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1.
Thrombosis Research ; 218:171-176, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004546

ABSTRACT

Background Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in respiratory syndromes but also in vascular complications such as thromboembolism (TE). In this regard, immunothrombosis, resulting from inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissues, has been described. Data on TE in COVID-19 are mainly based on clinical observational and/or incomplete autopsy studies. The true burden of TE and the relevance of genetic predisposition, however, have not been resolved. Objectives Here, we report on a consecutive cohort of 100 fully autopsied patients deceased by SARS-CoV-2 infections during the first wave of the pandemic (March to April 2020). We investigated the localization of TE, potential clinical risk factors, and the prothrombotic gene mutations, factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, in postmortem blood or tissue samples. Results

2.
Morphologie ; 106(354, Supplement):S38, 2022.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1983708

ABSTRACT

Objet L’architecture capillaire et la circulation bronchique habituelle semble sensiblement modifiée dans le cadre des pneumopathies à SARS-CoV-2, associés à des thromboses multiples [1], [2]. L’imagerie en contraste de phase par source synchrotron (sPCI) permet d’étudier précisément l’ensemble des tissus organiques à une résolution microscopique et de façon non destructive. Le but de cette étude était de comparer l’anatomie vasculaire bronchique entre un poumon sain et un poumon de patients infectés par la COVID-19. Méthodes Trois poumons témoins ont été prélevés au Laboratoire d’Anatomie Des Alpes Françaises puis comparés à trois poumons de patients infectés par le SARS-CoV-2, provenant de la banque d’organe de l’Université Witten/Herdecke (Allemagne). Après préparation, les poumons ont été imagés au Synchrotron Européen de Grenoble à 26μm, 6μm et 2μm sans injection de produit de contraste [3]. La vascularisation a été étudiée sur les coupes tomodensitométriques 2D et sur les reconstructions tridimensionnelles, puis sur coupes histologiques et via des injections-corrosions. Le projet a été financé par la Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Résultats La circulation bronchique, qui provient de l’aorte thoracique et des artères intercostales, est modifiée par le processus inflammatoire et hypoxique. L’étude de l’anatomie microscopique bronchique en sPCI a permis d’établir la présence de nombreuses d’anastomoses de moins de 50μm entre la circulation bronchique et l’artère lobulaire dans les poumons de patients infectés par la COVID-19, entraînant un shunt doit-gauche intra-pulmonaire. Par ailleurs, une angiogenèse anarchique majeure a été détectée au niveau des plexus alvéolaires des zones atteintes par l’infection, au dépend des artères intra-lobulaires, par rapport aux poumons témoins. Conclusion L’imagerie sPCI réalisée a permis la première visualisation tridimensionnelle d’un shunt bronchio-pulmonaire dans la COVID-19 ainsi que les phénomènes de néovascularisations excessives associés.

3.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; (Forthcoming)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the third worldwide coronavirus-associated disease outbreak in the past 20 years. Lung involvement, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases, is the main clinical feature of this disease; the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract can also be affected. The pathophysiology of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ damage was almost completely unknown when the pandemic began. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search concerning the structural changes and pathophysiology of COVID-19, with a focus on imaging techniques. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical, electron-microscopic and molecular pathological analyses of tissues obtained by autopsy have improved our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology, including molecular regulatory mechanisms. Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) has been found to be a prominent pattern of damage in the affected organs of COVID-19 patients. In IA, an existing vessel changes by invagination of the endothelium and formation of an intraluminal septum, ultimately giving rise to two new lumina. This alters hemodynamics within the vessel, leading to a loss of laminar flow and its replacement by turbulent, inhomogeneous flow. IA, which arises because of ischemia due to thrombosis, is itself a risk factor for the generation of further microthrombi; these have been detected in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and placenta of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Studies of autopsy material from various tissues of COVID-19 patients have revealed ultrastructural evidence of altered microvascularity, IA, and multifocal thrombi. These changes may contribute to the pathophysiology of post-acute interstitial fibrotic organ changes as well as to the clinical picture of long COVID.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(7): 1319-1322, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898655

ABSTRACT

Herein we report the case of a young man, admitted to the Department of Cardiology and Angiology at Hannover Medical School with shortness of breath and elevated troponin. Few weeks earlier the patient received the first dose of BioNTech's mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, BNT162b2). After diagnostic work-up revealed giant cell myocarditis, the patient received immunosuppressive therapy. In the present context of myocarditis after mRNA vaccination we discuss this rare aetiology and the patient's treatment strategy in the light of current recommendations.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Giant Cells , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(4): e12750, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894627

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe side effects after vaccination with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are rare but can be fatal. To date, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) cases have been reported after injection of mRNA and adenoviral vectors COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we report the second suspected case of VITT after vaccination with the Sinopharm vaccine, an inactive vaccine. Key Clinical Question: The Key Clinical Question was to determine whether inactivated COVID-19 vaccines could induce VITT and how to diagnose and treat such cases. Clinical Approach and Conclusions: Our patient developed deteriorating symptoms the day after vaccination and was admitted to the emergency department on day 5 after vaccination. After performing laboratory analysis, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia was suggested, further confirmed by highly positive anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies assay and color Doppler ultrasonography. He was then treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroid, and nonheparin anticoagulant.

6.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(4): e2327, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669636

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the pandemic, thrombotic events have been a well-known and severe complication associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nevertheless, the initiation of vaccination programs brought another rare yet highly fatal thrombotic event, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia, which has caused extensive debate regarding the safety of vaccines. This review defines the thromboembolic events following infection and vaccination, identifies their risk factors, describes their pathophysiology, and discusses their management, treatment, and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines
8.
Infection ; 50(1): 93-106, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661756

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This executive summary of a national living guideline aims to provide rapid evidence based recommendations on the role of drug interventions in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The guideline makes use of a systematic assessment and decision process using an evidence to decision framework (GRADE) as recommended standard WHO (2021). Recommendations are consented by an interdisciplinary panel. Evidence analysis and interpretation is supported by the CEOsys project providing extensive literature searches and living (meta-) analyses. For this executive summary, selected key recommendations on drug therapy are presented including the quality of the evidence and rationale for the level of recommendation. RESULTS: The guideline contains 11 key recommendations for COVID-19 drug therapy, eight of which are based on systematic review and/or meta-analysis, while three recommendations represent consensus expert opinion. Based on current evidence, the panel makes strong recommendations for corticosteroids (WHO scale 5-9) and prophylactic anticoagulation (all hospitalized patients with COVID-19) as standard of care. Intensified anticoagulation may be considered for patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolisms (VTE) and a low bleeding risk. The IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab may be added in case of high supplemental oxygen requirement and progressive disease (WHO scale 5-6). Treatment with nMABs may be considered for selected inpatients with an early SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not hospitalized for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma, azithromycin, ivermectin or vitamin D3 should not be used in COVID-19 routine care. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19 drug therapy, there are several options that are sufficiently supported by evidence. The living guidance will be updated as new evidence emerges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Elife ; 102021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597375

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we have used phase-contrast X-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopathological examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross-section of 3.5mm were scanned at a laboratory setup as well as at a parallel beam setup at a synchrotron radiation facility the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by high-resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in the form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/pathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Synchrotrons , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(1): 149-156, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483925

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but severe immunological reaction to the non-replicable adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. Extreme activation of platelets and the coagulation system leads to a high risk of death from venous or arterial thrombosis or secondary hemorrhage. Public and clinician awareness has reduced mortality of VITT by nearly 90%. The World Health Organization provided a guideline in July 2021 on diagnosis and management of VITT (also called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS). Since July 2021, new, clinically relevant information has become available. This update has been summarized by the authors in an informal process with recommendations for low resource environments. We provide new available evidence on VITT to empower clinicians to recognize VITT early, then effectively diagnose and treat the disorder to reduce morbidity and mortality. We strongly encourage production of clear management pathways for primary care settings and hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
14.
Infection ; 50(1): 93-106, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This executive summary of a national living guideline aims to provide rapid evidence based recommendations on the role of drug interventions in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The guideline makes use of a systematic assessment and decision process using an evidence to decision framework (GRADE) as recommended standard WHO (2021). Recommendations are consented by an interdisciplinary panel. Evidence analysis and interpretation is supported by the CEOsys project providing extensive literature searches and living (meta-) analyses. For this executive summary, selected key recommendations on drug therapy are presented including the quality of the evidence and rationale for the level of recommendation. RESULTS: The guideline contains 11 key recommendations for COVID-19 drug therapy, eight of which are based on systematic review and/or meta-analysis, while three recommendations represent consensus expert opinion. Based on current evidence, the panel makes strong recommendations for corticosteroids (WHO scale 5-9) and prophylactic anticoagulation (all hospitalized patients with COVID-19) as standard of care. Intensified anticoagulation may be considered for patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolisms (VTE) and a low bleeding risk. The IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab may be added in case of high supplemental oxygen requirement and progressive disease (WHO scale 5-6). Treatment with nMABs may be considered for selected inpatients with an early SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not hospitalized for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma, azithromycin, ivermectin or vitamin D3 should not be used in COVID-19 routine care. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19 drug therapy, there are several options that are sufficiently supported by evidence. The living guidance will be updated as new evidence emerges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 164-171, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235729

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory diseases constitute the most common reasons for hospitalization with more than half of all acute illnesses worldwide. Progressive respiratory failure with pronounced diffuse alveolar damage has been identified as the primary cause of death in COVID-19. COVID-19 pneumonia shares common histopathological hallmarks with influenza (H1N1)-related ARDS, like diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with edema, hemorrhage, and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition. The lungs with COVID-19 pneumonia revealed perivascular inflammation, an endothelial injury, microangiopathy, and an aberrant blood vessel neoformation by intussusceptive angiogenesis. While this pronounced angiocentric inflammation is likely be found - to varying degrees - in numerous other organs, e.g., the heart, COVID-19 is hypothesized to be not just a pulmonary, but rather a systemic "vascular disease."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Heart , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
16.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103382, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and inflammation are hallmarks of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with increased mortality. Clinical and experimental data have revealed a role for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in COVID-19 disease. The mechanisms that drive thrombo-inflammation in COVID-19 are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed proteomic analysis and immunostaining of postmortem lung tissues from COVID-19 patients and patients with other lung pathologies. We further compared coagulation factor XII (FXII) and DNase activities in plasma samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy control donors and determined NET-induced FXII activation using a chromogenic substrate assay. FINDINGS: FXII expression and activity were increased in the lung parenchyma, within the pulmonary vasculature and in fibrin-rich alveolar spaces of postmortem lung tissues from COVID-19 patients. In agreement with this, plasmaaac acafajföeFXII activation (FXIIa) was increased in samples from COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, FXIIa colocalized with NETs in COVID-19 lung tissue indicating that NETs accumulation leads to FXII contact activation in COVID-19. We further showed that an accumulation of NETs is partially due to impaired NET clearance by extracellular DNases as DNase substitution improved NET dissolution and reduced FXII activation in vitro. INTERPRETATION: Collectively, our study supports that the NET/FXII axis contributes to the pathogenic chain of procoagulant and proinflammatory responses in COVID-19. Targeting both NETs and FXIIa may offer a potential novel therapeutic strategy. FUNDING: This study was supported by the European Union (840189), the Werner Otto Medical Foundation Hamburg (8/95) and the German Research Foundation (FR4239/1-1, A11/SFB877, B08/SFB841 and P06/KFO306).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Factor XII/metabolism , Autopsy , Case-Control Studies , Deoxyribonucleases/blood , Deoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation , Pneumonia , Proteomics
18.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(3): 184-189, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169438

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global healthcare crisis. Based on reports of atypically located thromboses following vaccination with the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research (GTH) has issued guidance statements on the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare complication. It shares pathophysiological features with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and is referred to as vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Guidelines as Topic , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
19.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 164-171, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070829

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory diseases constitute the most common reasons for hospitalization with more than half of all acute illnesses worldwide. Progressive respiratory failure with pronounced diffuse alveolar damage has been identified as the primary cause of death in COVID-19. COVID-19 pneumonia shares common histopathological hallmarks with influenza (H1N1)-related ARDS, like diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with edema, hemorrhage, and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition. The lungs with COVID-19 pneumonia revealed perivascular inflammation, an endothelial injury, microangiopathy, and an aberrant blood vessel neoformation by intussusceptive angiogenesis. While this pronounced angiocentric inflammation is likely be found - to varying degrees - in numerous other organs, e.g., the heart, COVID-19 is hypothesized to be not just a pulmonary, but rather a systemic "vascular disease."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Heart , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Phlebologie ; 49(03):178-+, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-680627
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