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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294112

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH are currently limited. Aim of the study was to investigate immunogenicity according to current CD4 T-cell count and predictive role on immune response to vaccination in PLWH.<br><br>Methods: PLWH attending a single-center SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program in Italy, were included in a prospective evaluation for immunogenicity after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. PLWH were stratified according to current CD4 T-cell count (severe immunodeficiency, SID: <200/mm 3 ;minor immunodeficiency, MID: 200-500/mm 3 ;no immunodeficiency, NID: >500/mm 3 ). RBD-binding IgG, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and cell-mediated (IFN-γ/IL-2) immune response were measured. As control group, not-matched HIV-negative healthcare workers (HCWs) were used.<br><br>Findings: Participants were 166 PLWH (SID=32;MID=56;NID=78) on ART. After 1 month from the booster dose, detectable RBD-binding IgG in 86.7% of SID, in 100% of MID, in 98.7% of NID (SID vs NID, p=0.021) and nAbs (titre ≥1:10) in 70.0%, 88.2% and 93.1%, respectively (SID vs NID, p=0.002), were elicited. Compared to NID, magnitude of anti-RBD, nAbs and IFN-γ production was significantly lower in SID and comparable in MID. After adjusting for confounders, current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 significantly predicted a poor magnitude of anti-RDB, nAbs and IFN-γ production. As compared with HCWs, SID elicited a consistently reduced immunogenicity for all parameters, MID only a reduced RBD-binding antibody response, NID a comparable response to HIV-negative controls for all parameters.<br><br>Interpretation: Neutralizing and cell-mediated immune response against SARS-CoV-2 were elicited in most of PLWH receiving ART, albeit significantly poorer in those with current CD4 T-cell <200/mm 3 versus those with CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 and HIV-negative controls. A marginal decreased immunogenicity than HCWs was also observed in PLWH with CD4 T-cell 200-500/mm 3 , whereas immune response elicited in PLWH with a CD4 T-cell >500/mm 3 was comparable to HIV-negative population.<br><br>Funding: Italian Ministry of Health;European Commission, European Virus Archive – GLOBAL.<br><br>Declaration of Interest: None to declare. <br><br>Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Scientific Committee of the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) and by the Ethical Committee of the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute, as National Review Board for COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (approval number 323/2021).

2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488231

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available on risks and benefits of anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients, and weaker responses have been described. At the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases, 61 liver transplant recipients underwent testing to describe the dynamics of humoral and cell-mediated immune response after two doses of anti-SARS-CoV2 mRNA vaccines and compared with 51 healthy controls. Humoral response was measured by quantifying both anti-spike and neutralizing antibodies; cell-mediated response was measured by PBMC proliferation assay with IFN-γ and IL-2 production. Liver transplant recipients showed lower response rates compared with controls in both humoral and cellular arms; shorter time since transplantation and multi-drug immunosuppressive regimen containing mycophenolate mofetil were predictive of reduced response to vaccination. Specific antibody and cytokine production, though reduced, were highly correlated in transplant recipients.

3.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 1041, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453506

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Eye , Humans
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 740249, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448730

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, treated with different immunosuppressive therapies, the induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response after vaccination in terms of anti-region-binding-domain (RBD)-antibody- and T-cell-specific responses against spike, and the vaccine safety in terms of clinical impact on disease activity. Methods: Health care workers (HCWs) and RA patients, having completed the BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination in the last 2 weeks, were enrolled. Serological response was evaluated by quantifying anti-RBD antibodies, while the cell-mediated response was evaluated by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ-response to spike peptides. FACS analysis was performed to identify the cells responding to spike stimulation. RA disease activity was evaluated by clinical examination through the DAS28crp, and local and/or systemic clinical adverse events were registered. In RA patients, the ongoing therapeutic regimen was modified during the vaccination period according to the American College of Rheumatology indications. Results: We prospectively enrolled 167 HCWs and 35 RA patients. Anti-RBD-antibodies were detected in almost all patients (34/35, 97%), although the titer was significantly reduced in patients under CTLA-4-inhibitors (median: 465 BAU/mL, IQR: 103-1189, p<0.001) or IL-6-inhibitors (median: 492 BAU/mL, IQR: 161-1007, p<0.001) compared to HCWs (median: 2351 BAU/mL, IQR: 1389-3748). T-cell-specific response scored positive in most of RA patients [24/35, (69%)] with significantly lower IFN-γ levels in patients under biological therapy such as IL-6-inhibitors (median: 33.2 pg/mL, IQR: 6.1-73.9, p<0.001), CTLA-4-inhibitors (median: 10.9 pg/mL, IQR: 3.7-36.7, p<0.001), and TNF-α-inhibitors (median: 89.6 pg/mL, IQR: 17.8-224, p=0.002) compared to HCWs (median: 343 pg/mL, IQR: 188-756). A significant correlation between the anti-RBD-antibody titer and spike-IFN-γ-specific T-cell response was found in RA patients (rho=0.432, p=0.009). IFN-γ T-cell response was mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Finally, no significant increase in disease activity was found in RA patients following vaccination. Conclusion: This study showed for the first time that antibody-specific and whole-blood spike-specific T-cell responses induced by the COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine were present in the majority of RA patients, who underwent a strategy of temporary suspension of immunosuppressive treatment during vaccine administration. However, the magnitude of specific responses was dependent on the immunosuppressive therapy administered. In RA patients, BNT162b2 vaccine was safe and disease activity remained stable.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 2010-2018, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Simple and standardized methods to establish correlates to vaccine-elicited SARS-CoV-2 protection are needed. METHODS: An observational study on antibody response to a mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty) was performed on health care workers (V, n=120). Recovered COVID-19 patients (N, n=94) were used for comparison. Antibody response was evaluated by a quantitative anti-receptor binding domain IgG (anti-RBD) commercial assay and by virus microneutralization test (MNT), in order to establish a threshold of anti-RBD binding antibody units (BAU) able to predict a robust (≥1:80) MNT titer. RESULTS: Significant correlation between BAU and MNT titers was found in both V and N, being stronger in V (rs=0.91 and 0.57 respectively, p<0.001); a higher incremental trend starting from MNT titer 1:80 was observed in the V group. The 99% probability of high MNT titer (≥1:80) was reached at 1,814 and 3,564 BAU/mL, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.99 (CI: 0.99-1.00) and 0.78 (CI: 0.67-0.86) in V and N, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A threshold of 2,000 BAU/mL is highly predictive of strong MNT response in vaccinated individuals and may represent a good surrogate marker of protective response. It remains to be established whether the present results can be extended to BAU titers obtained with other assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
6.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 1041, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330280

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Eye , Humans
7.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295739

ABSTRACT

We report the isolation of two human IgG1k monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These mAbs were isolated from two donors who had recovered from COVID-19 infection during the first pandemic peak in the Lombardy region of Italy, the first European and initially most affected region in March 2020. We used the method of EBV immortalization of purified memory B cells and supernatant screening with a spike S1/2 assay for mAb isolation. This method allowed rapid isolation of clones, with one donor showing about 7% of clones positive against spike protein, whereas the other donor did not produce positive clones out of 91 tested. RNA was extracted from positive clones 39-47 days post-EBV infection, allowing VH and VL sequencing. The same clones were sequenced again after a further 100 days in culture, showing that no mutation had taken place during in vitro expansion. The B cell clones could be expanded in culture for more than 4 months after EBV immortalization and secreted the antibodies stably during that time, allowing to purify mg quantities of each mAb for functional assays without generating recombinant proteins. Unfortunately, neither mAb had significant neutralizing activity in a virus infection assay with several different SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The antibody sequences are made freely available.

8.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286941

ABSTRACT

In European countries, autochthonous acute hepatitis E cases are caused by Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) genotype 3 and are usually observed as sporadic cases. In mid/late September 2019, a hepatitis E outbreak caused by HEV genotype 3 was recognized by detection of identical/highly similar HEV sequences in some hepatitis E cases from two Italian regions, Abruzzo and Lazio, with most cases from this latter region showing a link with Abruzzo. Overall, 47 cases of HEV infection were finally observed with onsets from 8 June 2019 to 6 December 2019; they represent a marked increase as compared with just a few cases in the same period of time in the past years and in the same areas. HEV sequencing was successful in 35 cases. The phylogenetic analysis of the viral sequences showed 30 of them grouped in three distinct molecular clusters, termed A, B, and C: strains in cluster A and B were of subtype 3e and strains in cluster C were of subtype 3f. No strains detected in Abruzzo in the past years clustered with the strains involved in the present outbreak. The outbreak curve showed partially overlapped temporal distribution of the three clusters. Analysis of collected epidemiological data identified pork products as the most likely source of the outbreak. Overall, the findings suggest that the outbreak might have been caused by newly and almost simultaneously introduced strains not previously circulating in this area, which are possibly harbored by pork products or live animals imported from outside Abruzzo. This possibility deserves further studies in this area in order to monitor the circulation of HEV in human cases as well as in pigs and wild boars.

9.
Microorganisms ; 9(6)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278501

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the main public health measure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and hospitalization, and a massive worldwide scientific effort resulted in the rapid development of effective vaccines. This work aimed to define the dynamics of humoral and cell-mediated immune response in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) who received a two-dose BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination. The serological response was evaluated by quantifying the anti-RBD and neutralizing antibodies. The cell-mediated response was performed by a whole blood test quantifying Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2), produced in response to spike peptides. The BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against spike peptides in virtually all HCWs without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a moderate inverse relation with age in the anti-RBD response. Spike-specific T cells produced several Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2), which correlated with the specific-serological response. Overall, our study describes the ability of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to elicit a coordinated neutralizing humoral and spike-specific T cell response in HCWs. Assessing the dynamics of these parameters by an easy immune monitoring protocol can allow for the evaluation of the persistence of the vaccine response in order to define the optimal vaccination strategy.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264538

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is considered the most effective method of prevention to contain the pandemic. While highly effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are being applied on a large-scale, whether and to what extent the strength of the vaccine-induced immune response could be further potentiated is still an object of debate. Several reports studied the effect of different vaccines on the susceptibility and mortality of COVID-19, with conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate whether previous influenza and/or pneumococcal vaccination had an impact on the specific immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. The study population consists of 710 workers from our Institute who completed the BNT162b2 schedule and have been tested at least once after the second dose, from 27 December 2020 up to 15 April 2021. Of these, 152 (21.4%) had received an influenza and 215 (30.3%) a concomitant influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, a median of 102 days before the second dose of BNT162b2. Overall, 100% of workers were tested for anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (anti-S/RBD) antibodies, 224 workers for neutralization titer (Micro-neutralization assay, MNA), and 155 workers for a spike-specific T cell interferon-γ response (IFN-γ). The levels of anti-S/RBD, MNA and IFN-γ were evaluated and compared according to sex, age, involvement in direct care of COVID-19 patients, and previous influenza/pneumococcal vaccination. At the univariate analysis, no statistically significant association was observed with regard to a previous influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. A significant lower anti-S/RBD response was observed according to an older age and male sex, while MNA titers were significantly associated to sex but not to age. At the multivariable analysis, workers receiving a concomitant influenza and pneumococcal vaccination or only influenza showed a 58% (p 0.01) and 42% (p 0.07) increase in MNA titers, respectively, compared to those who did not receive an influenza/pneumococcal vaccination. Female workers showed an 81% MNA and a 44% anti-S/RBD increase compared to male workers (p < 0.001). Compared to workers aged 21 to 49 years, those aged 50 or older were associated with a reduction in the anti-S/RBD (16%; p 0.005), MNA (31%; p 0.019), and IFN.g (32%) immune response. Maintaining the influenza and pneumococcal immunization program for the coming season, in which COVID-19 could still be spreading, remains strongly recommended to protect those who are more vulnerable and to limit the potential burden of these infections on the healthcare system.

11.
Mol Ther ; 29(8): 2412-2423, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199134

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the emergent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health, and there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines. Here, we report the generation and the preclinical evaluation of a novel replication-defective gorilla adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the pre-fusion stabilized Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. We show that our vaccine candidate, GRAd-COV2, is highly immunogenic both in mice and macaques, eliciting both functional antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and a robust, T helper (Th)1-dominated cellular response. We show here that the pre-fusion stabilized Spike antigen is superior to the wild type in inducing ACE2-interfering, SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies. To face the unprecedented need for vaccine manufacturing at a massive scale, different GRAd genome deletions were compared to select the vector backbone showing the highest productivity in stirred tank bioreactors. This preliminary dataset identified GRAd-COV2 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting the translation of the GRAd-COV2 vaccine in a currently ongoing phase I clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04528641).


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/immunology , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gorilla gorilla/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Gorilla gorilla/virology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Macaca , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Young Adult
12.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178436

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 serum neutralization assay represents the gold standard for assessing antibody-mediated protection in naturally infected and vaccinated individuals. In the present study, 662 serum samples collected from February 2020 to January 2021 from acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients were tested to determine neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers using a microneutralization test (MNT) for live SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM directed against different viral antigens were measured by high-throughput automated platforms. We observed higher levels of NAbs in elderly (>60 years old) individuals and in patients presenting acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 NAbs develop as soon as five days from symptom onset and, despite a decline after the second month, persist for over 11 months, showing variable dynamics. Through correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we set up a testing algorithm, suitable for the laboratory workload, by establishing an optimal cutoff value of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG for convalescent plasma donors to exclude from MNT samples foreseen to have low/negative NAb titers and ineligible for plasma donation. Overall, MNT, although cumbersome and not suitable for routine testing of large sample sizes, remains the reference tool for the assessment of antibody-mediated immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smart testing algorithms may optimize the laboratory workflow to monitor antibody-mediated protection in COVID-19 patients, plasma donors, and vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Algorithms , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 263, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132058

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be completely understood, and detailed SARS-CoV-2 cellular cytopathic effects requires definition. We performed a comparative ultrastructural study of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells and in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 induces rapid death associated with profound ultrastructural changes in Vero cells. Type II pneumocytes in lung tissue showed prominent altered features with numerous vacuoles and swollen mitochondria with presence of abundant lipid droplets. The accumulation of lipids was the most striking finding we observed in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, both in vitro and in the lungs of patients, suggesting that lipids can be involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Considering that in most cases, COVID-19 patients show alteration of blood cholesterol and lipoprotein homeostasis, our findings highlight a peculiar important topic that can suggest new approaches for pharmacological treatment to contrast the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipid Droplets , Lipid Metabolism , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Humans , Lipid Droplets/ultrastructure , Lipid Droplets/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Vero Cells
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa403, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059676

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unclear. We report the detection of viral RNA from different anatomical districts and the antibody profile in the first 2 COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Italy. Methods: We tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clinical samples, either respiratory and nonrespiratory (ie, saliva, serum, urine, vomit, rectal, ocular, cutaneous, and cervico-vaginal swabs), longitudinally collected from both patients throughout the hospitalization. Serological analysis was carried out on serial serum samples to evaluate IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibody levels. Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected since the early phase of illness, lasting over 2 weeks in both upper and lower respiratory tract samples. Virus isolate was obtained from acute respiratory samples, while no infectious virus was rescued from late respiratory samples with low viral RNA load, collected when serum antibodies had been developed. Several other specimens came back positive, including saliva, vomit, rectal, cutaneous, cervico-vaginal, and ocular swabs. IgM, IgA, and IgG were detected within the first week of diagnosis, with IgG appearing earlier and at higher titers. Neutralizing antibodies developed during the second week, reaching high titers 32 days after diagnosis. Conclusions: Our longitudinal analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in different body samples, which may be associated with broad tropism and different spectra of clinical manifestations and modes of transmission. Profiling antibody response and neutralizing activity can assist in laboratory diagnosis and surveillance actions.

16.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104539, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological tests for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are becoming of great interest to determine seroprevalence in a given population, define previous exposure and identify highly reactive human donors for the generation of convalescent serum as therapeutic. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, a fully automated indirect immunoassay that detects antibodies directed to a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antigen. STUDY DESIGN: Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG immunoassay was compared to an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on sera from patients with COVID-19 collected at different days after symptoms onset or infected by other human coronaviruses. Comparison with neutralization test was also performed. RESULTS: After 7, 14 and >14 days after onset ARCHITECT was positive on 8.3 %; 61.9 % and 100 % of the tested samples compared to 58.3 %; 85.7 % and 100 % by IFA. The sensitivity was 72 % vs. IFA and 66.7 % vs. a real-time PCR, the specificity was 100 %. On 18 samples with neutralizing activity, 17 were positive by Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay showed a satisfactory performance, with a very high specificity. IgG reactivity against SARSCoV-2 N antigen was detectable in all patients by two weeks after symptoms onset. In addition, concordance between this serological response and viral neutralization suggests that a strong humoral response may be predictive of a neutralization activity, regardless of the target antigens. This finding supports the use of this automated serological assay in diagnostic algorithm and public health intervention, especially for high loads of testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
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