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2.
mBio ; : e0009922, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736029

ABSTRACT

Recently, highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.618 with mutations within the spike proteins were identified in India. The spike protein of Kappa contains the four mutations E154K, L452R, E484Q, and P681R, and Delta contains L452R, T478K, and P681R, while B.1.618 spike harbors mutations Δ145-146 and E484K. However, it remains unknown whether these variants have alterations in their entry efficiency, host tropism, and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies as well as entry inhibitors. In this study, we found that Kappa, Delta, or B.1.618 spike uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with no or slightly increased efficiency, while it gains a significantly increased binding affinity with mouse, marmoset, and koala ACE2 orthologs, which exhibit limited binding with wild-type (WT) spike. Furthermore, the P681R mutation leads to enhanced spike cleavage, which could facilitate viral entry. In addition, Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618 exhibit a reduced sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent-phase sera due to the mutation E484Q, T478K, Δ145-146, or E484K, but remain sensitive to entry inhibitors such as ACE2-Ig decoy receptor. Collectively, our study revealed that enhanced human and mouse ACE2 receptor engagement, increased spike cleavage, and reduced sensitivity to neutralization antibodies of Kappa, Delta and B.1.618 may contribute to the rapid spread of these variants. Furthermore, our results also highlight that ACE2-Ig could be developed as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of pandemic COVID-19, is rapidly evolving to be more transmissible and to exhibit evasive immune properties, compromising neutralization by antibodies from vaccinated individuals or convalescent-phase sera. Recently, SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.618 with mutations within the spike proteins were identified in India. In this study, we examined cell entry efficiencies of Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618. In addition, the variants, especially the Delta variant, exhibited expanded capabilities to use mouse, marmoset, and koala ACE2 for entry. Convalescent sera from patients infected with nonvariants showed reduced neutralization titers among the Kappa, Delta, and B.1.618 variants. Furthermore, the variants remain sensitive to ACE2-Ig decoy receptor. Our study thus could facilitate understanding how variants have increased transmissibility and evasion of established immunity and also could highlight the use of an ACE2 decoy receptor as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 548-551, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642258

ABSTRACT

The neutralizing antibody is a potential therapeutic for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As an antiviral agent, numerous mAbs recognize the epitopes that overlap with ACE2-binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2-RBD. Some studies have shown that residual changes on the spike protein can significantly decrease the efficiency of neutralizing antibodies. To address this issue, a therapeutic cocktail could be an effective countermeasure. In the present study, we isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, JS026, from a convalescent patient. The comparative analysis revealed that JS026 binding to SARS-CoV-2-RBD mainly located between epitopes for class 2 and class 3 mAbs as opposed to that of class 1 (etesevimab) antibodies. A cocktail of etesevimab and JS026 increased neutralizing efficacy against both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the recent emergence of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants. JS026 and the cocktail reduced virus titers in the infected lungs of hACE2 transgenic mice and relieved pathological changes. These findings would benefit antibody-based therapeutic countermeasures in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581335

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge and spread around the world, antibodies and vaccines to confer broad and potent neutralizing activity are urgently needed. Through the isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, we identified one antibody, P36-5D2, capable of neutralizing the major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Crystal and electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure analyses revealed that P36-5D2 targeted to a conserved epitope on the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, withstanding the three key mutations-K417N, E484K, and N501Y-found in the variants that are responsible for escape from many potent neutralizing mAbs, including some already approved for emergency use authorization (EUA). A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of P36-5D2 as a prophylactic treatment completely protected animals from challenge of infectious SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta. Treated animals manifested normal body weight and were devoid of infection-associated death up to 14 days. A substantial decrease of the infectious virus in the lungs and brain, as well as reduced lung pathology, was found in these animals compared to the controls. Thus, P36-5D2 represents a new and desirable human antibody against the current and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice
6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296272

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge from the current global pandemic, some of which can replicate faster and with greater transmissibility and pathogenicity. In particular, UK501Y.V1 identified in UK, SA501Y.V2 in South Africa, and BR501Y.V3 in Brazil are raising serious concerns as they spread quickly and contain spike protein mutations that may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here, we constructed a panel of 28 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses bearing single or combined mutations found in the spike protein of these three variants, as well as additional nine mutations that within or close by the major antigenic sites in the spike protein identified in the GISAID database. These pseudoviruses were tested against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including some approved for emergency use to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, and convalescent patient plasma collected early in the pandemic. SA501Y.V2 pseudovirus was the most resistant, in magnitude and breadth, against mAbs and convalescent plasma, followed by BR501Y.V3, and then UK501Y.V1. This resistance hierarchy corresponds with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain as well as K417N/T, E484K and N501Y mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Crystal structural analysis of RBD carrying triple K417N-E484K-N501Y mutations found in SA501Y.V2 bound with mAb P2C-1F11 revealed a molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3 also acquired substantial ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 for entry. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potentially broadening the host range of SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3, which pose serious challenges to our current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1010053, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506691

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to minks in the Netherlands in April 2020. Subsequently, the mink-associated virus (miSARS-CoV-2) spilled back over into humans. Genetic sequences of the miSARS-CoV-2 identified a new genetic variant known as "Cluster 5" that contained mutations in the spike protein. However, the functional properties of these "Cluster 5" mutations have not been well established. In this study, we found that the Y453F mutation located in the RBD domain of miSARS-CoV-2 is an adaptive mutation that enhances binding to mink ACE2 and other orthologs of Mustela species without compromising, and even enhancing, its ability to utilize human ACE2 as a receptor for entry. Structural analysis suggested that despite the similarity in the overall binding mode of SARS-CoV-2 RBD to human and mink ACE2, Y34 of mink ACE2 was better suited to interact with a Phe rather than a Tyr at position 453 of the viral RBD due to less steric clash and tighter hydrophobic-driven interaction. Additionally, the Y453F spike exhibited resistance to convalescent serum, posing a risk for vaccine development. Thus, our study suggests that since the initial transmission from humans, SARS-CoV-2 evolved to adapt to the mink host, leading to widespread circulation among minks while still retaining its ability to efficiently utilize human ACE2 for entry, thus allowing for transmission of the miSARS-CoV-2 back into humans. These findings underscore the importance of active surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 evolution in Mustela species and other susceptible hosts in order to prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host Adaptation , Mink/immunology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mink/virology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
8.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0149221, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476391

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in more than 235 million cases worldwide and 4.8 million deaths (October 2021), with various incidences and mortalities among regions/ethnicities. The coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-NL63 utilize the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter cells. We hypothesized that the genetic variability in ACE2 may contribute to the variable clinical outcomes of COVID-19. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted an in silico investigation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of ACE2. We then applied an integrated approach of genetics, biochemistry, and virology to explore the capacity of select ACE2 variants to bind coronavirus spike proteins and mediate viral entry. We identified the ACE2 D355N variant that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently limits infection both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, ACE2 polymorphisms could modulate susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may lead to variable disease severity. IMPORTANCE There is considerable variation in disease severity among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Human genetic variation can affect disease outcome, and the coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-NL63 utilize human ACE2 as the receptor to enter cells. We found that several missense ACE2 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that showed significantly altered binding with the spike proteins of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and NL63-HCoV. We identified an ACE2 SNP, D355N, that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently has the potential to protect individuals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study highlights that ACE2 polymorphisms could impact human susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may contribute to ethnic and geographical differences in SARS-CoV-2 spread and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5654, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440471

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MASCp36, during in vivo passaging. All three RBD mutations significantly enhance binding affinity to its endogenous receptor, ACE2. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of human ACE2 (hACE2), or mouse ACE2 (mACE2), in complex with the RBD of MASCp36, at 3.1 to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals the molecular basis for the receptor-binding switch. N501Y and Q493H enhance the binding affinity to hACE2, whereas triple mutations at N501Y/Q493H/K417N decrease affinity and reduce infectivity of MASCp36. Our study provides a platform for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and unveils the molecular mechanism for its rapid adaptation and evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1611-1621.e5, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260761

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge during the global pandemic and may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here we showed that the South African variant B.1.351 was the most resistant to current monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals, followed by the Brazilian variant P.1 and the United Kingdom variant B.1.1.7. This resistance hierarchy corresponded with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain and K417N/T, E484K, and N501Y mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structure analysis of the B.1.351 triple mutant (417N-484K-501Y) RBD complexed with the monoclonal antibody P2C-1F11 revealed the molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. B.1.351 and P.1 also acquired the ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 receptors for entry. Our results demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potential broadening of the host range for B.1.351 and P.1 variants, which poses serious challenges to current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antigenic Variation/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mice , Mink , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009392, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus interaction with its viral receptor is a primary genetic determinant of host range and tissue tropism. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE2 as the receptor to enter host cell in a species-specific manner. We and others have previously shown that ACE2 orthologs from New World monkey, koala and mouse cannot interact with SARS-CoV-2 to mediate viral entry, and this defect can be restored by humanization of the restrictive residues in New World monkey ACE2. To better understand the genetic determinants behind the ability of ACE2 orthologs to support viral entry, we compared koala and mouse ACE2 sequences with that of human and identified the key residues in koala and mouse ACE2 that restrict viral receptor activity. Humanization of these critical residues rendered both koala and mouse ACE2 capable of binding the spike protein and facilitating viral entry. Our study shed more lights into the genetic determinants of ACE2 as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates our understanding of viral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice/genetics , Mice/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phascolarctidae/genetics , Phascolarctidae/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1607, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132069

ABSTRACT

In recognizing the host cellular receptor and mediating fusion of virus and cell membranes, the spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is the most critical viral protein for cross-species transmission and infection. Here we determined the cryo-EM structures of the spikes from bat (RaTG13) and pangolin (PCoV_GX) coronaviruses, which are closely related to SARS-CoV-2. All three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of these two spike trimers are in the "down" conformation, indicating they are more prone to adopt the receptor-binding inactive state. However, we found that the PCoV_GX, but not the RaTG13, spike is comparable to the SARS-CoV-2 spike in binding the human ACE2 receptor and supporting pseudovirus cell entry. We further identified critical residues in the RBD underlying different activities of the RaTG13 and PCoV_GX/SARS-CoV-2 spikes. These results collectively indicate that tight RBD-ACE2 binding and efficient RBD conformational sampling are required for the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 to gain highly efficient infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/genetics , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Evolution, Molecular , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Protein Domains , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117490

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its host receptor is a key genetic determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter host cells in a species-dependent manner. In this study, we characterized the ability of ACE2 from diverse species to support viral entry. By analyzing the conservation of five residues in two virus-binding hotspots of ACE2 (hotspot 31Lys and hotspot 353Lys), we predicted 80 ACE2 proteins from mammals that could potentially mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. We chose 48 ACE2 orthologs among them for functional analysis, and showed that 44 of these orthologs-including domestic animals, pets, livestock, and animals commonly found in zoos and aquaria-could bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. In contrast, New World monkey ACE2 orthologs could not bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. We further identified the genetic determinant of New World monkey ACE2 that restricts viral entry using genetic and functional analyses. These findings highlight a potentially broad host tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be distributed much more widely than previously recognized, underscoring the necessity to monitor susceptible hosts to prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
14.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100027, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694046

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia, which was named COVID-2019, emerged as a global health crisis. Scientists worldwide are engaged in attempts to elucidate the transmission and pathogenic mechanisms of the causative coronavirus. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, making it critical to track and review the state of research on COVID-19 to provide guidance for further investigations. Here, bibliometric and knowledge mapping analyses of studies on COVID-19 were performed, including more than 1,500 papers on COVID-19 available in the PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases from January 1, 2020 to March 8, 2020. In this review, we found that because of the rapid response of researchers worldwide, the number of COVID-19-related publications showed a high growth trend in the first 10 days of February; among these, the largest number of studies originated in China, the country most affected by pandemic in its early stages. Our findings revealed that the epidemic situation and data accessibility of different research teams have caused obvious difference in emphases of the publications. Besides, there was an unprecedented level of close cooperation and information sharing within the global scientific community relative to previous coronavirus research. We combed and drew the knowledge map of the SARS-CoV-2 literature, explored early status of research on etiology, pathology, epidemiology, treatment, prevention, and control, and discussed knowledge gaps that remain to be urgently addressed. Future perspectives on treatment, prevention, and control are also presented to provide fundamental references for current and future coronavirus research.

15.
Nature ; 584(7819): 115-119, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global health emergency that is in urgent need of intervention1-3. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into its target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)2,4-6. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from single B cells from 8 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. We identified antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2; this activity correlates with competition with ACE2 for binding to RBD. Unexpectedly, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the infected plasma did not cross-react with the RBDs of SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although there was substantial plasma cross-reactivity to their trimeric spike proteins. Analysis of the crystal structure of RBD-bound antibody revealed that steric hindrance inhibits viral engagement with ACE2, thereby blocking viral entry. These findings suggest that anti-RBD antibodies are largely viral-species-specific inhibitors. The antibodies identified here may be candidates for development of clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Child , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/immunology , Cross Reactions , Crystallization , Crystallography, X-Ray , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Nature ; 581(7807): 215-220, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19579

ABSTRACT

A new and highly pathogenic coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, starting from December 2019 that quickly spread nationwide and to other countries around the world1-3. Here, to better understand the initial step of infection at an atomic level, we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 bound to the cell receptor ACE2. The overall ACE2-binding mode of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD is nearly identical to that of the SARS-CoV RBD, which also uses ACE2 as the cell receptor4. Structural analysis identified residues in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD that are essential for ACE2 binding, the majority of which either are highly conserved or share similar side chain properties with those in the SARS-CoV RBD. Such similarity in structure and sequence strongly indicate convergent evolution between the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV RBDs for improved binding to ACE2, although SARS-CoV-2 does not cluster within SARS and SARS-related coronaviruses1-3,5. The epitopes of two SARS-CoV antibodies that target the RBD are also analysed for binding to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, providing insights into the future identification of cross-reactive antibodies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Conserved Sequence , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Salts/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Water/analysis , Water/chemistry
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