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1.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0196921, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702819

ABSTRACT

Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, infection with SARS-CoV-2, the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19, is often associated with neurologic symptoms that range from mild to severe, yet increasing evidence argues the virus does not exhibit extensive neuroinvasive properties. We demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in human iPSC-derived neurons and that infection shows limited antiviral and inflammatory responses but increased activation of EIF2 signaling following infection as determined by RNA sequencing. Intranasal infection of K18 human ACE2 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2) with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in lung pathology associated with viral replication and immune cell infiltration. In addition, ∼50% of infected mice exhibited CNS infection characterized by wide-spread viral replication in neurons accompanied by increased expression of chemokine (Cxcl9, Cxcl10, Ccl2, Ccl5 and Ccl19) and cytokine (Ifn-λ and Tnf-α) transcripts associated with microgliosis and a neuroinflammatory response consisting primarily of monocytes/macrophages. Microglia depletion via administration of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, PLX5622, in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice did not affect survival or viral replication but did result in dampened expression of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine transcripts and a reduction in monocyte/macrophage infiltration. These results argue that microglia are dispensable in terms of controlling SARS-CoV-2 replication in in the K18-hACE2 model but do contribute to an inflammatory response through expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Collectively, these findings contribute to previous work demonstrating the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect neurons as well as emphasizing the potential use of the K18-hACE2 model to study immunological and neuropathological aspects related to SARS-CoV-2-induced neurologic disease. IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of microglia in aiding in host defense following experimental infection of the central nervous system (CNS) of K18-hACE2 with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Neurologic symptoms that range in severity are common in COVID-19 patients and understanding immune responses that contribute to restricting neurologic disease can provide important insight into better understanding consequences associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/immunology , Microglia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/genetics , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/virology , Neurons/immunology , Neurons/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
2.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(1): 57-66, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577592

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are a large family of positive-stranded nonsegmented RNA viruses with genomes of 26-32 kilobases in length. Human coronaviruses are commonly associated with mild respiratory illness; however, the past three decades have seen the emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle eastern respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 which is the etiologic agent for COVID-19. Severe forms of COVID-19 include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with cytokine release syndrome that can culminate in multiorgan failure and death. Among the proinflammatory factors associated with severe COVID-19 are the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CXCL8, and CXCL10. Infection of susceptible mice with murine coronaviruses, such as mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), elicits a similar chemokine response profile as observed in COVID-19 patients and these in vivo models have been informative and show that targeting chemokines reduces the severity of inflammation in target organs. AREAS COVERED: PubMed was used using keywords: Chemokines and coronaviruses; Chemokines and mouse hepatitis virus; Chemokines and COVID-19. Clinicaltrials.gov was used using keywords: COVID-19 and chemokines; COVID-19 and cytokines; COVID-19 and neutrophil. EXPERT OPINION: Chemokines and chemokine receptors are clinically relevant therapeutic targets for reducing coronavirus-induced inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Chemokine , Animals , Chemokines , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Virol ; 94(24)2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941660

ABSTRACT

Intracranial (i.c.) infection of susceptible C57BL/6 mice with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) (a member of the Coronaviridae family) results in acute encephalomyelitis and viral persistence associated with an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. The present study was undertaken to better understand the molecular pathways evoked during innate and adaptive immune responses as well as the chronic demyelinating stage of disease in response to JHMV infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Using single-cell RNA sequencing analysis (scRNAseq) on flow-sorted CD45-positive (CD45+) cells enriched from brains and spinal cords of experimental mice, we demonstrate the heterogeneity of the immune response as determined by the presence of unique molecular signatures and pathways involved in effective antiviral host defense. Furthermore, we identify potential genes involved in contributing to demyelination as well as remyelination being expressed by both microglia and macrophages. Collectively, these findings emphasize the diversity of the immune responses and molecular networks at defined stages following viral infection of the CNS.IMPORTANCE Understanding the immunological mechanisms contributing to both host defense and disease following viral infection of the CNS is of critical importance given the increasing number of viruses that are capable of infecting and replicating within the nervous system. With this in mind, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the molecular signatures of immune cells within the CNS at defined times following infection with a neuroadapted murine coronavirus using scRNAseq. This approach has revealed that the immunological landscape is diverse, with numerous immune cell subsets expressing distinct mRNA expression profiles that are, in part, dictated by the stage of infection. In addition, these findings reveal new insight into cellular pathways contributing to control of viral replication as well as to neurologic disease.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Infections/immunology , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Animals , Central Nervous System Infections/genetics , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Encephalomyelitis/genetics , Encephalomyelitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis/pathology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , H-2 Antigens/genetics , H-2 Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
Glia ; 68(11): 2345-2360, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361267

ABSTRACT

The present study examines functional contributions of microglia in host defense, demyelination, and remyelination following infection of susceptible mice with a neurotropic coronavirus. Treatment with PLX5622, an inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) that efficiently depletes microglia, prior to infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in increased mortality compared with control mice that correlated with impaired control of viral replication. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNASeq) of CD45+ cells isolated from the CNS revealed that PLX5622 treatment resulted in muted CD4+ T cell activation profile that was associated with decreased expression of transcripts encoding MHC class II and CD86 in macrophages but not dendritic cells. Evaluation of spinal cord demyelination revealed a marked increase in white matter damage in PLX5622-treated mice that corresponded with elevated expression of transcripts encoding disease-associated proteins Osteopontin (Spp1), Apolipoprotein E (Apoe), and Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2) that were enriched within macrophages. In addition, PLX5622 treatment dampened expression of Cystatin F (Cst7), Insulin growth factor 1 (Igf1), and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) within macrophage populations which have been implicated in promoting repair of damaged nerve tissue and this was associated with impaired remyelination. Collectively, these findings argue that microglia tailor the CNS microenvironment to enhance control of coronavirus replication as well as dampen the severity of demyelination and influence repair.


Subject(s)
Brain/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , Organic Chemicals/toxicity , Animals , Brain/drug effects , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/virology
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