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Kidney International Reports ; 8(3 Supplement):S74, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2280530


Introduction: Membranous nephropathy is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome. Among the available treatment options, the tried and tested regimen is the modified Ponticelli regimen. Despite adequate therapy, studies have shown that close to one-quarter of patients fail to attain complete remission. However, data is limited regarding patients who are resistant to this regimen. Method(s): This was an ambispective, observational study conducted in Madras Medical College, Chennai, India between April 2021 to August 2022. All patients with biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy resistant to modified Ponticelli regimen were included. Complete remission was defined as proteinuria < 0.5g/day combined with a stable eGFR. Partial remission was defined as reduction of proteinuria by 50% to < 3.5g/day but >0.5g/day. Resistance to therapy was defined as the failure to attain at least partial remission, 12 months after completion of modified Ponticelli regimen. Result(s): A total of 13 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 41 years (IQR 38-49) with a male preponderance (n=9;69%). Serum MPLA2R antibody was positive for 9 patients. All patients were negative for ANA and serology for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV were negative. The most common clinical presentation was with nephrotic syndrome, seen in nine patients (69.23%). Renal failure was seen at presentation in 4 patients (30.76%), with one patient warranting initiation of hemodialysis. At 12 months, post completion of modified Ponticelli regimen, the median quantum of proteinuria was 8.7 grams per day. Due to trend towards normalisation of serum albumin and immunological remission, 3 patients were managed with optimised RAS inhibition after modified Ponticelli regimen. Currently, they are in partial remission. Four patients were treated with a second course of modified Ponticelli regimen. Of them one patient is in partial remission, while two patients had progressed to end-stage renal disease and are currently on maintenance hemodialysis. One patient who was resistant to the second course, was managed with a trial of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) therapy followed by 4 doses of Rituximab (500mg each) due to persistent proteinuria. However, he was lost to follow up during the COVID pandemic and presented with end stage renal disease warranting hemodialysis. A trial of CNI therapy was given to 6 patients. All patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria 12 months post CNI therapy initiation. Five patients were then given Rituximab, among whom, two patients attained complete remission, while three patients have attained immunological and clinical remission. One patient was given a second trial of modified Ponticelli regimen following CNI therapy and is currently in complete remission. Two of these patients developed thrombotic complications - one patient diagnosed with coronary artery disease and one patient with renal vein thrombosis. Conclusion(s): Rituximab is a promising option for patients with primary membranous nephropathy who do not respond to modified Ponticelli regimen. No conflict of interestCopyright © 2023

Kidney International Reports ; 7(9):S471, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2041699


Introduction: Vaccination is a known trigger for the development of de-novo or flare of glomerular diseases. Here we present a case series of fourteen patients with COVID vaccine- associated glomerular diseases (CVAGD). Methods: Patients with new onset proteinuria, hematuria or renal failure after SARS- CoV2 vaccine were included in the study. Demographic and clinical details were collected and laboratory investigations including serum creatinine, albumin, urine microscopy and urine spot protein creatinine ratio were done. Renal biopsy specimens were subjected to light microscopy and immunofluorescence examination. Results: We cared for 14 patients with CVAGD. Of them, eight patients were males. The mean age was 25.7 years. Three patients had relapse of their previous disease while eleven patients had no previously detected renal diseases. Eleven patients had received COVISHIELD and three had received COVAXIN. All patients presented after the first vaccine dose. At presentation, seven patients had nephrotic syndrome, two patients had rapidly progressive renal failure and five patients had nephritic syndrome. The mean duration of symptom onset after vaccination was 18 days. Renal biopsy revealed IgA nephropathy in 3 patients, endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis in 2 patients, minimal change disease in 5 patients, pauci- immune glomerulonephritis (ANCA associated vasculitis) in one patient, lupus nephritis ISN/RPS class 3 in one and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two patients. There was no history of COVID infection in any of our patients. Three patients had renal failure at presentation but none required renal replacement therapy. The patients with MCD and FSGS were treated with steroids, patients with ANCA vasculitis and lupus nephritis were managed with the appropriate Cyclophosphamide and steroid regimens while the others were managed conservatively with anti-proteinuric medications. On follow up, five patients (One IgAN, three MCD, one endocapillary proliferative GN) achieved complete remission of proteinuria and resolution of renal failure, while the remaining eight patients achieved partial remission. One patient with MCD had a relapse of proteinuria 3 weeks after achieving partial remission, he responded well to steroid therapy. All 14 patients remain on close follow up. Conclusions: Although causality cannot be definitively established, there is a definite temporal association between the presentation of glomerular diseases and COVID vaccination, in the absence of other inciting factors. Hence, new-onset or relapse of glomerular diseases presenting post vaccination, although rare, should be observed as a possible adverse event. Intriguing questions such as how to proceed with the vaccination schedule in patients with CVAGD and would changing the vaccine type reduce the risk of relapse remain unanswered. No conflict of interest

Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S343-S344, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1702701


Introduction: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening angio-invasive infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. In India, the second wave of the COVID pandemic, primarily driven by the delta variant, led to a surge in cases of mucormycosis. The majority of these cases occurred following recovery from COVID, and resulted in increased morbidity and mortality. Here we present a series of five kidney transplant recipients (KTR’s) who presented with COVID-related mucormycosis. Methods: This is a single-centre, prospective, observational study that included all KTRs who presented to Madras Medical College with COVID-related mucormycosis between May 2021 and August 2021. Relevant clinical details and laboratory data were collected, therapeutic interventions were recorded, and outcomes of hospitalization were noted. Results: Five patients developed COVID-related mucormycosis during the study period. Their clinical details and hospital course are summarized in Table 1. Only one patient had received COVID vaccination (2 doses of covishield). All patients had underlying post-transplant diabetes mellitus, with severe hyperglycemia at admission. They all received intravenous dexamethasone for COVID pneumonia. Mucormycosis developed 10-21 days after recovery from COVID in four patients;one patient developed both infections concurrently. All patients received liposomal Amphotericin B, with four patients also undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Acute graft dysfunction occurred in all five patients;three had complete renal recovery, one had partial renal recovery, and one patient died during hospitalisation. [Formula presented] Conclusions: All five KTR’s in our series who developed COVID-related mucormycosis had acute graft dysfunction. They all had multiple risk factors that included elements of hyperglycemia, sepsis and nephrotoxic drugs (amphotericin B). Four of our five patients recovered, with only one case succumbing to the infection No conflict of interest