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1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794554

ABSTRACT

The effect of vaccination on severity of subsequent COVID-19 in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) is unknown. In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we found no difference in severity of COVID-19 disease in vaccinated (n = 16) versus unvaccinated (n = 54) HM patients using an adjusted multiple logistic regression model. Recent anti-B-cell therapy was associated with more severe illness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
The Lancet Microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1758018

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide and is a major health-care challenge in people living with HIV. Despite this, the causes of pneumonia in this population remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the feasibility of metatranscriptomics for epidemiological surveillance of pneumonia in patients with HIV in Uganda. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study in patients with HIV who were admitted to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda between Oct 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2011. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older, HIV-positivity, and clinically diagnosed pneumonia. Exclusion criteria were contraindication to bronchoscopy or an existing diagnosis of tuberculosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected within 72 h of admission and a combination of RNA sequencing and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture plus PCR were performed. The primary outcome was detection of an established or possible respiratory pathogen in the total study population. Findings We consecutively enrolled 217 patients during the study period. A potential microbial cause for pneumonia was identified in 211 (97%) patients. At least one microorganism of established respiratory pathogenicity was identified in 113 (52%) patients, and a microbe of possible pathogenicity was identified in an additional 98 (45%). M tuberculosis was the most commonly identified established pathogen (35 [16%] patients;in whom bacterial or viral co-infections were identified in 13 [37%]). Streptococcus mitis, although not previously reported as a cause of pneumonia in patients with HIV, was the most commonly identified bacterial organism (37 [17%] patients). Haemophilus influenzae was the most commonly identified established bacterial pathogen (20 [9%] patients). Pneumocystis jirovecii was only identified in patients with a CD4 count of less than 200 cells per mL. Interpretation We show the feasibility of using metatranscriptomics for epidemiologic surveillance of pneumonia by describing the spectrum of respiratory pathogens in adults with HIV in Uganda. Applying these methods to a contemporary cohort could enable broad assessment of changes in pneumonia aetiology following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Funding

3.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0040421, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577377

ABSTRACT

A dynamic relationship involving pathogen, host immune response, and microbiome characterizes the biological framework of many infectious and inflammatory diseases. Combined host/microbe metagenomics (mNGS) enables simultaneous assessment of all three features, enabling the study and diagnosis of diverse infectious and inflammatory processes ranging from pneumonia to sepsis to inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Host/microbe mNGS holds promise for new mechanistic insights, diagnostic approaches, and precision medicine interventions.

4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We compared the rates of hospital-onset secondary bacterial infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with rates in patients with influenza and controls, and we investigated reports of increased incidence of Enterococcus infections in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An academic quaternary-care hospital in San Francisco, California. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between October 1, 2019, and October 1, 2020, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR (N = 314) or influenza PCR (N = 82) within 2 weeks of admission were compared with inpatients without positive SARS-CoV-2 or influenza tests during the study period (N = 14,332). METHODS: National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were used to identify infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP), bloodstream infections (BSIs), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for likely confounders. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of IVAC and PVAP compared to controls, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-13.9) and 10.4 (95 % CI, 2.1-52.1), respectively. COVID-19 patients had higher incidence of BSI due to Enterococcus but not BSI generally, and whole-genome sequencing of Enterococcus isolates demonstrated that nosocomial transmission did not explain the increased rate. Subanalyses of patients admitted to the intensive care unit and patients who required mechanical ventilation revealed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of IVAC, PVAP, and Enterococcus BSI compared with hospitalized controls, which is not fully explained by factors such as immunosuppressive treatments and duration of mechanical ventilation. The mechanism underlying increased rates of Enterococcus BSI in COVID-19 patients requires further investigation.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. METHODS: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). FINDINGS: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. INTERPRETATION: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376195

ABSTRACT

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , RNA/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Trachea/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(612): eabh2624, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371845

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) have been found in some patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the prevalence of these antibodies, their longitudinal dynamics across the disease severity scale, and their functional effects on circulating leukocytes remain unknown. Here, in 284 patients with COVID-19, we found type I IFN­specific autoantibodies in peripheral blood samples from 19% of patients with critical disease and 6% of patients with severe disease. We found no type I IFN autoantibodies in individuals with moderate disease. Longitudinal profiling of over 600,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells using multiplexed single-cell epitope and transcriptome sequencing from 54 patients with COVID-19 and 26 non­COVID-19 controls revealed a lack of type I IFN­stimulated gene (ISG-I) responses in myeloid cells from patients with critical disease. This was especially evident in dendritic cell populations isolated from patients with critical disease producing type I IFN­specific autoantibodies. Moreover, we found elevated expression of the inhibitory receptor leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1) on the surface of monocytes isolated from patients with critical disease early in the disease course. LAIR1 expression is inversely correlated with ISG-I expression response in patients with COVID-19 but is not expressed in healthy controls. The deficient ISG-I response observed in patients with critical COVID-19 with and without type I IFN­specific autoantibodies supports a unifying model for disease pathogenesis involving ISG-I suppression through convergent mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology
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