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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5741, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837258

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the experiences by distance learning (DL) method during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy, and to search for correlations with purported experiences and respective levels of social determinants of health (SDH). Study design and methods: Cross-sectional online survey, investigating various SDH and parents’ attitude towards DL, proposed 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic to a sample population of parents with school-aged children throughout Italy. Results: A total of 3791 questionnaires were analyzed. Non-Italian parents complained more frequently of difficulties in providing support to their children in DL due to poor digital skills (p = 0.01), lack of good-quality digital equipment (p = 0.01), problems with the Italian language (p < 0.001), and a lower level of education (p < 0.001). When parents lived apart, greater difficulties in concentration in children using DL (p = 0.05) and a lower parental capacity to support DL (p = 0.002) were reported. Adequate digital structures appeared related to living in owned compared to rented property, higher levels of parental education, and better familial financial situations. Conclusions: Students from families with financial difficulties and low levels of parental education, or even those living in houses for rent or having separated parents, may be disadvantaged in an educational context since the introduction of DL.

2.
Children ; 9(4):491, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776146

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology, disease severity, and microbiology of bronchiolitis in Italy during the 2021–2022 cold season, outside of lockdowns. Before COVID-19, the usual bronchiolitis season in Italy would begin in November and end in April, peaking in February. We performed a prospective observational study in four referral pediatric centers located in different geographical areas in Italy (two in the north, one in the center and one in the south). From 1 July 2021 to 31 January 2022, we collected all new clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis in children younger than two years of age recording demographic, clinical and microbiological data. A total of 657 children with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis were enrolled;56% children were admitted and 5.9% required PICU admission. The first cases were detected during the summer, peaking in November 2021 and declining into December 2021 with only a few cases detected in January 2022. RSV was the commonest etiological agent, while SARS-CoV-2 was rarely detected and only since the end of December 2021. Disease severity was similar in children with RSV vs. non-RSV bronchiolitis, and in those with a single infectious agent detected compared with children with co-infections. The 2021–2022 bronchiolitis season in Italy started and peaked earlier than the usual pre-pandemic seasons, but had a shorter duration. Importantly, the current bronchiolitis season was not more severe when data were compared with Italian published data, and SARS-CoV-2 was rarely a cause of bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months of age.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329750

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease can give a range of skin manifestations, some of which specific to children and young patients. Given the different nature of the lesions in specific stages of the disease and the fact that they may be the only or predominant symptom of the disease, it is of great importance for the pediatrician and dermatologist to be familiar with COVID-19 skin lesions. The aim of this systematic review, conducted according to the PRISMA statement, is to investigate COVID-19-associated cutaneous involvement in children in terms of type of skin lesions, frequency, and time of onset, with the exclusion of those associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. A comprehensive literature search will be performed through PubMed between December 2019 and December 2021. The quality of each study will be assessed according to the STROBE tool for observational studies. This systematic review will provide evidence about the dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 disease in children published up to the end of year 2021. Recognizing skin symptoms as potential manifestations of COVID-19 in children is important for a non-delayed diagnosis, with prompt activation of the adequate tracing, isolation, and hygienic measures, and for timely treatment of unlikely but possible serious complications.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309625

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma exacerbations, a common reason for Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) referral, can be triggered by multiple factors, including infections, air pollution and allergens. Lockdown measures and other public health interventions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic determined radical changes to behavioral and social habits, that were reflected by a reduction in the transmission of all respiratory pathogens and in the emissions of relevant air pollution anthropogenic sources. Objective: This study aims to describe how restrictions during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impacted the PED referral for asthma exacerbations and their potentially associated environmental triggers in densely populated urban areas. Methods: PED referrals for acute asthma from 2015 to 2020 were compared to air pollution and pollen data. To this purpose, historical daily concentration records of PM2.5, PM10 (including specific chemical tracers), as well as NO2, C6H6, tree, grass and weed pollen were analyzed. Results: In 2020, asthma-related PED referrals decreased up to 85%, compared to the average referral rate of the previous 5 years (P<0.01). The drastic drop in PED referrals was associated with a reduction of high-priority cases by 50-60%, unlike PED referrals for overall diagnoses, showing a larger contribution for severe outcomes. A concomitant diminished contribution of traffic-related air pollution was shown. Conclusions: The lower rate of asthma exacerbations in childhood can be related to synergic interactions of the multiple effects of lockdown measures which induced lower viral infection rates and decreased exposure to outdoor allergens. The reduction of traffic-related air pollution determined a weakening of inflammatory properties of urban PM.

5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 7, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634416

ABSTRACT

The fast diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have called for an equally rapid evolution of the therapeutic options.The Human recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) in subjects aged ≥12 with SARS-CoV-2 infection and specific risk factors.Currently the indications are specific for the use of two different mAbs combination: Bamlanivimab+Etesevimab (produced by Eli Lilly) and Casirivimab+Imdevimab (produced by Regeneron).These drugs have shown favorable effects in adult patients in the initial phase of infection, whereas to date few data are available on their use in children.AIFA criteria derived from the existing literature which reports an increased risk of severe COVID-19 in children with comorbidities. However, the studies analyzing the determinants for progression to severe disease are mainly monocentric, with limited numbers and reporting mostly generic risk categories.Thus, the Italian Society of Pediatrics invited its affiliated Scientific Societies to produce a Consensus document based on the revision of the criteria proposed by AIFA in light of the most recent literature and experts' agreement.This Consensus tries to detail which patients actually have the risk to develop severe disease, analyzing the most common comorbidities in children, in order to detail the indications for mAbs administration and to guide the clinicians in identifying eligible patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Patient Selection , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Drug Combinations , Humans , Italy , Risk Factors , Societies, Medical
6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470995

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). However, rapid antigen detection kits (Ag-RDTs), may offer advantages over NAAT in mass screening, generating results in minutes, both as laboratory-based test or point-of-care (POC) use for clinicians, at a lower cost. We assessed two different POC Ag-RDTs in mass screening versus NAAT for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of IRCCS-Polyclinic of Sant'Orsola, Bologna (from November 2020 to April 2021). All patients were screened with nasopharyngeal swabs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2-RNA and for antigen tests. Results were obtained from 1146 patients. The COVID-19 Ag FIA kit showed a baseline sensitivity of 53.8% (CI 35.4-71.4%), baseline specificity 99.7% (CI 98.4-100%) and overall accuracy of 80% (95% CI 0.68-0.91); the AFIAS COVID-19 Ag kit, baseline sensitivity of 86.4% (CI 75.0-93.9%), baseline specificity 98.3% (CI 97.1-99.1%) and overall accuracy of 95.3% (95% CI 0.92-0.99). In both tests, some samples showed very low viral load and negative Ag-RDT. This disagreement may reflect the positive inability of Ag-RDTs of detecting antigen in late phase of infection. Among all cases with positive molecular test and negative antigen test, none showed viral loads > 106 copies/mL. Finally, we found one false Ag-RDTs negative result (low cycle thresholds; 9 × 105 copies/mL). Our results suggest that both Ag-RDTs showed good performances in detection of high viral load samples, making it a feasible and effective tool for mass screening in actively infected children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Viral Load/methods , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can trigger cardiovascular manifestations potentially requiring an intensive treatment and defining a new entity named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), whose features partially overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD). A cross-sectional study including all diagnoses of MIS-C and KD from April 2020 to May 2021 in our metropolitan area was conducted evaluating clinical, laboratory (including immunological response, cytokines, and markers of myocardial damage), and cardiac (coronary and non-coronary) features at onset of the diseases. Evolution of ventricular dysfunction, valve regurgitations, and coronary lesions was documented. The severity of the disease was also considered based on the need for inotropic support and ICU admission. Twenty-four MIS-C were diagnosed (14 boys, median age 82 months): 13/24 cases (54.17%) presented left ventricular dysfunction, 12/24 (50%) required inotropic support, and 10/24 (41.67%) developed coronary anomalies (CALs). All patients received steroids and IVIG at a median time of 5 days (IQR1:4, IQR3:6.5) from onset of fever and heart function normalized 6 days (IQR1: 5, IQR3: 7) after therapy, while CALs persisted in one. One patient (12.5%) required infliximab because of refractory disease and still presented CALs 18 days after therapy. During the same study period, 15 KD were diagnosed: none had ventricular dysfunction, while 7/15 (46.67%) developed CALs. Three out of 15 patients (20%) still presented CALs 46 days from onset. Compared to KD, MIS-C pts have significantly higher IL8 and similar lymphocytes subpopulations. Despite a more severe presentation and initial cardiac findings compared to KD, the myocardial injury in MIS-C has a rapid response to immunomodulatory treatment (median time 6 days), in terms of ventricular function, valve regurgitations, and troponin. Incidence of CALs is similar at onset, but it tends to regress in most of the cases of MIS-C differently than in KD where CALs persist in up to 40% in the subacute stage after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 66-74, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic determined radical changes to behavioral and social habits, that were reflected by a reduction in the transmission of respiratory pathogens and in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions. OBJECTIVE: This ecological study aims to provide a descriptive evaluation on how restrictive measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impacted Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) referrals for asthma exacerbations, and their potentially associated environmental triggers in Bologna, a densely populated urban area in Northern Italy. METHODS: Files of children evaluated for acute asthma during 2015 to 2020 at the PED of Sant'Orsola University Hospital of Bologna were retrospectively reviewed. Historical daily concentration records of particulate (PM2.5 , PM10 ) and gaseous (NO2 , C6 H6 ) air pollutants, and pollen were concurrently evaluated, including specific PM chemical tracers for traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). RESULTS: In 2020, asthma-related PED referrals decreased compared to referral rates of the previous 5 years (p < 0.01). This effect was particularly marked during the first lockdown period (March to May), when the drastic drop in PED referrals was associated with a reduction of high-priority cases up to 85% and by 54%, on average. A concomitant reduction in the concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants was observed in the range of 40%-60% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The lower rate of asthma exacerbations in childhood was in this study paralleled with reduced TRAP levels during the pandemic. Synergic interactions of the multiple consequences of lockdowns likely contributed to the reduced exacerbations, including decreased exposure to ambient pollutants and fewer respiratory infections, identified as the most important factor in the literature.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409573

ABSTRACT

Previously, we demonstrated an 81% reduction in pediatric Emergency Room (ER) visits in Italy during the strict lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Since May 2020, lockdown measures were relaxed until 6 November 2020, when a strict lockdown was patchily reintroduced. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the relaxed lockdown on pediatric ER visits in Italy. We performed a retrospective multicenter study involving 14 Italian pediatric ERs. We compared total ER visits from 24 September 2020 to 6 November 2020 with those during the corresponding timeframe in 2019. We evaluated 17 ER specific diagnoses grouped in air communicable and non-air communicable diseases. We recognized four different triage categories: white, green, yellow and red. In 2020 total ER visits were reduced by 51% compared to 2019 (16,088 vs. 32,568, respectively). The decrease in air communicable diseases was significantly higher if compared to non-air communicable diseases (-64% vs. -42%, respectively). ER visits in each triage category decreased in 2020 compared to 2019, but in percentage, white and red codes remained stable, while yellow codes slightly increased and green codes slightly decreased. Our results suggest that preventive measures drastically reduced the circulation of air communicable diseases even during the reopening of social activities but to a lesser extent with regard to the strict lockdown period (March-May 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 714-721, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have a milder clinical course than adults. We describe the spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations during a COVID-19 outbreak in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed, including all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD), myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from February to April 2020. KD patients were compared with those diagnosed before the epidemic. RESULTS: KD: 8 patients (6/8 boys, all negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]): complete presentation in 5/8, 7/8 immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders, and 3/8 showed transient coronary lesions (CALs). Myocarditis: one 5-year-old girl negative for SARS-CoV-2 and positive for parvovirus B19. She responded to IVIG. MIS-C: 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive boys (3 patients with positive swab and serology and 1 patient with negative swab and positive serology): 3 presented myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion, and 1 developed multicoronary aneurysms and hyperinflammation; all responded to treatment. The fourth boy had mitral and aortic regurgitation that rapidly regressed after steroids. CONCLUSIONS: KD, myocarditis, and MIS-C were distinguishable cardiovascular manifestations. KD did not show a more aggressive form compared with previous years: coronary involvement was frequent but always transient. MIS-C and myocarditis rapidly responded to treatment without cardiac sequelae despite high markers of myocardial injury at the onset, suggesting a myocardial depression due to systemic inflammation rather than focal necrosis. Evidence of actual or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented only in patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
12.
Children (Basel) ; 8(7)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288814

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic restrictions have deeply altered the common respiratory illnesses burden. The aim of this paper was to clarify how these measures may have influenced bronchiolitis epidemiology, exploring possible explanations. We studied 342 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis at our center from four different epidemic seasons (October-April 2017-2018, 2018-2019, 2019-2020 and 2020-2021). March-April hospitalization rate, RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) infection, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and oxygen therapy administration data were compared among different seasons to outline any changes during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. In March-April, 30 (23.1%), 28 (24.6%) and 5 (5.1%) infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis, respectively, in 2017-2018, 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, with a lower rate in March-April 2020 (p < 0.001). No hospitalizations for bronchiolitis occurred during the epidemic season of 2020-2021. No significant differences in RSV infections, oxygen therapy administration and PICU admissions across seasons were outlined. In conclusion, we report a severe decrease in hospitalizations for bronchiolitis at our center throughout the entire SARS-CoV-2 outbreak rather than only during the lockdown periods. This seems to suggest a pivotal role for the systematic implementation of cost-effective non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as compulsory face masks and hand hygiene, which were deployed for the entire pandemic, in reducing the circulation of infectious agents.

14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 130, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic led to significant lifestyle changes for children and adolescents mainly related to the closure of schools and recreational activities, reduced social interaction, and increased family concerns. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 78 questions investigating social determinants of health, mood changes, symptoms of anxiety, increase in sleep disorders and unusual repetitive movements was offered to parents living in Italy with children ≤18 years; including families of children with disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, chronic diseases, and specific learning disabilities. The survey was conducted on the Qualtrics platform 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic and distributed in hospitals and paediatricians' waiting rooms as well as through social networks. The primary outcomes were the increase in sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Possible risk factors were investigated through multivariable regression. RESULTS: Six thousand two hundred ten volunteer parents responded to the questions concerning mood changes, sleep disorders and unusual repetitive movements, and were included in the present study. The majority were female (91.8%) and Italian (97.0%). 72.7% answered that their children had become more nervous, worried, or sad (80.2% in children with learning disabilities); 77.6% reported feelings of loneliness and 69.3% more difficulties in children falling asleep, 30.2% in staying asleep, and 18.7% an increase in nightmares and/or sleep terrors. Statistical analysis identified socioeconomic status, parent's job loss, food insecurity, family attitude toward the pandemic, and children's mood swing, feelings of loneliness, or missing outdoor activities, as major risk factors for sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: The first Covid-19 lockdown impacted children's and adolescents' health through an increase in sleep disorders. In the following phases of the pandemic, this evidence may be useful to investigate and treat these disorders as well as make decisions about containment health policies concerning this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178247

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread, becoming the first pandemic of the 21st century by number of deaths (over 2,000,000 worldwide). Many aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents remain unclear, and optimal treatment has not yet been defined. Therefore, our goal was to develop a consensus document, practically synthesizing the accumulated data and clinical experience of our expert group. Literature research was carried out using the keywords "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" and "children" or "pediatrics" and "prevention" or "diagnosis" or "MIS-C" or "treatment" in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED), existing guidelines and gray literature. The fact that the majority of the problems posed by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric age do not need hospital care and that, therefore, infected children and adolescents can be managed at home highlights the need for a strengthening of territorial pediatric structures. The sharing of hospitalization and therapeutic management criteria for severe cases between professionals is essential to ensure a fair approach based on the best available knowledge. Moreover, the activity of social and health professionals must also include the description, management and limitation of psychophysical-relational damage resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the health of children and adolescents, whether or not affected by COVID-19. Due to the characteristics of COVID-19 pathology in pediatric age, the importance of strengthening the network between hospital and territorial pediatrics, school, educational, social and family personnel both for strictly clinical management and for the reduction in discomfort, with priority in children of more frail families, represents a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Adolescent , Child , Consensus , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 649358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167356

ABSTRACT

Background: Many aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents remain unclear and optimal treatment is debated. The objective of our study was to investigate epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection, focusing on risk factors for complicated and critical disease. Methods: The present multicenter Italian study was promoted by the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, involving both pediatric hospitals and general pediatricians/family doctors. All subjects under 18 years of age with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and referred to the coordinating center were enrolled from March 2020. Results: As of 15 September 2020, 759 children were enrolled (median age 7.2 years, IQR 1.4; 12.4). Among the 688 symptomatic children, fever was the most common symptom (81.9%). Barely 47% of children were hospitalized for COVID-19. Age was inversely related to hospital admission (p < 0.01) and linearly to length of stay (p = 0.014). One hundred forty-nine children (19.6%) developed complications. Comorbidities were risk factors for complications (p < 0.001). Viral coinfections, underlying clinical conditions, age 5-9 years and lymphopenia were statistically related to ICU admission (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Complications of COVID-19 in children are related to comorbidities and increase with age. Viral co-infections are additional risk factors for disease progression and multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporarily related to COVID-19 (MIS-C) for ICU admission.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 761-765, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064346

ABSTRACT

A 6-year-old African boy with multi-viral infection including parvovirus B19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was admitted for persistent fever associated with respiratory distress and myocarditis complicated by cardiogenic shock needing ventilatory and inotropic support. Coronary aneurysms were also documented in the acute phase. Blood tests were suggestive of macrophage activation syndrome. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, aspirin, diuretics, dexamethasone, hydroxychloroquine, and prophylactic low molecular weight heparin. Normalization of cardiac performance and coronary diameters was noticed within the first days. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, performed 20 days after the hospitalization, evidenced mild myocardial interstitial oedema with no focal necrosis, suggesting a mechanism of cardiac stunning related to cytokines storm rather than direct viral injury of cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Aneurysm/pathology , Echocardiography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006938

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and subsequent containment measures are causing an increase in food insecurity (FI) worldwide, with direct consequences on children's nutrition. We aimed to investigate the effects of the lockdown imposed in Italy on FI and changes in eating habits and body weight in the pediatric population 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic through a cross-sectional online survey proposed to parents of children <18 and living in Italy. Among 5811 respondents, most of whom were Italian, living in Northern Italy, and with a wealthy household economy, 8.3% reported that their families were at risk of FI before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 and, alarmingly, this percentage increased to 16.2% after the pandemic began, with households from Southern Italy being more at risk. Moreover, 27.3% of the parents reported that their children were eating more; an increase in "junk food" consumption was also found; 31.8% of the respondents declared an increase in children's weight; weight loss prevailed among adolescents. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is again requiring restrictions, our findings might serve as a warning to politicians to promote healthy lifestyles and provide assistance to the groups in need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Parents , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 575290, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955295

ABSTRACT

In most children, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild or moderate disease. Moreover, in a relevant number of cases, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains totally asymptomatic. All these findings seem to suggest that otherwise healthy children with suspected COVID-19 might be managed in the community in most cases, thus avoiding hospital admission and closely related medical, social and economic problems, including overwhelming hospitals. Unfortunately, home management of children with suspected COVID-19 rarely occurs, and many children with suspected or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection are frequently hospitalized irrespective of the severity of disease. To evaluate the role of community health houses (CHHs) in the management of children with COVID-19, 1,009 children with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were studied in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. Among them, 194 (19.2%) resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. The majority (583, 58%) were tested at home by CHHs, while 426 (42%) were brought to the hospital for testing. The patients who were managed in the hospital had a significantly lower median age than those who were managed at home (2 vs. 12 years, p < 0.001). Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 cases within the family was significantly more frequent among those who were managed at home (82 vs. 46%, p < 0.05). The clinical findings were similar between the children who were managed at home and those who were managed in the hospital. Only one of the children managed at home (0.7%) required hospitalization; in comparison, 26 (48%) of those whose swab samples were taken at the hospital were hospitalized. Our research shows for the first time the importance of CHHs in the management of COVID-19 in children; because of the high frequency of mild to moderate cases, management by CHHs can reduce the care load in hospitals, providing enormous advantages on the familial, medical, social, and economic levels. These findings could be useful for suggesting a territorial rather than hospital-based strategy in pediatrics in the case of a new wave of the epidemic.

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