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Blood ; 138:3090, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582392


Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy and is estimated to affect more than 100,000 Americans. Current Centers for Disease Control statistics indicate that Black Americans die from COVID-19 at a disproportionately high rate, 13.6% of 449, 373 deaths but only account for 12.54% of the United States Population (CDC COVID Data Tracker accessed 5/5/2021). A voluntary clinical reported registry of COVID-19 infections in patients with SCD reported both high hospitalization rates (69%) and case fatality rates (7%) (Panepinto, 2020), but only reported data from March 20-May 21, 2020. A retrospective cohort review from England demonstrated a 4-fold increased risk of hospitalization and 2.6-fold increased risk of death due to COVID-19 for those patients with sickle cell disease compared to the general population (Hippisley-Cox, 2021). The unique constellation of SCD manifestations complicate both the diagnosis and management of COVID-19, particularly related to anticoagulation and transfusion practices. Understanding the impact of early exchange and anticoagulation would guide development of appropriate treatment guidelines and future understanding of pathophysiology. We report on the outcomes for all hospitalized inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 and SCD at institutions using Cerner electronic health record (EHR). Methods Exempted retrospective review approved by ChristianaCare IRB. We obtained deidentified data from the Cerner COVID Data Lab which includes information on all hospitalized inpatients with SARS-CoV-2 and sickle cell disease as documented by ICD 10 D57.XX from 12/10/2019-10/15/2020 at institutions that use the Cerner EHR. Those with sickle cell trait excluded. The data included 209 patients;1 patient had separate 2 visits, only the first visit in the data. Evaluated anticoagulation use, not dose. Descriptive statistics are given: percentages for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Comparisons between patients who died or went to hospice versus patients who recovered were done using unadjusted chi-squared tests or t-tests. Results: Admission: 124 (74.3%) were afebrile (temp <100) 52 (28.4%) were tachypneic (RR >22) 10 (6.2%) were hypoxic (<92%) 7 (3.3%) were intubated during hospitalization Many patients had comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, and congestive heart failure, but it was not clear if patients had multiple co-morbidities. Treatment: 16 (7.7%) got transfused RBC between 1.77 and 589.18 hours into admission 5 (2.4%) got Remdesivir, none of these patients died/went to hospice. No exchange transfusions, but maybe wasn't captured in coding data 149 (71.3%) received anticoagulant, dosing unable to be obtained so not known if this was prophylactic or treatment dosing. Outcomes: 158 (80.2%) discharged home 18 (9.1%) discharged facility 8 (4.1%) died 2 (1.0%) discharged hospice 11 (5.6%) left against medical advice 12 (5.7%) missing disposition data Those who died/went to hospice had longer hospital stays, were more likely to be hypoxic and initially tachypneic. None of these patients received remdesivir. Study included small numbers but those who died more likely to have hypertension, diabetes w/ and w/out complications, CHF. Discussion This data only included hospitalized patients, doesn't account for patients who remained outpatient so case fatality rate likely lower. 10/209 patients died- 4.8% fatality rate, 12 patients missing final discharge disposition. 18 went to facility, may have died as outpatient. Only a small number of patients received remdesivir and there were overall low rates of anticoagulation, concerning given SCD is a hypercoagulable state. Study limitations include only hospitalized patients in the dataset and only draws from Cerner EMR institutions, a 26% market share. Based on our own SCD population, only a small percentage of patients with SCD and COVID-19 hospitalized. Additionally, there is likely significant variability between institutions' treatment protocols, particularly in the early m nths of the data set. Finally, we could not adequately gauge severity of COVID-19 disease given notable variations in institutional resources. TABLES (in process): TABLE 1- Demographics- split by death/hospice vs. other dispositions TABLE 2- Admission Characteristics- Death/hospice vs. others TABLE 3- Treatments- Death/Hospice vs. others Disclosures: Lanzkron: Shire: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Imara: Research Funding;GBT: Research Funding;Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novo Nordisk: Consultancy.

Blood ; 138:2982, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582330


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic presented exceptional challenges to caring for adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and necessitated a rapid transition to telemedicine, disrupting established care systems within a population that already faces unique and challenging medical needs. Although implementation of telemedicine care assumed reliable patient access to the requisite technology, as well as adequate spaces in which to complete visits, pre-pandemic barriers to in-person visits were also considerable, and many patients lacked access to reliable transportation and childcare or could not afford to miss work to attend clinic. Given the scarcity of research on the acceptability of telemedicine care for SCD patients, the pandemic has provided a critical and necessary opportunity to study patient satisfaction when using telemedicine modalities for regular SCD care. The objective of this study was to identify which patient groups rate telemedicine high in satisfaction and usability. Methods: We surveyed 99 patients of the Sickle Cell Clinic for adults at Johns Hopkins who had any form of SCD, were age 18 or above, and participated in at least one video visit between March-July 2020. Telemedicine satisfaction was assessed by the Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire (TSQ), and usability was assessed by the System Usability Scale (SUS). Patients' engagement in their healthcare was assessed by the Patient Activation Measure (PAM13). We conducted linear regression with TSQ and SUS as outcomes and participant characteristics as predictors. Results: Participant characteristics (briefly, mean age 39, 95% African American, 72% female, and 81% with education level above high school) and their association with TSQ and SUS are shown in Table 1. Mean SUS was 72/100 (SD 15), slightly above the defined average usability of 68;mean TSQ was 4.1 (SD 0.5) on a 5-point Likert scale. Participants tended to prefer video visits for their regular care (mean rating of 6.6/10, SD 2.9) but not for management of acute pain (mean rating of 4.9/10, SD 3.2). Participants who preferred video visits for regular SCD care reported higher SUS (p<0.01) and TSQ (p<0.001). We examined the effects of age, sex, income, and education level on TSQ and SUS;higher SUS was associated with an education level above high school (p<0.05), but no other associations were consistently significant. Higher SUS was also associated with having private insurance compared to public insurance (p<0.01) and being employed full-time compared to being unemployed (p<0.05). Disability status was negatively associated with SUS (p<0.05) but not TSQ. PAM13 was associated with higher telemedicine approval as measured by both TSQ and SUS (p<0.01). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that telemedicine has above-average usability and high satisfaction for SCD patients, regardless of age, sex, and income. Patients who were more engaged with their healthcare were more likely to rate telemedicine satisfaction and usability high. Because SUS was negatively associated with disability, lower education level, public insurance, and unemployment, patients within these groups may need more assistance with telemedicine. To improve usability, clinics may consider incorporating support services for patients who have difficulty using telemedicine platforms. Altogether, telemedicine demonstrates promising acceptability to SCD patients across multiple demographic groups and may serve as another method in the toolkit for increasing accessibility to high quality care for these patients. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Lanzkron: Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Novo Nordisk: Consultancy;GBT: Research Funding;Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Shire: Research Funding;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding;Imara: Research Funding.

Blood ; 138:1893, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582208


Introduction Individuals with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) require regular, and specialized treatment to manage their health. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted in person medical visits for all individuals, with a rapid transition to telemedicine to provide medical care. Emerging data shows that the use of telemedicine may provide easier access to care and remove barriers to clinic attendance and improve access to appropriate medical care. Objective The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to understand the patients' experiences with telemedicine, identify patient preferences for type of appointment, and possible suggestions to improve telemedicine care. Methods Patients from the Johns Hopkins Sickle Cell Center for Adults who had at least one telemedicine visit were invited to participate in a semi structured interview via zoom meeting or telephone. The interview asked participants about their satisfaction with telemedicine care, barriers to telemedicine, benefits and risks of telemedicine and possible telemedicine improvements. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded by two independent raters using thematic analyses to understand the experiences of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Overall, 30 adults with SCD who had at least one telemedicine visit were invited to participate and completed their interview (mean age 41 years ± xx, 67% female, 93% Black/African American, 3% Multi-Race, 3% Other). “…I can't ignore the convenience of not having to worry about transportation. that there's nothing to stop me from getting there.” During a SCD pain crisis it can it challenging to move and receive treatment as one participant reported “Maybe sometimes I might have pain…then moving around makes it difficult. So, getting in the car and finding somebody to drive you to a hospital or to whatever clinic would be difficult”. Being able to access specialized SCD care even while in pain is important. Having the option of either having telemedicine or in person visits was important to SCD patients “I could treat my crisis here at home. I don't have to go to the emergency room for it. So, if I can see my doctor in the tele-visit appointment and it's going to be constantly every day. And when it's getting worse, then I could go to the emergency room more if needed. If it's not needed, I don't even need to go”. Another emerging theme amongst participants was despite the benefits from telemedicine, they also wanted to continue having in-person visits when they needed. SCD participants felt due to their SCD they still needed to see their doctor in person but it did not have to be for every visit “Well, I think telemedicine, for me, can be used in a setting where there's no such an emergency. Like if I'm having a routine exam, I don't mind having the telemedicine. But if. I'm not feeling well. I don't want to be having a telemedicine”. SCD participants felt they needed a physical exam periodically. “The only thing I didn't like about it was if I'm having some discomfort or some pain. there was no way for the physician to physically examine me”. Along with the lack of physical exam, there were concerns about the lack of vital signs “. the drawbacks would be the lack of the vitals being taken or there's not the personal touch and stuff”. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has presented many obstacles for patients to receive care. People living with SCD found telemedicine to be a positive tool to receive treatment. Patients reported the desire to continue with telemedicine even after the COVID -19 pandemic. Telemedicine allows for more accessibility for a group of individuals who already have numerous barriers to treatment. Future research can seek to identify the impact that telemedicine has on no-show rates, health care utilization, and the impact telemedicine has on patient reported quality of life. Disclosures: Lanzkron: Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Shire: Research Funding;GBT: Research Funding;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Novo N rdisk: Consultancy;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Imara: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding.

Blood ; 138:3113, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582197


Background: Vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) are the most common acute complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). Crizanlizumab, an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody, is an FDA-approved disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for SCD patients (pts) aged ≥16 yrs to reduce the frequency of VOC. To better understand its use and impact, the National Alliance for Sickle Cell Centers (NASCC) conducted a retrospective study of pts prescribed crizanlizumab from 11/2019-6/30/2021. NASCC is a non-profit organization formed to support SCD centers in delivering quality comprehensive care by setting and adopting specific standards and advocating for improved health outcomes in SCD. This study describes the largest real-world cohort of pts treated with crizanlizumab. Methods: This is a two-part study. Part 1 was to evaluate NASCC center crizanlizumab practice and to summarize data on insurance approval and the frequency of drug discontinuation. Part 2 includes pt level data to evaluate reasons for discontinuation and acute care utilization pre and post therapy. Acute care use includes day hospital/infusion, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations for VOC (excluding COVID-19). The index date for each pt is defined as the 1st crizanlizumab infusion date. Chart review (electronic health records) was used to identify all acute care visits 12 months pre-index and ≤12 months post index. Acute care data will be analyzed in aggregate. Evaluation of center-specific use of crizanlizumab, time to initial site level formulary approval and drug discontinuation were analyzed. Pt level data collection is ongoing to include sufficient time post index date. VOC characteristics will be summarized using medians, median differences (pre/post treatment), and 95% confidence intervals. Additional evaluation of effectiveness of crizanlizumab will include analysis based on number of doses received, pre-treatment VOC burden, concomitant hydroxyurea (HU) use and genotype. Results: Data includes pts prescribed crizanlizumab at 11 NASCC centers. Site- formulary approvals to use crizanlizumab varied from 12/2019-12/2020. As a result, the 1st pt to receive treatment at each site varied from 1/15/2020-1/20/2021. Mean time from site-level approval to first infusion was 77 days (range: 0-394). Over 50% of sites received insurance denials mainly due to “insufficient medical necessity” or “medication not covered by the prescription plan.” Sites were able to successfully appeal denials for 71% of pts (Table 1). Treatment Delivery: Each site gives infusions over 30 minutes and the majority (64%) do not use pre-medication unless pts had reactions. Some sites use diphenhydramine/acetaminophen (3) or normal saline and ketorolac (1). All sites prescribe crizanlizumab to pts of all SCD genotypes. Pts Treated: 297 pts were prescribed crizanlizumab of whom 238 received ≥ 1 infusion. There was variation in number of pts/site (range 6-73, mean 21) due to time to site-level approval, insurance and pt population. Of these 238, 75 pts (32%) discontinued treatment (0-17 pts/site). Sites reported pts perceived lack of improvement or feeling their overall pain was increased, transportation issues and infusion related reactions (IRRs) characterized by pain as some of the reasons for discontinuation. Evaluation of real-world efficacy measured by changes in acute care utilization, including sub-analysis by genotype, pre-treatment VOC burden and concomitant HU use, are pending sample size dependent feasibility. Discussion: This is the first multi-center real-world analysis of crizanlizumab. Findings demonstrate some insurance barriers to therapy. The majority of pts who initiated crizanlizumab have remained on therapy;however, 1/3 of pts had lack of effect or barriers to care. Pt level data will include characteristics related to treatment failure or IRR. Improving the understanding of phenotype-specific response to novel therapies is essential in SCD. Conclusion: Post-approval therapies for rare diseases must undergo real-world evaluation to ensure study results transla e to the community. NASCC uses defined criteria for multidisciplinary care for Alliance inclusion and findings reflect the use of DMT in such centers. This is the first NASCC study of DMT in SCD. Part 2 of the study will give early insights into the effectiveness of crizanlizumab;long term follow-up is needed for a full understanding of its utility in SCD. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Kanter: Fulcrum Therapeutics, Inc.: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Forma: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Agios: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Beam: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Sanofi: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Graphite Bio: Consultancy;GuidePoint Global: Honoraria;Fulcrum Tx: Consultancy. Manwani: Novartis: Consultancy. Idowu: Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Pfizer: Research Funding;Global Blood Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Forma Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding;Ironwood: Research Funding. Treadwell: National Alliance of Sickle Cell Centers: Other: Early Evaluation of the Use of Crizanlizumab in Sickle Cell Disease. Clay: GBT: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Honoraria. Little: Hemex Health, Inc.: Patents & Royalties;Biochip Labs: Patents & Royalties. Desai: Global Blood Therapeutics: Honoraria, Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Pfizer: Other: Publication Fee, Research Funding;Forma: Consultancy;Foundation for Sickle Cell Research: Honoraria. Lanzkron: Shire: Research Funding;Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novo Nordisk: Consultancy;GBT: Research Funding;Imara: Research Funding;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding.

Blood ; 138:1894, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582194


[Formula presented] Background: Adult sickle cell patients on chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) garnered special concern during the COVID-19 pandemic, when mass cancellation of blood drives threatened the national blood supply. In response, the American Society of Hematology proposed several strategies to decrease blood utilization, while maintaining adequate disease control for sickle cell patients on CTT. These included targeting a higher end hemoglobin S%, switching patients to simple transfusions when appropriate, and transitioning to alternative disease modifying therapies. There is little evidence to support the safety of altering exchange therapy regimens. Accordingly, at the Johns Hopkins Sickle Cell Center for Adults, a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and transfusion medicine specialists evaluated patients on a case by case basis to determine how their exchanges could be modified to accommodate for anticipated blood supply shortages. We describe our blood conservation efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting clinical outcomes for adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: For inclusion in this IRB-approved retrospective study, patients received at least 7 monthly exchange transfusions between March 2019 and February 2020 and continued care through March 2021. Decisions regarding CTT were made prior to data collection. Modifications to chronic exchanges included increasing the fraction of cells remaining (FCR), decreasing the end hematocrit, or switching to a hemodilution method. Additionally, select patients transitioned to monthly simple transfusions if they were clinically stable, had a hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL, and had a persistently suppressed hemoglobin S% (≤ 30). We collected basic demographics, pre-exchange laboratory studies, and exchange parameters before and after each transfusion encounter in the year before (March 2019 - February 2020) and during (March 2020 - February 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, we recorded presentations to urgent care and the emergency department;and hospital admissions during each time period. We reported descriptive statistics for the cohort and compared outcomes using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann Whitney U test. We analyzed data using Stata/SE Version 16.1. Results: We identified 58 patients with SCA who qualified for inclusion (Table 1). Fifty-three patients remained on chronic exchange transfusions during the pandemic, and five were switched to simple transfusions. For patients who remained on chronic exchanges, most received conventional automated red cell exchange (RCE) prior to (85%) and during the pandemic (77%). Use of hemodilution increased (15% to 23% of patients). Forty-three patients experienced an increase in mean FCR (33.6 (SD 11.6) vs 37.7 (4.7), p =.00). Of those, 22 patients saw a concomitant decrease in mean end hematocrit (30.8 (1.7) vs 29.6 (1.1), p =.00). These changes resulted in a decline in the average number of units per procedure (8.6 (1.9) vs 7.3 (1.7), p =.00), which corresponded to 890 units conserved. Mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin values declined (9.4 (1.3) vs 9.2 (1.3), p = 0.01), but hemoglobin S%, reticulocyte count, and ferritin values were unchanged (p > 0.05). Acute care presentations and hospital admissions declined, which were likely spurred by concerns about COVID-19 infection (Table 2, p < 0.05). During the pandemic, three patients died, one of whom had been switched to simple transfusions. This patient experienced a consistent rise in hemoglobin S% until death. Two of the remaining patients on simple transfusions were switched back to automated RCE due to an increase in hemoglobin S% above goal (Figure 1). Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we conserved red blood cell units through expanded use of hemodilution, higher FCR values, and switching some patients to simple transfusions. Patients who remained on exchanges maintained hemoglobin S% values near a goal of 30% without increasing iron burden. In contrast, the majority of patients who were switched to simple transfusions were unable to maintain goal hematologic parameters, and one patient died. Our data suggest that in a blood shortage crisis, changing the exchange procedure itself may be the safest means of conserving blood in a population of adult sickle cell patients;however longer follow-up is needed to ensure that these changes are safe. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Lanzkron: GBT: Research Funding;Shire: Research Funding;Novo Nordisk: Consultancy;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis: Research Funding;Imara: Research Funding;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy.

Blood ; 138:3101, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582158


Background Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) face unique fertility risks due to SCD and use of disease modifying therapies (DMTs). Concerns about compromising fertility may inform patients' therapy choices, but little is known about fertility knowledge in adults with SCD. The Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale (CFKS) and Fertility Treatment Perception Survey have been studied in international and national cohorts 1,2. The purpose of this study was to administer these surveys to adults with SCD and compare responses to previously studied populations. Methods Our IRB approved this cross-sectional study of adults with SCD (≥18YO) cared for at our Sickle Cell Center for Adults. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, eligible subjects were recruited during routine telemedicine clinic visits and by invitation via electronic medical record. We collected demographic information (sex, age (≥/< 31YO), educational attainment, and use of DMTs). The CFKS is a 13-question survey that measures knowledge of causes of reduced fertility, common misconceptions about fertility, and infertility facts. Questions are answered True/False/Don't know and equally weighted;the cumulative score is 0-100%. We compared the mean CFKS scores to the scores from two published cohorts 1,2. The fertility treatment perception survey consists of two positive and four negative statements about fertility treatment with responses given on a five-point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree). Responses are calculated by number of respondents with an agreement score of 4 and/or 5 divided by total number of respondents per sub-group;higher scores indicate stronger agreement. Analysis included summary statistics with means and standard deviations and independent student's T-test to compare the mean fertility knowledge scores. Results We contacted 435 subjects;91 respondents were enrolled (21% response rate). Respondents were 77% female [median age 33 years (IQR 23, 50)]. 51% completed high school or less and 18% used one or more DMTs, with 65% taking hydroxyurea. Table 1 shows the CFKS results. The average CFKS score was 50%, lower than the international cohort (50% vs. 57%, p<0.001) and higher than a cohort of Black women in Atlanta, GA (50% vs. 38%, p<0.001). Respondents with higher educational attainment had a higher score (55% secondary education vs. 44% primary education, p=0.04). The questions most answered correctly addressed the lack of correlation between erectile function and fertility (79%) and smoking's risk to fertility in men (69%) and women (71%). The questions least answered correctly were about classifying infertility (32%) and the impact of age effect (34%), overweight effect (25%), and sexually transmitted infections' effect on fertility (36%). There was no difference in knowledge scores by age, sex, or SCD treatment. Table 2 shows fertility treatment perception survey results. Some respondents (34%) agreed that fertility treatments are safe. Almost half (46%) agreed that fertility treatments are effective. Over 60% of respondents agreed that fertility treatments are scary and/or cause emotional problems, while 48% agreed that fertility treatments may have short-term physical effects. There was no difference in responses by sex, age, or SCD treatment. Conclusion In this study, we identify that higher educational attainment in adults with SCD is associated with better fertility knowledge. All subjects had low knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, weight gain, and older age as infertility risks. Although there is concern that hydroxyurea may compromise fertility, its use was not associated with greater fertility knowledge in this study. Given concerns about fertility in the SCD community, we identify an opportunity to support patients concerned about fertility by contextualizing real or theorized SCD-specific fertility risks within a broader set of established fertility risks. References: 1. Bunting L, Tsibulsky I, Boivin J. Fertility knowledge and beliefs about fertility treatment: findings from the International Fer ility Decision-making Study. Hum Reprod. 2013 Feb;28(2):385-97. doi: 10.1093/humrep/des402. Epub 2012 Nov 25. PMID: 23184181. 2. Wiltshire A, Brayboy LM, Phillips K, et al. Infertility knowledge and treatment beliefs among African American women in an urban community. Contracept Reprod Med. 2019 Sep 24;4:16. doi: 10.1186/s40834-019-0097-x. PMCID: PMC6757383. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Lanzkron: Shire: Research Funding;GBT: Research Funding;Novo Nordisk: Consultancy;CSL Behring: Research Funding;Pfizer: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Teva: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis: Research Funding;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Imara: Research Funding.