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1.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is effective for symptom relief and respiratory support in patients with respiratory insufficiency, severe comorbidities and no indication to intubation. Experience with NIV as the ceiling of treatment in severely compromised novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated 159 patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), 38 of whom with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, admitted to an ordinary ward and treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and respiratory physiotherapy. Treatment failure and death were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters in the whole cohort and in patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment. RESULTS: Patients who had NIV as the ceiling of treatment were elderly, with a low BMI and a high burden of comorbidities, showed clinical and laboratory signs of multi-organ insufficiency on admission and of rapidly deteriorating vital signs during the first week of treatment. NIV failure occurred overall in 77 (48%) patients, and 27/38 patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment died. Congestive heart failure, chronic benign haematological diseases and inability/refusal to receive respiratory physiotherapy were independently associated to NIV failure and mortality. Need for increased positive end-expiratory pressures and low platelets were associated with NIV failure. Death was associated to cerebrovascular disease, need for CPAP cycles longer than 12h and, in the subgroup of patients with NIV as the ceiling of treatment, was heralded by vital sign deterioration within 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and physiotherapy are a viable treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19 and severe comorbidities.

2.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(23):7132, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2143301

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are associated with high mortality in invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients;however, the mortality rates among non-intubated patients remain unknown. We aimed to analyze the clinical features of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum in non-intubated patients and identify risk factors for mortality. Methods: We searched PubMed Scopus and Embase from January 2020 to December 2021. We performed a pooled analysis of 151 patients with no invasive mechanical ventilation history from 17 case series and 87 case reports. Subsequently, we developed a novel scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality;the system was further validated in multinational cohorts from ten countries (n = 133). Results: Clinical scenarios included pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum at presentation (n = 68), pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum onset during hospitalization (n = 65), and pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum development after recent COVID-19 treatment (n = 18). Significant differences were not observed in clinical outcomes between patients with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax (±pneumomediastinum). The overall mortality rate of pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum was 23.2%. Risk factor analysis revealed that comorbidities bilateral pneumothorax and fever at pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum presentation were predictors for mortality. In the new scoring system, i.e., the CoBiF system, the area under the curve which was used to assess the predictability of mortality was 0.887. External validation results were also promising (area under the curve: 0.709). Conclusions: The presence of comorbidity bilateral pneumothorax and fever on presentation are significantly associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum. The CoBiF score can predict mortality in clinical settings as well as simplify the identification and appropriate management of patients at high risk.

3.
Andrology ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male patients with COVID-19 have been found with reduced serum total testosterone (tT) levels and with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess total testosterone (tT) levels and the probability of recovering eugonadal tT levels during a minimum 12-month timespan in a cohort of men who have been followed over time after the recovery from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical and hormonal values were collected for the overall cohort. Hypogonadism was defined as tT ≤9.2 nmol/l. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics was used to compare hormonal levels at baseline versus 7-month (FU1) versus 12-month (FU2) follow-up, respectively. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the potential predictors of eugonadism recovery over time among patients with hypogonadism at the time of infection. RESULTS: Of the original cohort of 286 patients, follow-up data were available for 121 (42.3%) at FU1 and 63 (22%) patients at FU2, respectively. Higher median interquartile range (IQR) tT levels were detected at FU2 (13.8 (12.3-15.3) nmol/L) versus FU1 (10.2 [9.3-10.9] nmol/L) and versus baseline (3.6 [3.02-4.02] nmol/L) (all p < 0.0001), whilst both LH and E2 levels significantly decreased over the same time frame (all p ≤ 0.01). Circulating IL-6 levels further decreased at FU2 compared to FU1 levels (19.3 vs. 72.8 pg/ml) (p = 0.02). At multivariable cox regression analyses, baseline tT level (HR 1.19; p = 0.03 [1.02-1.4]) was independently associated with the probability of tT level normalization over time, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating tT levels keep increasing over time in men after COVID-19. Still, almost 30% of men who recovered from COVID-19 had low circulating T levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at a minimum 12-month follow-up.

5.
Andrology ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of biomarkers correlated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is a relevant need for clinical management. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by elevated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, HLA-G, and impaired testosterone production. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at defining the combined impact of sex hormones, interleukin-10, and HLA-G on COVID-19 pathophysiology and their relationship in male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay circulating total testosterone, 17ß-estradiol (E2 ), IL-10, and -HLAG5 as well as SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 Immunoglobulin G from 292 healthy controls and 111 COVID-19 patients with different disease severity at hospital admission, and in 53 COVID-19 patients at 7-month follow-up. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found significantly higher levels of IL-10, HLA-G, and E2 in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls and an inverse correlation between IL-10 and testosterone, with IL-10, progressively increasing and testosterone progressively decreasing with disease severity. This correlation was lost at the 7-month follow-up. The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with low testosterone increased in the presence of high IL-10. A negative correlation between SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin G and HLA-G or IL-10 at hospitalization was observed. At the 7-month follow-up, IL-10 and testosterone normalized, and  HLA-G decreased. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that combined evaluation of IL-10 and testosterone predicts the risk of death in men with COVID-19 and support the hypothesis that IL-10 fails to suppress excessive inflammation by promoting viral spreading.

6.
J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071543

ABSTRACT

The best timing for endotracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) remains debated. Aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hARF receiving either a trial of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or intubated with no prior attempt of NIV ("straight intubation"). All consecutive patients admitted to the 25 participating ICUs were included and divided in two groups: the "straight intubation" group and the "NIV" group. A propensity score matching was performed to correct for biases associated with the choice of the respiratory support. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of mechanical ventilation, hospital stay and reintubation rate. A total of 704 COVID-19 patients were admitted to ICUs during the study period. After matching, 141 patients were included in each group. No clinically relevant difference at ICU admission was found between groups. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the NIV group (22.0% vs. 36.2%), with no significant difference in secondary endpoints. There was no significant mortality difference between patients who received straight intubation and those intubated after NIV failure. In COVID-19 patients with hARF it is worth and safe attempting a trial of NIV prior to intubation.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 932251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993789

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A great number of anti-inflammatory drugs have been suggested in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Reparixin, a non-competitive allosteric inhibitor of the CXCL8 (IL-8) receptors C-X-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CXCR1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2), has already been tried out as a treatment in different critical settings. Due to the contrasting existing literature, we decided to perform the present meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of the use of reparixin on survival in patients at high risk for in-hospital mortality. Methods: We created a search strategy to include any human RCTs performed with reparixin utilization in patients at high risk for in-hospital mortality, excluding oncological patients. Two trained, independent authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for appropriate studies. Furthermore, references of review articles and included RCTs were screened to identify more studies. No language restrictions were enforced. To assess the risk of bias of included trials, the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) was used. Results: Overall, six studies were included and involved 406 patients (220 received reparixin and 186 received the comparator). The all-cause mortality in the reparixin group was significantly lower than that in the control group [5/220 (2.3%) in the reparixin group vs. 12/186 (6.5%) in the control group, odds ratio = 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.96), p-value for effect 0.04, p for heterogeneity 0.20, I 2 = 36%]. In addition, no difference in the rate of pneumonia, sepsis, or non-serious infections was shown between the two groups. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis of randomized trials suggests that short-term inhibition of CXCL8 activity improved survival in patients at high risk for in-hospital mortality without increasing the risk of infection. Meta-analysis registration: PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021254467.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Chemokine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(3): 420-430, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971785

ABSTRACT

Arterial and venous thrombotic events in COVID-19 cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients. Although international guidelines agree on the need for anticoagulation, it is unclear whether full-dose heparin anticoagulation confers additional benefits over prophylactic-dose anticoagulation. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of heparin full-dose anticoagulation in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients. We searched Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Clinicaltrials.gov, medRxiv.org and Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials dated up to April 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing full-dose heparin anticoagulation to prophylactic-dose anticoagulation or standard treatment in hospitalized non-critically ill COVID-19 patients were included in our pooled analysis. The primary endpoint was the rate of major thrombotic events and the co-primary endpoint was the rate of major bleeding events. We identified 4 studies, all of them multicenter, randomizing 2926 patients. Major thrombotic events were 23/1524 (1.5%) in full-dose heparin anticoagulation versus 57/1402 (4.0%) in prophylactic-dose [relative risk (RR) 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.62; p˂0.01; I2 = 0%]. Clinical relevant bleeding events occurred in 1.7% (26/1524) among patients treated with heparin full anticoagulation dose compared to 1.1% (15/1403) in prophylactic-dose group (RR 1.60; 95% CI 0.85-3.03; p = 0.15; I2 = 20%). Mortality was 6.6% (101/1524) versus 8.6% (121/1402) (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.33-1.19; p = 0.15). In this meta-analysis of high quality multicenter randomized trials, full-dose anticoagulation with heparin was associated with lower rate of major thrombotic events without differences in bleeding risk and mortality in hospitalized non critically ill COVID-19 patients.Study registration PROSPERO, review no. CRD42022301874.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Thrombosis/prevention & control
9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(12): 4496-4500, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956429

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), whose major vasopressor effector is angiotensin II (ATII), has multiple activities and regulates sodium-water homeostasis and fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. RAAS plays a crucial role in cardiocirculatory shock because it counteracts hypotension and hypovolemia by activating different physiologic responses. Based on the encouraging results of the ATHOS-3 trial, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the use of ATII for catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock. More recently, ATII was used for the compassionate treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Beyond its vasopressor properties, ATII was hypothesized to have antiviral activity because it induces internalization and degradation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors used by SARS-Cov-2 to infect cells. Overall, the use of ATII in patients with COVID-19 showed promising results because its administration was associated with the achievement and maintenance of target mean arterial pressure, increased PaO2/FIO2 ratio, and decreased FIO2. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available knowledge on the use of ATII in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin II/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Sepsis/drug therapy
10.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(12): 1030-1034, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The percentage of overall COVID-19 deaths which occurred in intensive care units (ICU) is unknown. We estimated 18% in Italy from February 21, 2020, to February 21, 2021, using cumulative numbers from publicly available databases. This study aims to confirm this percentage using raw data from Italian and European registries. METHODS: We searched PubMed, government health reports, and medical websites to obtain the ratio between number of COVID-19 deaths in ICUs and total number of COVID-19 deaths in the most hit European regions during the first year of the pandemic. When available, we distinguished between different waves and interwaves periods. We performed a forest plot with random effect of proportions to calculate the overall European percentage. RESULTS: We found data for six European countries (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Denmark, and Germany). The percentage of COVID-19 deaths which occurred in United Kingdom ICUs was 10% and 11% during the first and the second pandemic waves, respectively. Netherlands and Norway counted 13% and 16%. Italy had 18% of the overall COVID-19 deaths occurring in the ICU during both pandemic waves, and 17% during the intra-pandemic period. Denmark and Germany counted 20% and 22%. Overall, 16% of the COVID-19 deaths occurred in European ICUs. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of COVID-19 deaths which occurred in European ICUs was 16% and consistent across different countries, ranging from 10% to 22%. Interestingly, we observed no difference between pandemic waves and intra-pandemic periods.

11.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(4): 1559-1574, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are common complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 are associated with cytokine release syndrome. Binding of interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) to its chemokine receptors, CXCR1/2, may mediate this inflammatory process. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine if CXCR1/2 blockade with reparixin can improve clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The dose and safety of reparixin have been investigated in clinical trials of patients with metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter, randomized study in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia from May 5, 2020 until November 27, 2020. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive 1200 mg reparixin orally three times daily or standard of care (SOC) for up to 21 days. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of clinical events: use of supplemental oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and/or use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were enrolled between reparixin (n = 36) and SOC (n = 19). The rate of clinical events was statistically significantly lower in the reparixin group compared with the SOC group (16.7% [95% CI 6.4-32.8%] vs. 42.1% [95% CI 20.3-66.5%], P = 0.02). The sensitivity analysis based on the Cox regression model provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.33 with statistical significance lower than 0.05 (95% CI 0.11-0.99; P = 0.047). Reparixin treatment appeared to be well tolerated. CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, reparixin led to an improvement in clinical outcomes when compared with the SOC. A larger phase 3 clinical study is needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT identifier, 2020-001645-40; registered May 6, 2020 (retrospectively registered), and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04794803) on March 8, 2021.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 1986-1997, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perioperative bleeding is common in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug that may safely decrease such bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a trial involving patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (1-g intravenous bolus) or placebo at the start and end of surgery (reported here) and, with the use of a partial factorial design, a hypotension-avoidance or hypertension-avoidance strategy (not reported here). The primary efficacy outcome was life-threatening bleeding, major bleeding, or bleeding into a critical organ (composite bleeding outcome) at 30 days. The primary safety outcome was myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, nonhemorrhagic stroke, peripheral arterial thrombosis, or symptomatic proximal venous thromboembolism (composite cardiovascular outcome) at 30 days. To establish the noninferiority of tranexamic acid to placebo for the composite cardiovascular outcome, the upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the hazard ratio had to be below 1.125, and the one-sided P value had to be less than 0.025. RESULTS: A total of 9535 patients underwent randomization. A composite bleeding outcome event occurred in 433 of 4757 patients (9.1%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 561 of 4778 patients (11.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.87; absolute difference, -2.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.8 to -1.4; two-sided P<0.001 for superiority). A composite cardiovascular outcome event occurred in 649 of 4581 patients (14.2%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 639 of 4601 patients (13.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.14; upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% CI, 1.14; absolute difference, 0.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.1 to 1.7; one-sided P = 0.04 for noninferiority). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the incidence of the composite bleeding outcome was significantly lower with tranexamic acid than with placebo. Although the between-group difference in the composite cardiovascular outcome was small, the noninferiority of tranexamic acid was not established. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; POISE-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03505723.).


Subject(s)
Antifibrinolytic Agents , Tranexamic Acid , Antifibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Canada , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tranexamic Acid/adverse effects , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 2975-2982, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an awake venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) management strategy in preventing clinically relevant barotrauma in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at high risk for pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD), defined as the detection of the Macklin-like effect on chest computed tomography (CT) scan. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: At the intensive care unit of a tertiary-care institution. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients with COVID-19-associated severe ARDS and Macklin-like radiologic sign on baseline chest CT. INTERVENTIONS: Primary VV-ECMO under spontaneous breathing instead of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). All patients received noninvasive ventilation or oxygen through a high-flow nasal cannula before and during ECMO support. The study authors collected data on cannulation strategy, clinical management, and outcome. Failure of awake VV-ECMO strategy was defined as the need for IMV due to worsening respiratory failure or delirium/agitation. The primary outcome was the development of PNX/PMD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: No patient developed PNX/PMD. The awake VV-ECMO strategy failed in 1 patient (14.3%). Severe complications were observed in 4 (57.1%) patients and were noted as the following: intracranial bleeding in 1 patient (14.3%), septic shock in 2 patients (28.6%), and secondary pulmonary infections in 3 patients (42.8%). Two patients died (28.6%), whereas 5 were successfully weaned off VV-ECMO and were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: VV-ECMO in awake and spontaneously breathing patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS may be a feasible and safe strategy to prevent the development of PNX/PMD in patients at high risk for this complication.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Wakefulness
14.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics were used as sedative agents in COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) invasively ventilated patients for their potentially beneficial pharmacological effects and due to the temporary shortages of intravenous agents during the pandemic crisis. METHODS: Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial) and the "clinicaltrials.gov" website were searched for studies reporting the use of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane. RESULTS: We identified three manuscripts describing the beneficial effects of isoflurane on 41 COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in Germany (n = 2) and in the USA (n = 1), in terms of reduction in the use of opioids and other sedatives. We also found a case report of two patients with transient nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which started after 6 and 8 days of sevoflurane sedation. We identified two randomized controlled trials (RCTs; 92 patients overall), two observational studies (238 patients) on the use of volatile anesthetics in COVID-19 patients that were completed but not yet published, and one RCT interrupted for a low recruitment ratio (19 patients) and thus not published. We also identified five ongoing RCTs on the use of inhaled sedation in ARDS, which are also likely to be recruiting COVID-19 patients and which have currently enrolled a total of >1643 patients. CONCLUSION: Isoflurane was the most frequently used volatile agent in COVID-19 patients and allowed a reduction in the use of other sedative and analgesic drugs. Randomized evidence is building up and will be useful to confirm or challenge these findings.

15.
Respir Med ; 197: 106853, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the role of Macklin effect on chest CT imaging in predicting subsequent occurrence of pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax (PMD/PNX) in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. Consecutive COVID-19 patients who underwent chest CT scan at hospital admission during the study time period (October 1st, 2020-April 31st, 2021) were identified. Macklin effect accuracy for prediction of spontaneous barotrauma was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Overall, 981 COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scan at hospital arrival during the study time period; 698 patients had radiological signs of interstitial pneumonia and were considered for further evaluation. Among these, Macklin effect was found in 33 (4.7%), including all 32 patients who suffered from barotrauma lately during hospital stay (true positive rate: 96.9%); only 1/33 with Macklin effect did not develop barotrauma (false positive rate: 3.1%). No barotrauma event was recorded in patients without Macklin effect on baseline chest CT scan. Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 89.1-100), a specificity of 99.85% (95% CI: 99.2-100), a PPV of 96.7% (95% CI: 80.8-99.5), a NPV of 100% and an accuracy of 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2-100) in predicting PMD/PNX, with a mean advance of 3.2 ± 2.5 days. Moreover, all Macklin-positive patients developed ARDS requiring ICU admission and, in 90.1% of cases, invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect has high accuracy in predicting PMD/PNX in COVID-19 patients; it is also an excellent predictor of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 2961-2967, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare heparin-based anticoagulation and bivalirudin-based anticoagulation within the context of critically ill patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: At the intensive care unit of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Critically ill patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection receiving full anticoagulation with heparin or bivalirudin. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-three patients received full anticoagulation with bivalirudin and 60 with heparin. Despite patients in the bivalirudin group having higher mortality risk scores (SAPS II 60 ± 16 v 39 ±7, p < 0.001) and a higher need for extracorporeal support compared to the heparin group, hospital mortality was comparable (57% v 45, p = 0.3). No difference in thromboembolic complications was observed, and bleeding events were more frequent in patients treated with bivalirudin (65% v 40%, p = 0.01). Similar results were confirmed in the subgroup analysis of patients undergoing intravenous anticoagulation; in addition to comparable thrombotic complications occurrence and thrombocytopenia rate, however, no difference in the bleeding rate was observed (65% v 35%, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Although heparin is the most used anticoagulant in the intensive care setting, bivalirudin-based anticoagulation was safe and effective in a cohort of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2. Bivalirudin may be given full consideration as an anticoagulation strategy for critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2, especially in those with thrombocytopenia and on extracorporeal support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Hirudins , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2079-2088, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777582

ABSTRACT

To expand our understanding of the role of angiotensin II (ANGII) in coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), we conducted an international, multicenter registry study to assess the use of ANGII in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients not receiving ANGII. Critically ill adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and received ANGII were matched with COVID-19 patients not receiving ANGII according to age, respiratory support, history of hypertension, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or ANGII receptor blocker, and date of admission. All outcomes were exploratory in nature and included improvement in oxygenation, duration of organ support, and mortality. In one year, 132 patients were included (65 in the ANGII group and 67 in the control group), and patients were comparable in baseline characteristics. During the first 12 h of infusion, patients in the ANGII had a faster decrease in FiO2  and maintained similar mean arterial pressure levels. Hospital mortality was not statistically significantly different between the groups (53.8% vs. 40.3%; p = 0.226). Within the limitations of such a study design, our findings confirm previous observations of a potentially positive effect of ANGII on blood pressure and FiO2 but no effect on patient-centered outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Adult , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(6): 472-478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation at the early stage of COVID-19 is poorly described. The need for antiplatelet therapy in patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. We characterized the platelet activation profile in hospitalized patients at the early stage of COVID-19 using the modified prothrombinase Platelet Activation State (PAS) Assay. METHODS: Sixteen patients admitted to the emergency department of the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) between February 8 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients presented with respiratory symptoms and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Platelet activation was measured via the PAS Assay within 24 hours from patients' hospital admission. Data were compared with those measured in N.=24 healthy subjects (controls). RESULTS: Platelet activation was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls (PAS=0.63 [0.58-0.98%] vs. 0.46 [0.40-0.65%], respectively; P=0.03). Of note, highest PAS values were measured in the two patients with the worst clinical outcome, i.e., death because of respiratory failure (PAS=2.09% and 1.20%, respectively). No differences in standard coagulation parameters were noted between these two patients and those who were later discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of significant platelet activation state at the early stage of COVID-19 and suggests that the patient-specific platelet activation profile is a reliable clinical marker to stratify COVID-19 patients at high risk of poor clinical outcome who might potentially benefit from antiplatelet therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Minerva Med ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability is often seen in Covid-19 patients and thromboembolic events appear frequent; antithrombotic treatment has been proposed therefore as part of standard treatment for Covid-19. Under these premises, prior-to-infection antithrombotic treatment may have a protective effect with respect to Covid-19 related thromboembolic events. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of prior-to-infection anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment on Covid-19 outcomes. METHODS: Beneficiaries of the Regional Health Service of the Lombardy region of Italy aged ≥40 years with a Covid-19 diagnosis made between February 21st and July 18th, 2020 were included in the present study. The impact on Covid-19 mortality of pre-existing and chronic therapy with anticoagulant drugs (vitamin-K antagonist or New Oral Anticoagulants) was evaluated. Analyses were repeated with antiplatelets drugs. RESULTS: Among 79,934 Sars-cov-2 patients beneficiaries of the Regional Healthcare System of the Lombardy Region who received a diagnosis between February 21st and July 18th, 2020, chronic preexisting anticoagulant assumption was present in 6.0% and antiplatelets in 12.7%. The overall unadjusted mortality rate was 20.6%, with male sex, age category and comorbidity burden being significantly associated to increased mortality risk. Anticoagulant chronic treatment was not associated with a reduction in mortality. Similar results were observed when repeating the analyses for pre-existing oral anti-platelet treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population-based study evaluating more than 79,000 Covid-19 patients, pre-existing antithrombotic therapy was not associated to a benefit in terms of mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of antithrombotic therapy as standard treatment among Covid-19 patients.

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