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1.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988182

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and at high risk of progression, casirivimab/imdevimab and bamlanivimab/etesivimab were utilized in Umbria from late April to November 2021. This period was characterized by an initial prevalence of alpha (B1.1.1.7) and its progressive substitution with the delta variant (B1.617.2). Many delta infections occurred in patients already recently vaccinated.Our study aimed to observe the clinical outcome of patients treated with mAbs associations in a subgroup in which viral isolation was obtained, the pre and post-infusion neutralizing antibody activity against their viral isolate. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, the clinical outcome before and 30 days after infusion, the baseline neutralizing activity of sera against their viral isolate, and the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbTs) one-hour post-infusion relative to the type of mAbs associations were evaluated. Results: Better efficacy of the mAbs combinations relative to monotherapy regarding global hospitalization (p = 0.021) and 30 days symptoms (p<0.001) were seen. Infections after vaccination mostly occurred in the absence of neutralizing antibody titers (NAbT). SARS-CoV-2 delta variants were isolated within 2-4 months from vaccinations without NAbTs, or in the presence of high specific neutralizing activity after 5-6 months. NAbTs were higher after casirivimab/imdevimab infusion (p=0.001). Conclusions: Alpha infections occurred prevalently in unvaccinated patients or after 5-6 months, while delta infections prevailed in vaccinated ones. A poor neutralizing activity in most of these patients was seen. A higher NAbT after infusion of casirivimab/imdevimab was observed.

2.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(4): 296-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines have had a fundamental impact in containing the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are few efficacy data relating to frail patients, including the HIV-positive patient. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) serum neutralization in People Living with HIV (PLWH) compared to a cohort of healthy volunteers both vaccinated with BNT162b2. METHODS: A serum sample was then withdrawn 14-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine and a serum neutralization assay was performed on Vero E6 cells. The experiments were performed using two strains of SARS-CoV-2 as 20A.EU1 and B.1.617.2. RESULTS: PLWH on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) showed a vaccine response comparable to the healthy subjects. No correlation between CD4 count or CD4/CD8 and neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) has been found. No differences in NT-Abs between patients with CD4 nadir above or under 200 cells/µl have been found. In both cohorts, vaccine-elicited serum better neutralized 20A.EU1 than B.1.617.2 strain. CONCLUSION: PLWH in ART and with good immuno-virological recovery showed a vaccine response comparable to that of healthy subjects and regardless of their immunological status at HIV infection diagnosis. However, larger studies are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the vaccine response even in patients with low CD4 counts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136246, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been generally unsuccessful in preventing worsening of respiratory failure or death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CP plus standard therapy (ST) vs ST alone in preventing worsening respiratory failure or death in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled (1:1 ratio) hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive CP plus ST or ST alone between July 15 and December 8, 2020, at 27 clinical sites in Italy. Hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia and a partial pressure of oxygen-to-fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 350 and 200 mm Hg were eligible. Interventions: Patients in the experimental group received intravenous high-titer CP (≥1:160, by microneutralization test) plus ST. The volume of infused CP was 200 mL given from 1 to a maximum of 3 infusions. Patients in the control group received ST, represented by remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and low-molecular weight heparin, according to the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of worsening respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ratio <150 mm Hg) or death within 30 days from randomization. Results: Of the 487 randomized patients (241 to CP plus ST; 246 to ST alone), 312 (64.1%) were men; the median (IQR) age was 64 (54.0-74.0) years. The modified intention-to-treat population included 473 patients. The primary end point occurred in 59 of 231 patients (25.5%) treated with CP and ST and in 67 of 239 patients (28.0%) who received ST (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.33; P = .54). Adverse events occurred more frequently in the CP group (12 of 241 [5.0%]) compared with the control group (4 of 246 [1.6%]; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, high-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 CP did not reduce the progression to severe respiratory failure or death within 30 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care
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