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1.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 30: 326-334, 2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated virological response and resistance profiles in individuals who were virologically suppressed who switched to bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF) in real life. METHODS: Survival analysis was used to assess probability of virological rebound (VR). Cumulative major resistance mutations (MRM) and cumulative genotypic susceptibility score (cGSS) were evaluated before the switch. RESULTS: Overall, 283 individuals virologically suppressed for a median (interquartile [IQR]) time of 7 (3-9) y were analyzed. Of these, 20.8% were in first-line treatment, 13.1% were highly treatment-experienced (HTE), and 8.5% had experienced previous integrase inhibitor (INI)-failures. Before the switch, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI MRM prevalence was 29% (M184V:13.8%; any thymidine analogue mutation: 14.1%; K65R: 0.7%; K70E 0.4%); only three (2.1%) individuals showed INI major resistance mutations (Y143C/H/R [n = 1]; Y143C [n = 1]; N155H [n = 1]), and 82.0% of individuals received fully active B/F/TAF. Ninety-six wk after switch, the probability of VR was 5%, with only 12 events of VR at a median (IQR) viremia level of 284 (187-980) copies/mL, mainly transient. No significant associations between virological outcomes and genotypic susceptibility to B/F/TAF were observed. People who experienced previous INI failures showed a significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio (AHR [95% CI]) to experience VR under B/F/TAF (3.9 [1.1-13.4], P = 0.031). This AHR increased in people who experienced INI failures and received partially active B/F/TAF (5.5 [1.4-21.1], P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Within 96 wk, a switch to B/F/TAF in individuals who were virologically suppressed ensured a very high rate of virological control in a clinical setting. Previous resistance alone did not affect B/F/TAF response. However, people who had previous INI failures were more prone to losing virological control under B/F/TAF.

2.
Virol J ; 19(1): 97, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the genome of a recombinant Enterovirus associated with severe and fatal nosocomial infection; it was typed as Echovirus 11 (E-11) according to the VP1 gene. Enterovirus infection is generally asymptomatic and self-limited, but occasionally it may progress to a more severe clinical manifestation, as in the case described here. Recombination plays a crucial role in the evolution of Enteroviruses (EVs) and has been recognized as the main driving force behind the emergence of epidemic strains associated with severe infection. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to monitor the circulation of recombinant strains for surveillance purposes. METHODS: Enterovirus-RNA was detected in the serum and liver biopsy of patients involved in the nosocomial cluster by commercial One-Step qRT-PCR method and the Enterovirus strains were isolated in vitro. The EVs typing was determined by analyzing the partial-length of the 5'UTR and VP1 sequences with the web-based open-access Enterovirus Genotyping Tool Version 0.1. The amplicons targeting 5'UTR, VP1 and overlapping fragments of the entire genome were sequenced with the Sanger method. Phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the VP1 and the full-genome sequences of our strains against an appropriate reference set of Enterovirus prototypes of the Picornaviridae genera and species retrieved from the Enterovirus Genotyping Tool. Recombination analysis was performed using RDP4 software. RESULTS: The Neighbor-Joining tree of the VP1 gene revealed that the 4 patients were infected with an identical molecular variant of Echovirus 11 (E-11). While the phylogenetic and the RDP4 analysis of the full-genome sequences provided evidence that it was a chimeric strain between an E-11 and a Coxsackievirus B (CV-B). CONCLUSIONS: The chimeric structure of the E-11 genome might have contributed to the severe infection and epidemic feature of the strain, but further biological characterizations are needed. The evidence reported in this study, highlights the limit of typing techniques based on the VP1 gene, as they fail to identify the emergence of recombinant strains with potentially more pathogenic or epidemic properties, thus providing only partial information on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , 5' Untranslated Regions , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus B, Human , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514955

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Comparative analysis between different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are lacking. We present an emulation trial from observational data to compare effectiveness of Bamlanivimab/Etesevimab (BAM/ETE) and Casirivimab/Imdevimab (CAS/IMD) in outpatients with early mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in a real-world scenario of variants of concern (VoCs) from Alpha to Delta. Methods: Allocation to treatment was subject to mAbs availability, and the measured factors were not used to determine which combination to use. Patients were followed through day 30. Viral load was measured by cycle threshold (CT) on D1 (baseline) and D7.Primary outcome was time to COVID-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause over days 0-30. Weighted pooled logistic regression and marginal structural Cox model by inverse probability weights were used to compare BAM/ETE vs. CAS/IMD. ANCOVA was used to compare mean D7 CT values by intervention. Models were adjusted for calendar month, MASS score and VoCs. We evaluated effect measure modification by VoCs, vaccination, D1 CT levels and enrolment period. Results: COVID19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 15 of 237 patients in the BAM/ETE group (6.3%) and in 4 of 196 patients in the CAS/IMD group (2.0%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk] 72%; p=0.024). Subset analysis carried no evidence that the effect of the intervention was different across stratification factors. There was no evidence in viral load reduction from baseline through day 7 across the two groups (+0.17, 95% -1.41;+1.74, p=0.83). Among patients who experienced primary outcome, none showed a negative RT-PCR test in nasopharyngeal swab (p=0.009) and 82.4% showed still high viral load (p<0.001) on D7. Conclusions: In a pre-Omicron epidemiologic scenario, CAS/IMD reduced risk of clinical progression of COVID-19 compared to BAM/ETE. This effect was not associated with a concomitant difference in virological response.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Observation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2263, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477725

ABSTRACT

The emerging threat represented by SARS-CoV-2 variants, demands the development of therapies for better clinical management of COVID-19. MAD0004J08 is a potent Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to neutralize in vitro all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) including the omicron variant even if with significantly reduced potency. Here we evaluated data obtained from the first 30 days of a phase 1 clinical study (EudraCT N.: 2020-005469-15 and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04932850). The primary endpoint evaluated the percentage of severe adverse events. Secondary endpoints evaluated pharmacokinetic and serum neutralization titers. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 via intramuscular (i.m.) route is safe and well tolerated, resulting in rapid serum distribution and sera neutralizing titers higher than COVID-19 convalescent and vaccinated subjects. A single dose administration of MAD0004J08 is also sufficient to effectively neutralize major SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). MAD0004J08 can be a major advancement in the prophylaxis and clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH are currently limited. Aim of the study was to investigate immunogenicity according to current CD4 T-cell count. METHODS: PLWH on ART attending a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program, were included in a prospective immunogenicity evaluation after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. Participants were stratified by current CD4 T-cell count (poor CD4 recovery, PCDR: <200/mm 3; intermediate CD4 recovery, ICDR: 200-500/mm 3 high CD4 recovery, HCDR: >500/mm 3). RBD-binding IgG, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and IFN-γ release were measured. As control group, HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs) were used. FINDINGS: Among 166 PLWH after 1 month from the second dose, detectable RBD-binding IgG were elicited in 86.7% of PCDR, 100% of ICDR, 98.7% of HCDR, and a neutralizing titre ≥1:10 elicited in 70.0%, 88.2% and 93.1%, respectively. Compared to HCDR, all immune response parameters were significantly lower in PCDR. After adjusting for confounders, current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 significantly predicted a poor magnitude of anti-RDB, nAbs and IFN-γ response. As compared with HCWs, PCDR elicited a consistently reduced immunogenicity for all parameters, ICDR only a reduced RBD-binding antibody response, whereas HCDR elicited a comparable immune response for all parameters. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in most of PLWH, albeit significantly poorer in those with CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 versus those with >500 cell/mm 3 and HIV-negative controls. A decreased RBD-binding antibody response than HCWs was also observed in PLWH with CD4 T-cell 200-500/mm 3, whereas immune response elicited in PLWH with a CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 was comparable to HIV-negative population.

6.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence for how HIV influences COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics at presentation and the clinical outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) versus HIV-negative patients (non-PLWH) hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Primary endpoint: time until invasive ventilation/death. Secondary endpoints: time until ventilation/death, time until symptoms resolution. RESULTS: A total of 1647 hospitalized patients were included (43 (2.6%) PLWH, 1604 non-PLWH). PLWH were younger (55 vs. 61 years) and less likely to be with PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg compared with non-PLWH. Among PLWH, nadir of CD4 was 185 (75-322) cells/µL; CD4 at COVID-19 diagnosis was 272 cells/µL (127-468) and 77% of these were virologically suppressed. The cumulative probability of invasive mechanical ventilation/death at day 15 was 4.7% (95%CI 1.2-17.3) in PLWH versus 18.9% (16.9-21.1) in non-PLWH (p = 0.023). The cumulative probability of non-invasive/invasive ventilation/death at day 15 was 20.9% (11.5-36.4) in PLWH versus 37.6% (35.1-40.2) in non-PLWH (p = 0.044). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of invasive mechanical ventilation/death of PLWH was 0.49 (95% CI 0.12-1.96, p = 0.310) versus non-PLWH; similarly, aHR of non-invasive/invasive ventilation/death of PLWH was 1.03 (95% CI 0.53-2.00, p = 0.926). CONCLUSION: A less-severe presentation of COVID-19 at hospitalization was observed in PLWH compared to non-PLWH; no difference in clinical outcomes could be detected.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35160328

ABSTRACT

Evidence on social determinants of health on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes is still limited. Therefore, this work investigates educational disparities in the incidence of infection and mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection during 2020 in Rome, with particular attention to changes in socioeconomic inequalities over time. A cohort of 1,538,231 residents in Rome on 1 January 2020, aged 35+, followed from 1 March to 31 December 2020, were considered. Cumulative incidence and mortality rates by education were estimated. Multivariable log-binomial and Cox regression models were used to investigate educational disparities in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during the entire study period and in three phases of the pandemic. During 2020, there were 47,736 incident cases and 2281 deaths. The association between education and the incidence of infection changed over time. Till May 2020, low- and medium-educated individuals had a lower risk of infection than that of the highly educated. However, there was no evidence of an association between education and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the summer. Lastly, low-educated adults had a 25% higher risk of infection from September to December than that of the highly educated. Similarly, there was substantial evidence of educational inequalities in mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection in the last term of 2020. In Rome, social inequalities in COVID-19 appeared in the last term of 2020, and they strengthen the need for monitoring inequalities emerging from this pandemic.

8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 131, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737309

ABSTRACT

Here we report on the humoral and cellular immune response in eight volunteers who autonomously chose to adhere to the Italian national COVID-19 vaccination campaign more than 3 months after receiving a single-administration GRAd-COV2 vaccine candidate in the context of the phase-1 clinical trial. We observed a clear boost of both binding/neutralizing antibodies as well as T-cell responses upon receipt of the heterologous BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-nCOV19 vaccines. These results, despite the limitation of the small sample size, support the concept that a single dose of an adenoviral vaccine may represent an ideal tool to effectively prime a balanced immune response, which can be boosted to high levels by a single dose of a different vaccine platform.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(627): eabj1996, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698501

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are essential for ending the ongoing pandemic. Although impressive progress has been made with several COVID-19 vaccines already approved, it is clear that those developed so far cannot meet the global vaccine demand alone. We describe a COVID-19 vaccine based on a replication-defective gorilla adenovirus expressing the stabilized prefusion severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein named GRAd-COV2. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a single-dose regimen of this vaccine in healthy younger and older adults to select the appropriate dose for each age group. For this purpose, a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-labeled trial was conducted including 90 healthy participants (45 aged 18 to 55 years old and 45 aged 65 to 85 years old) who received a single intramuscular administration of GRAd-COV2 at three escalating doses. Local and systemic adverse reactions were mostly mild or moderate and of short duration, and no serious adverse events were reported. Four weeks after vaccination, seroconversion to spike protein and receptor binding domain was achieved in 43 of 44 young volunteers and in 45 of 45 older participants. Consistently, neutralizing antibodies were detected in 42 of 44 younger-age and 45 of 45 older-age volunteers. In addition, GRAd-COV2 induced a robust and T helper 1 cell (TH1)­skewed T cell response against the spike protein in 89 of 90 participants from both age groups. Overall, the safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 trial support the further development of this vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae , Aged , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Gorilla gorilla , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 3659-3665, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526785

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (NDM-Kpn) strains have been causing healthcare-associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and to analyze the clonality of NDM-Kpn isolates collected between January 2019 and June 2020 from patients admitted to hospitals from the Lazio region, Italy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on all NDM-Kpn strains; clonality and genetic relationships were further investigated. RESULTS: During the surveillance period, 17 NDM-Kpn isolates were obtained from 17 patients admitted to seven different hospitals. Eight different sequence types (STs) were detected: ST147 (n = 4), ST383 (n = 4), ST15 (n = 3), ST11 (n = 2), ST17 (n = 1), ST29 (n = 1), ST307 (n = 1) and the newly identified ST4853 (n = 1). Genetic relationships were further investigated by the WGS-based core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme, and 5 cluster types (CTs) were identified. Whereas a substantial overall heterogeneity among isolates was detected (8 different STs were identified out of 17 isolates), the strains within each cluster showed a very high level of genome similarity. DISCUSSION: Our study highlights the key role of surveillance, which allowed taking a picture of a part of the NDM-Kpn strains circulating in Italy, adding further insight into their molecular features.

11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 123, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399825

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolism is a frequent cause of severity and mortality in COVID-19. However, the etiology of this phenomenon is not well understood. A cohort of 1186 subjects, from the GEN-COVID consortium, infected by SARS-CoV-2 with different severity was stratified by sex and adjusted by age. Then, common coding variants from whole exome sequencing were mined by LASSO logistic regression. The homozygosity of the cell adhesion molecule P-selectin gene (SELP) rs6127 (c.1807G > A; p.Asp603Asn) which has been already associated with thrombotic risk is found to be associated with severity in the male subcohort of 513 subjects (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% Confidence Interval 1.54-3.36). As the SELP gene is downregulated by testosterone, the odd ratio is increased in males older than 50 (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.53-3.82). Asn/Asn homozygotes have increased D-dimers values especially when associated with poly Q ≥ 23 in the androgen receptor (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.41-7.52). These results provide a rationale for the repurposing of antibodies against P-selectin as adjuvant therapy in rs6127 male homozygotes especially if older than 50 or with an impaired androgen receptor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , P-Selectin/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of steroid therapy in patients within the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate if potential steroid benefits could be predicted by the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 in mmHg) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) in COVID-19 patients at admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively collected from all adult patients admitted because of COVID-19 from 29 January to 31 July 2020. The association of steroid therapy with 28-day all-cause mortality outcome was analysed in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall, 511 patients were analysed, of which 39.1% underwent steroid therapy. Steroid treated patients were mostly male, older, and more frequently treated with antiviral drugs and aminoquinolines; the most common comorbidities were hypertension, followed by cardiovascular disease. Overall, 51 patients died within 28-days, and overall 28-days mortality was 19.5% in the cohort of patients exposed to steroids versus 3.9% mortality in unexposed patients (p < 0.001). Steroid therapy on patients with P/F ratio of 235 mmHg or higher at admission can be considered as detrimental, with an 8% increased probability of death. CONCLUSIONS: Steroid therapy is associated with increased 28-day mortality in COVID-19 in patients with mild or no ARDS.

13.
Front Genet ; 12: 625607, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633786

ABSTRACT

We report phylogenetic and mutational analysis by NGS of six SARS-CoV-2 strains from patients flying from Bangladesh to Italy (July 2020). Data suggest that no further circulation of such imported strains occurred in Italy, stating the efficacy of early screening at the point of entry and supporting the importance of molecular epidemiology in monitoring the efficacy of control measures.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244129, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detailed temporal analyses of complete (full) blood count (CBC) parameters, their evolution and relationship to patient age, gender, co-morbidities and management outcomes in survivors and non-survivors with COVID-19 disease, could identify prognostic clinical biomarkers. METHODS: From 29 January 2020 until 28 March 2020, we performed a longitudinal cohort study of COVID-19 inpatients at the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy. 9 CBC parameters were studied as continuous variables [neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, mean platelet volume, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, mean red blood cell volume and red blood cell distribution width (RDW %)]. Model-based punctual estimates, as average of all patients' values, and differences between survivors and non-survivors, overall, and by co-morbidities, at specific times after symptoms, with relative 95% CI and P-values, were obtained by marginal prediction and ANOVA- style joint tests. All analyses were carried out by STATA 15 statistical package. MAIN FINDINGS: 379 COVID-19 patients [273 (72% were male; mean age was 61.67 (SD 15.60)] were enrolled and 1,805 measures per parameter were analysed. Neutrophils' counts were on average significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors (P<0.001) and lymphocytes were on average higher in survivors (P<0.001). These differences were time dependent. Average platelets' counts (P<0.001) and median platelets' volume (P<0.001) were significantly different in survivors and non-survivors. The differences were time dependent and consistent with acute inflammation followed either by recovery or by death. Anaemia with anisocytosis was observed in the later phase of COVID-19 disease in non-survivors only. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with diabetes (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.51-7.13; p = 0.005), obesity (OR = 3.89; 95%CI 1.51-10.04; p = 0.010), chronic renal failure (OR = 9.23; 95%CI 3.49-24.36; p = 0.001), COPD (OR = 2.47; 95% IC 1.13-5.43; p = 0.033), cardiovascular diseases (OR = 4.46; 95%CI 2.25-8.86; p = 0.001), and those >60 years (OR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.82-9.77; p = 0.001). Age (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 1.04-6.45; p = 0.042), obesity (OR = 5.13; 95%CI 1.81-14.50; p = 0.002), renal chronic failure (OR = 5.20; 95%CI 1.80-14.97; p = 0.002) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.79; 95%CI 1.29-6.03; p = 0.009) were independently associated with poor clinical outcome at 30 days after symptoms' onset. INTERPRETATION: Increased neutrophil counts, reduced lymphocyte counts, increased median platelet volume and anaemia with anisocytosis, are poor prognostic indicators for COVID19, after adjusting for the confounding effect of obesity, chronic renal failure, COPD, cardiovascular diseases and age >60 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Demography/methods , Erythrocyte Indices/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte Count/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Mean Platelet Volume/methods , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Prognosis , Rome , Survivors
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

16.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933109

ABSTRACT

The Republic of Congo (RoC) declared a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak on 9 February 2019. We conducted a ONE-Human-Animal HEALTH epidemiological, virological and entomological investigation. Methods: We collected national surveillance and epidemiological data. CHIK diagnosis was based on RT-PCR and CHIKV-specific antibodies. Full CHIKV genome sequences were obtained by Sanger and MinION approaches and Bayesian tree phylogenetic analysis was performed. Mosquito larvae and 215 adult mosquitoes were collected in different villages of Kouilou and Pointe-Noire districts and estimates of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitos' CHIKV-infectious bites obtained. We found two new CHIKV sequences of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) lineage, clustering with the recent enzootic sub-clade 2, showing the A226V mutation. The RoC 2019 CHIKV strain has two novel mutations, E2-T126M and E2-H351N. Phylogenetic suggests a common origin from 2016 Angola strain, from which it diverged around 1989 (95% HPD 1985-1994). The infectious bite pattern was similar for 2017, 2018 and early 2019. One Ae. albopictus pool was RT-PCR positive. The 2019 RoC CHIKV strain seems to be recently introduced or be endemic in sylvatic cycle. Distinct from the contemporary Indian CHIKV isolates and in contrast to the original Central-African strains (transmitted by Ae. aegypti), it carries the A226V mutation, indicating an independent adaptive mutation in response to vector replacement (Ae. albopictus vs Ae. aegypti).


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Aedes/virology , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/physiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Congo/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Larva , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Vectors , Mutation , Phylogeny , Young Adult
17.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 226, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spatial spread of many mosquito-borne diseases occurs by focal spread at the scale of a few hundred meters and over longer distances due to human mobility. The relative contributions of different spatial scales for transmission of chikungunya virus require definition to improve outbreak vector control recommendations. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large chikungunya outbreak mediated by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in the Lazio region, Italy, consisting of 414 reported human cases between June and November 2017. Using dates of symptom onset, geographic coordinates of residence, and information from epidemiological questionnaires, we reconstructed transmission chains related to that outbreak. RESULTS: Focal spread (within 1 km) accounted for 54.9% of all cases, 15.8% were transmitted at a local scale (1-15 km) and the remaining 29.3% were exported from the main areas of chikungunya circulation in Lazio to longer distances such as Rome and other geographical areas. Seventy percent of focal infections (corresponding to 38% of the total 414 cases) were transmitted within a distance of 200 m (the buffer distance adopted by the national guidelines for insecticide spraying). Two main epidemic clusters were identified, with a radius expanding at a rate of 300-600 m per month. The majority of exported cases resulted in either sporadic or no further transmission in the region. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggest that human mobility contributes to seeding a relevant number of secondary cases and new foci of transmission over several kilometers. Reactive vector control based on current guidelines might allow a significant number of secondary clusters in untreated areas, especially if the outbreak is not detected early. Existing policies and guidelines for control during outbreaks should recommend the prioritization of preventive measures in neighboring territories with known mobility flows to the main areas of transmission.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0234010, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470049

ABSTRACT

In Europe HAV infection occurs mainly among specific risk groups, such as consumers of specific food. Sexual transmission of HAV has been demonstrated, particularly among Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (MSM), causing MSM-specific outbreaksin Europe. Here we report a molecular epidemiologic and phylodynamic analysis on HAV sequences in Lazio (central Italy)to identify genetic background and the phylogenetic relations, and test the HAV infection dynamics during a large outbreak through phylodynamic model.Among all HAV sequences found during 2013-2018 in Lazio, low genetic diversity was observed in HAV population in 2016 and 2017, along with high frequenciesVRD_521_2016and RIVM-HAV16-090, suggesting a large expansion event of viral population. The initial expansion of both VRD_521_2016 and RIVM-HAV16-090 clusters dated back to 2012 (95% HPD:2006-2015). During the2016-2017outbreak in Lazio region, the Re peaked around mid-2016, with a value of 1.73 (95% HPD: 1.03-2.37), consistent with incidence trend of AHA cases in Lazio between 2016 and mid-2017. This study showed the magnitude of HAV outbreak in Lazio during 2016-2017, demonstrating the epidemic continuity to MSM-specific outbreak in Europe. The HAV dataset is available on interactive phylodynamic platform https://nextstrain.org to real-time update of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A virus/classification , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/virology , Homosexuality, Male , Phylogeny , Base Sequence , Basic Reproduction Number , Bayes Theorem , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Hepatitis A virus/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Male , Population Dynamics
19.
Euro Surveill ; 25(11)2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209164

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the transmission of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in paucisymptomatic patients are lacking. We report an Italian paucisymptomatic case of coronavirus disease 2019 with multiple biological samples positive for SARS-CoV-2. This case was detected using the World Health Organization protocol on cases and contact investigation. Current discharge criteria and the impact of extra-pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 samples are discussed.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Feces/virology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Travel , Virus Shedding , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Italy , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , World Health Organization , Young Adult
20.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 33(4): 1045-1062, 2019 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668190

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis is a major global public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Five major biologically unrelated hepatotropic viruses cause most of the global burden of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are associated with a significant number of chronic infections. Most deaths from viral hepatitis are due to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. An estimated 257 million people were living with HBV and 71 million people were living with HCV. Most people are asymptomatic. New diagnostics and highly effective, pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals provide opportunities to cure and eradicate chronic hepatitis C virus infection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis Viruses/classification , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/virology , Global Health , Hepatitis Viruses/pathogenicity , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans
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