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1.
Environ Res ; 206: 112614, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While the beneficial effect of vaccination, restrictive measures, and social distancing in reducing mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 is intuitive and taken for granted, seasonality (predictable fluctuation or pattern that recurs or repeats over a one-year period) is still poorly understood and insufficiently taken into consideration. We aimed to examine SARS-CoV-2 seasonality in countries with temperate climate. METHODS: We identified countries with temperate climate and extracted average country temperature data from the National Center for Environmental information and from the Climate Change Knowledge Portal. We obtained mortality and vaccination rates from an open access database. We used the stringency index derived from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker to quantify restriction policies. We used Spearman's and rank-correlation non-parametric test coefficients to investigate the association between COVID-19 mortality and temperature values. We employed multivariate regression models to analyze how containment measures, vaccinations, and monthly temperatures affected COVID-19 mortality rates. RESULTS: The time series for daily deaths per million inhabitants and average monthly temperatures of European countries and US states with a temperate climate had a negative correlation (p < 0.0001 for all countries, 0.40 < R < 0.86). When running multivariate regression models with country fixed effects, we noted that mortality rates were significantly lower when temperature were higher. Interestingly, when adding an interaction term between monthly temperatures and vaccination rates, we found that as monthly temperatures dropped, the effect of the vaccination campaign on mortality was larger than at higher temperatures. DISCUSSION: Deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 decreased during the summer period in temperate countries. We found that the effect of vaccination rates on mortality was stronger when temperatures were lower. Stakeholders should consider seasonality in managing SARS-CoV-2 and future pandemics to minimize mortality, limit the pressure on hospitals and intensive care units while maintaining economic and social activities.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival rates of patients with COVID-19 supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and compare the survival rates of patients with COVID-19 supported with ECMO to patients with influenza supported with ECMO. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of ECMO as supportive therapy of COVID-19. SETTING: The authors performed a search through the Cochrane, EMBASE, and MEDLINE/PubMed databases from inception to February 19, 2021, for studies reporting hospitalized patients with COVID-19 managed with ECMO. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 134 studies were selected, including 6 eligible for the comparative meta-analysis of COVID-19 versus influenza. INTERVENTIONS: The authors pooled the risk ratio and random effects model. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was the overall mortality of patients with COVID-19 receiving ECMO. Of the total number of 58,472 patients with COVID-19 reported, ECMO was used in 4,044 patients. The analysis suggested an overall in-hospital mortality of 39% (95% CI 0.34-0.43). In the comparative analysis, patients with COVID-19 on ECMO had a higher risk ratio (RR) for mortality when compared to influenza patients on ECMO: 72/164 (44%) v 71/186 (38%) RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.05-1.71; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO could be beneficial in patients with COVID-19, according to the authors' meta-analysis. The reported mortality rate was 39%. This systematic analysis can provide clinical advice in the current era and ongoing pandemic.

3.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295258

ABSTRACT

A bstract Aim The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or preexisting diabetes. Methods A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n=112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n=55) was studied. Clinical outcomes and laboratory findings were analysed according to the presence of the two conditions. The time to viral clearance was assessed during the follow-up after hospital discharge. Result Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with preexisting diabetes. No differences between preexisting diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31;p=0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02;p=0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia and the time to swab negativization. Conclusions The recognition of hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294357

ABSTRACT

A bstract Purpose Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. Methods We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Results Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p=0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p<0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p=0.01) or fasting blood glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l (HR 3.07, p=0.015). Conclusions Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.

5.
Montalto, Francesca, Ippolito, Mariachiara, Noto, Alberto, Madotto, Fabiana, Gelardi, Filippa, Savatteri, Paolino, Giarratano, Antonino, Cortegiani, Andrea, Brescia, Fabrizio, Fabiani, Fabio, Zanier, Chiara, Nadalini, Elisa, Gambaretti, Eros, Gabriele, Francesco, Astuto, Marinella, Murabito, Paolo, Sanfilippo, Filippo, Misseri, Giovanni, Moscarelli, Alessandra, Spadaro, Savino, Bussolati, Enrico, Squadrani, Eleonora, Villa, Gianluca, D’Errico, Raffaella, Cocci, Giulia, Lanini, Iacopo, Mirabella, Lucia, Morelli, Alessandra, Tullo, Livio, Caggianelli, Girolamo, Ball, Lorenzo, Iiriti, Margherita, Giordani, Francesca, Giardina, Massimiliano, Mazzeo, Anna Teresa, Grasselli, Giacomo, Cattaneo, Emanuele, Alongi, Salvatore, Marenghi, Cristina, Marmiere, Marilena, Rocchi, Margherita, Turi, Stefano, Landoni, Giovanni, Torrano, Vito, Tinti, Giulia, Giorgi, Antonio, Fumagalli, Roberto, Salvo, Francesco, Blangetti, Ilaria, Cascella, Marco, Forte, Cira Antonietta, Navalesi, Paolo, Montalbano, Marta, Chiarelli, Valentina, Bonanno, Giuseppe, Ferrara, Francesco Paolo, Pernice, Innocenza, Catalisano, Giulia, Marino, Claudia, Presti, Gabriele, Fricano, Dario Calogero, Fucà, Rosa, Palmeri di Villalba, Cesira, Strano, Maria Teresa, Caruso, Sabrina, Scafidi, Antonino, Mazzarese, Vincenzo, Augugliaro, Ettore, Terranova, Valeria, Forfori, Francesco, Corradi, Francesco, Taddei, Erika, Isirdi, Alessandro, Pratesi, Giorgia, Puccini, Francesca, Paternoster, Gianluca, Barile, Alessio, Tescione, Marco, Santacaterina, Irene, Siclari, Eliana Maria, Tripodi, Vincenzo Francesco, Vadalà, Mariacristina, Agrò, Felice Eugenio, Pascarella, Giuseppe, Piliego, Chiara, Aceto, Paola, De Pascale, Gennaro, Dottarelli, Alessandra, Romanò, Bruno, Russo, Andrea, Covotta, Marco, Giorgerini, Valeria, Sardellitti, Federica, Vitelli, Giulia Maria, Coluzzi, Flaminia, Bove, Tiziana, Vetrugno, Luigi.
Journal of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care ; 1(1):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1542137
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data on long-term survival of these patients are lacking. The authors investigated 1-year survival, quality of life, and functional recovery of patients with COVID-19 ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and discharged alive from hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were contacted by phone after 1 year. Functional, cognitive, and psychological outcomes were explored through a questionnaire and assessed using validated scales. Patients were offered the possibility to undergo a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study included all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to an ICU of the authors' institution between February 25, 2020, and April 27, 2020, who received at least 1 day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Of 116 patients who received IMV, 61 (52.6%) survived to hospital discharge. These survivors were assessed 1 year after discharge and 56 completed a battery of tests of cognition, activities of daily living, and interaction with family members. They had overall good functional recovery, with >80% reporting good recovery and no difficulties in usual activities. A total of 52 (93%) of patients had no dyspnea at rest. Severe anxiety/depression was reported by 5 (8.9%) patients. Comparing 2-month and 1-year data, the authors observed the most significant improvements in the areas of working status and exertional dyspnea. One-year chest CT scans were available for 36 patients; fibrotic-like changes were present in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: All patients who survived the acute phase of COVID-19 and were discharged from the hospital were alive at the 1-year follow up, and the vast majority of them had good overall recovery and quality of life.

7.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1810-1815, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 long-term sequelae are ill-defined since only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of this disease so far. AIMS: To evaluate the 6-month respiratory outcome and exercise capacity of COVID-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first wave of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective observational study included COVID-19 patients with ARF. Interventions included CPAP during hospitalisation and 6-month follow up. Frailty assessment was carried out through frailty index (FI), pO2 /FiO2 during hospitalisation and at follow up, respiratory parameters, 6-min walking test (6MWT) and the modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Borg scale at follow up. RESULTS: More than half of the patients had no dyspnoea according to the mMRC scale. Lower in-hospital pO2 /FiO2 correlated with higher Borg scale levels after 6MWT (ρ 0.27; P 0.04) at the follow-up visit. FI was positively correlated with length of hospitalisation (ρ 0.3; P 0.03) and negatively with the 6MWT distance walked (ρ -0.36; P 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Robust and frail patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with CPAP outside the intensive care unit setting had good respiratory parameters and exercise capacity at 6-month follow up, although more severe patients had slightly poorer respiratory performance compared with patients with higher PaO2 /FiO2 and lower FI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(5): 596-605, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524826

ABSTRACT

The best timing of orotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. The use of non-invasive ventilation, a life-saving technique in many medical conditions, is debated in patients with ARDS since prolonged NIV and delayed intubation may be harmful. Shortage of intensive care beds and ventilators during a respiratory pandemic can trigger a widespread use of early non-invasive ventilation in many hospitals but which is the best way to ventilate patients with severe bilateral pneumonia and severely increased spontaneous ventilation is controversial. Moreover, viral spreading to health-care workers and other hospitalized patients is an issue for any device used to administer oxygen. Even if protective mechanical ventilation is currently the gold standard for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, tracheal intubation is not without risks and is associated with delirium, hemodynamic instability, immobilization and post intensive care syndrome. Both invasive and non-invasive ventilation are associated with advantages and limitations that should be carefully considered when patients with COVID-19-ARDS need our attention. In the absence of strong evidence, in this review we highlight all the pro and con of these two different approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 152, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 is characterized by dysregulated immune response, respiratory failure and a relevant mortality rate among hospitalized patients. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in COVID-19-associated cytokine storm, and several trials investigated whether its inhibition could improve patients' outcome. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials (RCT) to test this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent investigators searched PubMed, Scopus, ClnicalTrials.gov and medRxiv up to September 1st, 2021. Inclusion criteria were: administration of tocilizumab or sarilumab; COVID-19 adult patients with pneumonia; and being a RCT. Primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up. Secondary outcomes included intubation rate and incidence of adverse events. Two independent investigators extracted data from eligible trials. RESULTS: Of the 763 studies assessed, 15 RCTs were included (9,320 patients), all were multicentre, and the majority open-label vs standard treatment. IL-6 inhibitors were associated with reduced all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (1315/5,380 [24.4%] in the IL-6 inhibitors group versus 1080/3,814 [28.3%] in the control group, RR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.96; p for effect = 0.003, I2 = 0%, with 13 studies included), with reduction in 28/30-day mortality and intubation rates, and with no increase in adverse events and secondary infections. CONCLUSION: IL-6 inhibitors reduced longest follow-up mortality and intubation in COVID-19 patients. Findings need to be confirmed in high-quality RCTs.

10.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13703, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488194

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 may result in a systemic disease and a proportion of patients ranging 15%-44% experienced cardiac injury (CI) diagnosed by abnormal troponin levels. The aim of the present study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of a large series of hospitalized patients for COVID-19 in order to identify predisposing and/or protective factors of CI and the outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an observational, retrospective study on patients hospitalized in two Italian centres (San Raffaele Hospital and Cremona Hospital) for COVID-19 and at least one high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnt) measurement during hospitalization. CI was defined if at least one hs-cTnt value was above the 99th percentile. The primary end-point was the occurrence of CI during hospitalization. We included 750 patients (median age 67, IQR 56-77 years; 69% males), of whom 46.9% had history of hypertension, 14.7% of chronic coronary disease and 22.3% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Abnormal troponin levels (median troponin 74, IQR 34-147 ng/l) were detected in 390 patients (52%) during the hospitalization. At multivariable analysis age, CKD, cancer, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independently associated with CI. Independent predictors of very high troponin levels were chronic kidney disease and CRP levels. Patients with CI showed higher rate of all-cause mortality (40.0% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.001) compared to those without CI. CONCLUSION: This large, multicentre Italian study confirmed the high prevalence of CI and its prognostic role in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, highlighting the leading role of systemic inflammation for the occurrence of CI.

11.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(6): 423-431, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and a direct mechanism of cardiac arrest in infected patients was hypothesized. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to April 05, 2021. We included studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection versus noninfected patients. The primary outcome was survival at hospital discharge or at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, cardiac arrest witnessed and occurring at home, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, proportion of nonshockable rhythm and resuscitation attempted, and ambulance arrival time. RESULTS: In the ten included studies, 18% (1341/7545) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and SARS-CoV-2 infection had reduced rates of survival (16/856 [1.9%] vs. 153/2344 [6.5%]; odds ratio (OR) = 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.65; P = 0.001; I2 = 28%) and return of spontaneous circulation (188/861 [22%] vs. 640/2403 [27%]; OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) when compared to noninfected patients. Ambulance arrived later (15 ± 10 vs. 13 ± 7.5 min; mean difference = 1.64; 95% CI, 0.41-2.88; P = 0.009; I2 = 61%) and nonshockable rhythms (744/803 [93%] vs. 1828/2217 [82%]; OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 2.08-3.73; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) occurred more frequently. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients suffered a cardiac arrest at home more frequently (1186/1263 [94%] vs. 3598/4055 [89%]; OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45-2.40; P<0.001; I2 = 0%) but witnessed rate (486/890 [55%] vs. 1385/2475 [56%]; OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14; P = 0.63; I2 = 0%) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate (439/828 [53%] vs. 1164/2304 [51%]; OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24; P = 0.70; I2 = 53%) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. These patients had low rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival and were characterized by higher nonshockable rhythms but similar bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO - CRD42021243540.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns of a high barotrauma rate in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. However, a few studies were published, and reported rates were highly variable. We performed a systematic literature review to identify rates of barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCE: PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies reporting barotrauma event rate in adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. STUDY SELECTION: We included all studies investigating adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Case reports, studies performed outside ICU setting, and pediatric studies were excluded. Two investigators independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators abstracted data on study characteristics, rate of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and overall barotrauma events, and mortality. When available, data from noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were also collected. Pooled estimates for barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum were calculated. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 13 studies with 1,814 invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients and 493 noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients were included. A total of 266/1,814 patients (14.7%) had at least one barotrauma event (pooled estimates, 16.1% [95% CI, 11.8-20.4%]). Pneumothorax occurred in 132/1,435 patients (pooled estimates, 10.7%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.7%), whereas pneumomediastinum occurred in 162/1,432 patients (pooled estimates, 11.2%; 95% CI, 8.0-14.3%). Mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed barotrauma was 111/198 patients (pooled estimates, 61.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-73.0%). In noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, barotrauma occurred in 31/493 patients (6.3%; pooled estimates, 5.7%; 95% CI, -2.1% to 13.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barotrauma occurs in one out of six coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and is associated with a mortality rate of about 60%. Barotrauma rate may be higher than noncoronavirus disease 2019 controls.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17730, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397894

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the intensive care unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: (1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and (2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years; 219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality; whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392888

ABSTRACT

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Up-Regulation , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Databases, Genetic , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Models, Biological , Models, Theoretical , Sex Characteristics
15.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Because there is increasing evidence of serious deterioration in long-term quality of life (QoL) in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) intensive care unit (ICU) survivors, the authors identified predictors of poor quality of life in these patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Research hospital repurposed into a COVID-19 center. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients admitted in COVID-19 ICUs between March and June 2020. INTERVENTIONS: An SF-36 questionnaire, which included physical and mental items, was used six months after patient's discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 403 patients were managed in the ICU, with a hospital mortality of 181 of 403 (44.9%), and 16 (4.0%) patients died within six months. Among the 125 questionnaire responders, only 32.0% and 52% had a normal quality of life in terms of the physical and mental component of health. Multivariate analysis identified low-molecular-weight heparin treatment in the ICU as the only modifiable factor associated with an increase in physical component of QoL odds ratio (OR) 3.341 (95% confidence interval 1.298-8.599), p = 0.012, and age ≥52 years OR 0.223 and female sex OR 0.321 were significantly associated with a decrease in the physical component. Medical history of cerebrovascular insufficiency was significantly associated with a decrease in mental component of QoL OR 0.125, and the only factor associated with an increase in the mental health component was body mass index ≥27.6 kg/m2 OR 7.466. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 ICU survivors the authors identified treatment with low- molecular-weight heparin as a predictor of improved physical component of QoL at 6 months.

17.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass, quality and function, which is particularly evident in respiratory muscles, has been associated with many clinical adverse outcomes. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the role of reduced muscle mass and quality in predicting ventilation weaning, complications, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and of hospital stay and mortality in patients admitted to ICU for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: This was an observational study based on a review of medical records of all adult patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Milan and intubated for SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Muscle mass and quality measurement were retrieved from routine thoracic CT scans, when sections passing through the first, second or third lumbar vertebra were available. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients were enrolled. Muscle mass was associated with successful extubation (OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.03, p = 0.017), shorter ICU stay (OR 0.97, 95% C.I. 0.95-0.99, p = 0.03) and decreased hospital mortality (HR 0.98, 95% C.I. 0.96-0.99, p = 0.02). Muscle density was associated with successful extubation (OR 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.14; p = 0.02) and had an inverse association with the number of complications in ICU (Β -0.07, 95% C.I. -0.13 - -0.002, p = 0.03), length of hospitalization (Β -1.36, 95% C.I. -2.21 - -0.51, p = 0.002) and in-hospital mortality (HR 0.88, 95% C.I. 0.78-0.99, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging routine CT imaging to measure muscle mass and quality might constitute a simple, inexpensive and powerful tool to predict survival and disease course in patients with COVID-19. Preserving muscle mass during hospitalisation might have an adjuvant role in facilitating remission from COVID-19.

18.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed healthcare systems and diverted resources allocated for other conditions. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyse how the pandemic impacted the system-of-care of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase up to May 31, 2021, for studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic versus a non-pandemic period. Survival at hospital discharge or at 30 days was the primary outcome.Results: We included 24 studies for a total of 75,952 patients. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests during COVID-19 pandemic had lower survival (19 studies; 603/11,666 [5.2%] vs. 1320/17,174 [7.7%]; OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.65; P = 0.001) and return of spontaneous circulation (4370/24353 [18%] vs. 7401/34510 [21%]; OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.55-0.75; P < 0.001) compared with non-pandemic periods. Ambulance response times (10.1 vs 9.0 minutes, MD = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.59-1.42; P < 0.001) and non-shockable rhythms (18,242/21,665 [84%] vs. 19,971/24,817 [81%]; OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.46; P < 0.001) increased. Use of supraglottic airways devices increased (2853/7645 [37%] vs. 2043/17521 [12%]; OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.74; P < 0.001).Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the system-of-care of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and patients had worse short-term outcomes compared to pre-pandemic periods. Advanced airway management strategy shifted from endotracheal intubation to supraglottic airway devices. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021250339.

19.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341645

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n = 112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n = 55) was studied. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities, and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with pre-existing diabetes. No differences between pre-existing diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome, which was defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31; p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex, and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, at the same time, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02; p = 0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia to swab negativization. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

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