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PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009416, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156080


COVID-19 is characterized by respiratory symptoms of various severities, ranging from mild upper respiratory signs to acute respiratory failure/acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with a high mortality rate. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is largely unknown. Shotgun metagenomics from nasopharyngeal swabs were used to characterize the genomic, metagenomic and transcriptomic features of patients from the first pandemic wave with various forms of COVID-19, including outpatients, patients hospitalized not requiring intensive care, and patients in the intensive care unit, to identify viral and/or host factors associated with the most severe forms of the disease. Neither the genetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, nor the detection of bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites were associated with the severity of pulmonary disease. Severe pneumonia was associated with overexpression of cytokine transcripts activating the CXCR2 pathway, whereas patients with benign disease presented with a T helper "Th1-Th17" profile. The latter profile was associated with female gender and a lower mortality rate. Our findings indicate that the most severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the presence of overactive immune cells resulting in neutrophil pulmonary infiltration which, in turn, could enhance the inflammatory response and prolong tissue damage. These findings make CXCR2 antagonists, in particular IL-8 antagonists, promising candidates for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 395-415, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549176


OBJECTIVES: The world is currently facing an unprecedented healthcare crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of these guidelines is to produce a framework to facilitate the partial and gradual resumption of intervention activity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The group has endeavoured to produce a minimum number of recommendations to highlight the strengths to be retained in the 7 predefined areas: (1) protection of staff and patients; (2) benefit/risk and patient information; (3) preoperative assessment and decision on intervention; (4) modalities of the preanaesthesia consultation; (5) specificity of anaesthesia and analgesia; (6) dedicated circuits and (7) containment exit type of interventions. RESULTS: The SFAR Guideline panel provides 51 statements on anaesthesia management in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. After one round of discussion and various amendments, a strong agreement was reached for 100% of the recommendations and algorithms. CONCLUSION: We present suggestions for how the risk of transmission by and to anaesthetists can be minimised and how personal protective equipment policies relate to COVID-19 pandemic context.

Analgesia/standards , Anesthesia/standards , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Airway Management , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Pathways , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Disinfection , Elective Surgical Procedures , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Informed Consent , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Operating Rooms/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Preoperative Care , Professional Staff Committees , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Universal Precautions
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 329-332, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245318


The first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic required an unprecedented and historic increase in critical care capacity on a global scale in France. Authors and members from the ACUTE and REANIMATION committees of the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR) wished to share experience and insights gained during the first weeks of this pandemic. These were summarised following the World Health Organization Response Checklist and detailed according to the subsequent subheadings: 1. Command and Control, 2. Communication, 3. Safety and Security, 4. Triage, 5. Surge Capacity, 6. Continuity of essential services, 7. Human resources, 8. Logistics and supply management, 9. Training/Preparation, 10. Psychological comfort for patients and next of kin, 11. Learning and 12. Post disaster recovery. These experience-based recommendations, consensual across all members from both committees of our national society, establish a practical framework for medical teams, either spared by the first wave of severe COVID patients or preparing for the second one.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Bed Conversion , COVID-19 , Checklist , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , France/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Professional Staff Committees/organization & administration , Professional-Family Relations , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Triage/organization & administration , Workforce/organization & administration , World Health Organization