to 80% less reactogenic than 4-week schedules. INTERPRETATION: These data support flexibility in priming interval in all studied COVID-19 vaccine schedules. Longer priming intervals might result in lower reactogenicity in schedules with BNT162b2 as a second dose and higher humoral immunogenicity in homologous schedules, but overall lower T-cell responses across all schedules. Future vaccines using these novel platforms might benefit from schedules with long intervals. FUNDING: UK Vaccine Taskforce and National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
20.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104298, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intranasal vaccination may induce protective local and systemic immune responses against respiratory pathogens. A number of intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have achieved protection in pre-clinical challenge models, including ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222, University of Oxford / AstraZeneca). METHODS: We performed a single-centre open-label Phase I clinical trial of intranasal vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in healthy adults, using the existing formulation produced for intramuscular administration. Thirty SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-naïve participants were allocated to receive 5 × 109 viral particles (VP, n=6), 2 × 1010 VP (n=12), or 5 × 1010 VP (n=12). Fourteen received second intranasal doses 28 days later. A further 12 received non-study intramuscular mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination between study days 22 and 46. To investigate intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 as a booster, six participants who had previously received two intramuscular doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and six who had received two intramuscular doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer / BioNTech) were given a single intranasal dose of 5 × 1010 VP of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Objectives were to assess safety (primary) and mucosal antibody responses (secondary). FINDINGS: Reactogenicity was mild or moderate. Antigen-specific mucosal antibody responses to intranasal vaccination were detectable in a minority of participants, rarely exceeding levels seen after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Systemic responses to intranasal vaccination were typically weaker than after intramuscular vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Antigen-specific mucosal antibody was detectable in participants who received an intramuscular mRNA vaccine after intranasal vaccination. Seven participants developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: This formulation of intranasal ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed an acceptable tolerability profile but induced neither a consistent mucosal antibody response nor a strong systemic response. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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