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Eur J Neurol ; 29(12): 3728-3736, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019251


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical outcomes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been thoroughly investigated, but a further analysis on main signs and symptoms and their risk factors still needs attention. The objective of this study was to group together and describe based on similarity the most common signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in MS patients and identify all factors associated with their manifestation. METHOD: Logistic and linear regression models were run to recognize factors associated with each pooled group of symptoms and their total number. RESULTS: From March 2020 to November 2021, data were collected from 1354 MS patients with confirmed infection of COVID-19. Ageusia and anosmia was less frequent in older people (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; p = 0.005) and more in smoker patients (OR 1.39; p = 0.049). Smoke was also associated with an incremental number of symptoms (OR 1.24; p = 0.031), substance abuse (drugs or alcohol), conjunctivitis and rash (OR 5.20; p = 0.042) and the presence of at least one comorbidity with shortness of breath, tachycardia or chest pain (OR 1.24; p = 0.008). Some disease-modifying therapies were associated with greater frequencies of certain COVID-19 symptoms (association between anti-CD20 therapies and increment in the number of concomitant symptoms: OR 1.29; p = 0.05). Differences in frequencies between the three waves were found for flu-like symptoms (G1, p = 0.024), joint or muscle pain (G2, p = 0.013) and ageusia and anosmia (G5, p < 0.001). All cases should be referred to variants up to Delta. CONCLUSION: Several factors along with the choice of specific therapeutic approaches might have a different impact on the occurrence of some COVID-19 symptoms.

Ageusia , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Multiple Sclerosis/complications
Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2106-2111, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902303


BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 or fingolimod showed a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in pwMS on different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). METHODS: Data on the number of vaccinated patients and the number of patients with a breakthrough infection were retrospectively collected in 27 Italian MS centers. We estimated the rate of breakthrough infections and of infection requiring hospitalization per DMT. RESULTS: 19,641 vaccinated pwMS were included in the database. After a median follow-up of 8 months, we observed 137 breakthrough infections. Compared with other DMTs, the rate of breakthrough infections was significantly higher on ocrelizumab (0.57% vs 2.00%, risk ratio (RR) = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.74-4.58, p < 0.001) and fingolimod (0.58% vs 1.62%, RR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.75-4.00, p < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in any other DMT group. In the ocrelizumab group the hospitalization rate was 16.7% versus 19.4% in the pre-vaccination era (RR = 0.86, p = 0.74) and it was 3.9% in all the other DMT groups versus 11.9% in the pre-vaccination period (RR = 0.33, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is higher in patients treated with ocrelizumab and fingolimod, and the rate of severe infections was significantly reduced in all the DMTs excluding ocrelizumab.

COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2