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3.
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821174
5.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1800136

ABSTRACT

Objective People with Down syndrome (DS) are particularly vulnerable to Covid-19 and show altered immune response to vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the immune response of a group of adults with DS treated with standard regimens of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine as compared with an aged- and sex-matched group of persons without DS. Methods We compared antibody responses between 42 subjects with DS (41.6 ±10.8 years, 57% male), and an age- and sex-matched comparison group of healthy health care workers (HCW) (41.4±8.8 years, 54.8% male) after SARS-CoV2 vaccination with the standard regimen of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19. Receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies were assessed at 4 time points (baseline, 21 days after the first dose, 21 days after the second dose and 6 months after the first dose) with Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG (COV2G) antibody test. Results We observed significantly different antibody responses at all time points after vaccination (HCW vs. DS: 7.9±3.9 vs. 1.4±3.6 IU/ml at 21 days after first dose;358.5±3.8 vs. 38.1±3.0 IU/ml at 21 days after second dose;34.6±2.4 vs. 7.9±3.1 IU/ml at 6 months after vaccination) and a significantly different time course of decline in antibody titers between the two groups. Conclusions Subjects with DS have a valid antibody response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination. However, this response is lower than that of subjects in the HCW group. This finding could indicate a more rapid decline in the protective effects of the vaccination in subjects with DS and could suggest that people with DS may benefit from a booster dose of vaccine.

6.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221079956, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794045

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods: We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion: Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

7.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(7):1774, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762610

ABSTRACT

Background: Endothelial dysfunction has a role in acute COVID-19, contributing to systemic inflammatory syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and vascular events. Evidence regarding COVID-19 middle- and long-term consequences on endothelium are still lacking. Our study aimed to evaluate if COVID-19 severity could significantly affect the endothelial function after three months from the acute phase. Methods: We assessed endothelial function in outpatients with previous COVID-19 three months after negative SARS-CoV-2 molecular test by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients categorized according to a four-variable COVID-19 severity scale ('home care';;'hospital, no oxygen';;'hospital, oxygen';;'hospital requiring high-flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation';). FMD difference among COVID-19 severity categories was assessed with analysis of variance;we further clarified the relationship between FMD and previous COVID-19 severity with multivariate logistic models. Results: Among 658 consecutive COVID-19 subjects, we observed a significant linear trend of FMD reduction with the increase of the COVID-19 category (p < 0.0001). The presence of endothelial dysfunction was more frequent among hospitalized patients (78.3%) with respect to home-care patients (21.7%;p < 0.0001). COVID-19 severity was associated with increased endothelial dysfunction risk (OR: 1.354;95% CI: 1.06–1.71;p = 0.011) at multivariate binary logistic analysis. FMD showed a significant direct correlation with PaO2 (p = 0.004), P/F ratio (p = 0.004), FEV1 (p = 0.008), and 6MWT (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 subjects showed an impaired endothelial function three months after the acute phase that correlated with pulmonary function impairment. Further studies are needed to evaluate if these subjects are at higher risk of developing pulmonary disease or future cardiovascular events.

8.
Clinics in geriatric medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749619

ABSTRACT

SYNOPSIS Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) negatively impacts several organs and systems weeks or months after initial diagnosis, a condition defined as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 or long COVID. Skeletal muscle can be affected, leading to fatigue, lower mobility, weakness, and poor physical performance. Older adults are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms during long COVID. Systemic inflammation, physical inactivity, and poor nutritional status are some of the mechanisms leading to muscle dysfunction in individuals with long COVID. Current evidence suggests that long COVID negatively impacts body composition, muscle function, and quality of life. Muscle mass and function assessments can contribute towards the identification, diagnosis, and management of poor muscle health resulting from long COVID.

9.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 96, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations of Sars-CoV-2 infection have been described since March 2020 and include both central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. Neurological symptoms, such as headache or persistent loss of smell and taste, have also been documented in COVID-19 long-haulers. Moreover, long lasting fatigue, mild cognitive impairment and sleep disorders appear to be frequent long term neurological manifestations after hospitalization due to COVID-19. Less is known in relation to peripheral nerve injury related to Sars-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 47-year-old female presenting with a unilateral chest pain radiating to the left arm lasting for more than two months after recovery from Sars-CoV-2 infection. After referral to our post-acute outpatient service for COVID-19 long haulers, she was diagnosed with a unilateral, atypical, pure sensory brachial plexus neuritis potentially related to COVID-19, which occurred during the acute phase of a mild Sars-CoV-2 infection and persisted for months after resolution of the infection. CONCLUSIONS: We presented a case of atypical Parsonage-Turner syndrome potentially triggered by Sars-CoV-2 infection, with symptoms and repercussion lasting after viral clearance. A direct involvement of the virus remains uncertain, and the physiopathology is unclear. The treatment of COVID-19 and its long-term consequences represents a relatively new challenge for clinicians and health care providers. A multidisciplinary approach to following-up COVID-19 survivors is strongly advised.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis , COVID-19 , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/diagnosis , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/etiology , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Gerontology & geriatric medicine ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733377

ABSTRACT

Introduction The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693757

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The aim of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection and to provide a definition for this entity, termed 'long COVID'. METHODS: We performed a search of the literature on studies addressing epidemiology, symptoms, assessment, and treatment of long COVID. The recommendations were grouped by these headings and by organ systems for assessment and treatment. An expert opinion definition of long COVID is provided. Symptoms were reviewed by a search of the available literature. For assessment recommendations, we aimed to perform a diagnostic meta-analysis, but no studies provided relevant results. For treatment recommendations we performed a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the PRISMA statement. We aimed to evaluate patient-related outcomes, including quality of life, return to baseline physical activity, and return to work. Quality assessment of studies included in the systematic review is provided according to study design. RECOMMENDATIONS: Evidence was insufficient to provide any recommendation other than conditional guidance. The panel recommends considering routine blood tests, chest imaging, and pulmonary functions tests for patients with persistent respiratory symptoms at 3 months. Other tests should be performed mainly to exclude other conditions according to symptoms. For management, no evidence-based recommendations could be provided. Physical and respiratory rehabilitation should be considered. On the basis of limited evidence, the panel suggests designing high-quality prospective clinical studies/trials, including a control group, to further evaluate the assessment and management of individuals with persistent symptoms of COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315539

ABSTRACT

Background: The follow-up of COVID-19 recovered patients is especially important to assess their infectivity and/or transmissibility statuses in order to maximize the COVID-19 management and containment. The aim of this study was to determine both total (genomic) and replicative (sub-genomic) SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in n asal/ o ropharyngeal s wab (NOS) samples from patients at follow-up times after COVID-19 recovering. Materials: /methods: We tested 176 NOS samples of COVID-19 recovered patients who were followed up at the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS in Rome from 21 April to 18 June 2020, according to our COVID-19 care protocol. The RT-PCR tests were performed using the Allplex™ 2019-nCoV and the Quanty COVID-19 assays (for total RNA detection and quantification, respectively) and an in-house assay (for replicative RNA detection). Results: : Of 176 NOS samples studied, 32 (18.2%) tested positive for total RNA, with C T values ranging from 29.3 to 38.8 for E, RdRP, and N genes (9 samples), 32.2 to 39.3 for RdRP and N genes (7 samples) or 35.8 to 39.8 for the N gene (16 samples). Consistently, viral loads ranged from 1.6 × 10 1 to 1.3 × 10 4 RNA copies/mL. Interestingly, we found replicative RNA in only one of 32 positive samples based on the presence of E-gene sub-genomic RNA ( C T value of 39.1). The C T value (29.3) of E-gene genomic RNA in this sample was the lowest among the C T values of all 9 samples in which the E gene was detected. Testing samples obtained from the 32 patients at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis showed that the C T values ranged from 17.1 to 38.1 for E, RdRP, and N genes. Of note, the mean C T value of E-gene sub-genomic RNA (34.9) in these samples differed of 9.0 ± 2.8 from the mean C T value of E-gene genomic RNA (25.9). Finally, all but one of the 32 patients had positive serology results against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: : Our findings show that at least a proportion of COVID-19 recovered patients were still positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, despite to a lower extent, and that only a minority of them was likely to have actively replicating virus in the upper respiratory tract.

13.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 13(1): 291-304, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a guidance on the management of post-acute COVID 19 patients in geriatric rehabilitation. METHODS: The guidance is based on guidelines for post-acute COVID-19 geriatric rehabilitation developed in the Netherlands, updated with recent insights from literature, related guidance from other countries and disciplines, and combined with experiences from experts in countries participating in the Geriatric Rehabilitation Special Interest Group of the European Geriatric Medicine Society. RESULTS: This guidance for post-acute COVID-19 rehabilitation is divided into a section addressing general recommendations for geriatric rehabilitation and a section addressing specific processes and procedures. The Sect. "General recommendations for geriatric rehabilitation" addresses: (1) general requirements for post-acute COVID-19 rehabilitation and (2) critical aspects for quality assurance during COVID-19 pandemic. The Sect. "Specific processes and procedures", addresses the following topics: (1) patient selection; (2) admission; (3) treatment; (4) discharge; and (5) follow-up and monitoring. CONCLUSION: Providing tailored geriatric rehabilitation treatment to post-acute COVID-19 patients is a challenge for which the guidance is designed to provide support. There is a strong need for additional evidence on COVID-19 geriatric rehabilitation including developing an understanding of risk profiles of older patients living with frailty to develop individualised treatment regimes. The present guidance will be regularly updated based on additional evidence from practice and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Geriatrics , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 714003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394751

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent complication of the clinical course of COVID-19, there is a lack of explicit indications regarding the best algorithm for diagnosing PE in these patients. In particular, it is not clear how to identify subjects who should undergo computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), rather than simply X-ray and/or high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed COVID-19 patients who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) of our University hospital with acute respiratory failure, or that developed acute respiratory failure during hospital stay, to determine how many of them had a theoretical indication to undergo CTPA for suspected PE according to current guidelines. Next, we looked for differences between patients who underwent CTPA and those who only underwent X-ray and/or HRCT of the chest. Finally, we determined whether patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PE had specific characteristics that made them different from those with a CTPA negative for PE. Results: Out of 93 subjects with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure, 73 (78.4%) had an indication to undergo CTPA according to the revised Geneva and Wells scores and the PERC rule-out criteria, and 54 (58%) according to the YEARS algorithm. However, in contrast with these indications, only 28 patients (30.1%) underwent CTPA. Of note, they were not clinically different from those who underwent X-ray and/or HRCT of the chest. Among the 28 subjects who underwent CTPA, there were 10 cases of PE (35.7%). They were not clinically different from those with CTPA negative for PE. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure undergo CTPA, X-ray of the chest, or HRCT without an established criterion. Nonetheless, when CTPA is performed, the diagnosis of PE is anything but rare. Validated tools for identifying COVID-19 patients who require CTPA for suspected PE are urgently needed.

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

18.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346128

ABSTRACT

We explored the potential link between chronic inflammatory arthritis and COVID-19 pathogenic and resolving macrophage pathways and their role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) macrophage clusters FCN1+ and FCN1+SPP1+ predominant in severe COVID-19 were transcriptionally related to synovial tissue macrophage (STM) clusters CD48hiS100A12+ and CD48+SPP1+ that drive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis. BALF macrophage cluster FABP4+ predominant in healthy lung was transcriptionally related to STM cluster TREM2+ that governs resolution of synovitis in RA remission. Plasma concentrations of SPP1 and S100A12 (key products of macrophage clusters shared with active RA) were high in severe COVID-19 and predicted the need for Intensive Care Unit transfer, and they remained high in the post-COVID-19 stage. High plasma levels of SPP1 were unique to severe COVID-19 when compared with other causes of severe pneumonia, and IHC localized SPP1+ macrophages in the alveoli of COVID-19 lung. Investigation into SPP1 mechanisms of action revealed that it drives proinflammatory activation of CD14+ monocytes and development of PD-L1+ neutrophils, both hallmarks of severe COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19 pneumonitis appears driven by similar pathogenic myeloid cell pathways as those in RA, and their mediators such as SPP1 might be an upstream activator of the aberrant innate response in severe COVID-19 and predictive of disease trajectory including post-COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Osteopontin/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD48 Antigen/immunology , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/metabolism , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/immunology , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Osteopontin/blood , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , S100A12 Protein/immunology , S100A12 Protein/metabolism , Synovial Membrane/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(9): 1845-1852.e1, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a cohort of adults aged ≥80 years, the overlapping effect of clinical severity, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and frailty, for the in-hospital death risk stratification of COVID-19 older patients since emergency department (ED) admission. DESIGN: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted in the ED of a teaching hospital that is a referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We enrolled all patients with aged ≥80 years old consecutively admitted to the ED between April 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: Clinical variables assessed in the ED were evaluated for the association with all-cause in-hospital death. Evaluated parameters were severity of disease, frailty, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, delirium, and dependency in daily life activities. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for poor outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients aged ≥80 years were enrolled [median age 85 years (interquartile range 82-89); 346 were males (47.3%)]. According to the Clinical Frailty Scale, 61 (8.4%) were classified as fit, 417 (57.2%) as vulnerable, and 251 (34.4%) as frail. Severe disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.59], ≥3 comorbidities (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.13), male sex (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.87), and frailty (HR 6.93, 95% CI 1.69-28.27) for vulnerable and an overall HR of 12.55 (95% CI 2.96-53.21) for frail were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The ED approach to older patients with COVID-19 should take into account the functional and clinical characteristics of patients being admitted. A sole evaluation based on the clinical severity and the presence of comorbidities does not reflect the complexity of this population. A comprehensive evaluation based on clinical severity, multimorbidity, and frailty could effectively predict the clinical risk of in-hospital death for patients with COVID-19 aged ≥80 years at the time of ED presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(9): 1840-1844, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Symptom persistence weeks after laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance is a relatively common long-term complication of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about this phenomenon in older adults. The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of persistent symptoms among older COVID-19 survivors and identifying symptom patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data collected in people 65 years and older (n = 165) who were hospitalized for COVID-19 and then admitted to the Day Hospital Post-COVID 19 of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS (Rome, Italy) between April and December 2020. All patients tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and met the World Health Organization criteria for quarantine discontinuation. MEASURES: Patients were offered multidisciplinary individualized assessments. The persistence of symptoms was evaluated on admission using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age was 73.1 ± 6.2 years (median 72, interquartile range 27), and 63 (38.4%) were women. The average time elapsed from hospital discharge was 76.8 ± 20.3 days (range 25-109 days). On admission, 137 (83%) patients reported at least 1 persistent symptom. Of these, more than one-third reported 1 or 2 symptoms and 46.3% had 3 or more symptoms. The rate of symptom persistence was not significantly different when patients were stratified according to median age. Compared with those with no persistent symptoms, patients with symptom persistence reported a greater number of symptoms during acute COVID-19 (5.3 ± 3.0 vs 3.3 ± 2.0; P < .001). The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue (53.1%), dyspnea (51.5%), joint pain (22.2%), and cough (16.7%). The likelihood of symptom persistence was higher in those who had experienced fatigue during acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Persistent symptoms are frequently experienced by older adults who have been hospitalized for COVID-19. Follow-up programs should be implemented to monitor and care for long-term COVID-19-related health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Prevalence , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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