Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

2.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637818

ABSTRACT

Why multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) develops after SARS-CoV-2 infection in a subset of children is unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant virus-specific T cell responses contribute to MIS-C pathogenesis. We quantified SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, serologic responses against major viral proteins, and cytokine responses from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with convalescent COVID-19, in children with acute MIS-C, and in healthy controls. Children with MIS-C had significantly lower virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to major SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared with children convalescing from COVID-19. Furthermore, T cell responses in participants with MIS-C were similar to or lower than those in healthy controls. Serologic responses against spike receptor binding domain (RBD), full-length spike, and nucleocapsid were similar among convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting functional B cell responses. Cytokine profiling demonstrated predominant Th1 polarization of CD4+ T cells from children with convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, although cytokine production was reduced in MIS-C. Our findings support a role for constrained induction of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male
3.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1452-1464, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454797

ABSTRACT

There is limited understanding of the viral antibody fingerprint following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 proteome-wide immunoprofiling of children with mild/moderate or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) versus multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children versus hospitalized control patients revealed differential cytokine responses, IgM/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding and avidity. Apart from spike and nucleocapsid, IgG/IgA recognized epitopes in nonstructural protein (NSP) 2, NSP3, NSP12-NSP14 and open reading frame (ORF) 3a-ORF9. Peptides representing epitopes in NSP12, ORF3a and ORF8 demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 serodiagnosis. Antibody-binding kinetics with 24 SARS-CoV-2 proteins revealed antibody parameters that distinguish children with mild/moderate versus severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Antibody avidity to prefusion spike correlated with decreased illness severity and served as a clinical disease indicator. The fusion peptide and heptad repeat 2 region induced SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Thus, we identified SARS-CoV-2 antibody signatures in children associated with disease severity and delineate promising serodiagnostic and virus neutralization targets. These findings might guide the design of serodiagnostic assays, prognostic algorithms, therapeutics and vaccines in this important but understudied population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Epitopes/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Male , Prognosis , Proteome , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of pre-existing endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity on SARS-CoV-2 serologic and clinical responses are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effects of prior exposure to HCoV Betacoronavirus HKU1 spike protein on serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after intramuscular administration in mice. We also sought to understand the baseline seroprevalence of HKU1 spike antibodies in healthy children and to measure their correlation with SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies in children hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). METHODS: Groups of 5 mice were injected intramuscularly with two doses of alum-adjuvanted HKU1 spike followed by SARS-CoV-2 spike; or the reciprocal regimen of SARS-Cov-2 spike followed by HKU1 spike. Sera collected 21 days following each injection was analyzed for IgG antibodies to HKU1 spike, SARS-CoV-2 spike, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Sera from children hospitalized with acute COVID-19, MIS-C or healthy controls (n = 14 per group) were analyzed for these same antibodies. RESULTS: Mice primed with SARS-CoV-2 spike and boosted with HKU1 spike developed high titers of SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies; however, mice primed with HKU1 spike and boosted with SARS-CoV-2 spike were unable to mount neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. HKU1 spike antibodies were detected in all children with acute COVID-19, MIS-C, and healthy controls. Although children with MIS-C had significantly higher HKU1 spike titers than healthy children (GMT 37239 vs. 7551, P = 0.012), these titers correlated positively with both SARS-CoV-2 binding (r = 0.7577, P<0.001) and neutralizing (r = 0.6201, P = 0.001) antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Prior murine exposure to HKU1 spike protein completely impeded the development of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with original antigenic sin. In contrast, the presence of HKU1 spike IgG antibodies in children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C was not associated with diminished neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103169, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms and CSF cytokine, chemokine, and SARS-COV-2 antibody profiles are unknown in pediatric patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), (NP-COVID-19). METHODS: Children at a single pediatric institution quaternary referral center with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or MIS-C and neuropsychiatric symptoms were included in this retrospective case series. Clinical symptoms, ancillary testing data, treatments and outcomes are described. Multiplexed electrochemiluminescence assays for cytokines, chemokines and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were tested in the CSF NP-COVID-19 patients compared to five controls and were analyzed using the Student's t-test. RESULTS: Three of five NP-COVID-19 patients had psychiatric symptoms, and two patients had encephalopathy and seizures. All patients had full or near resolution of neuropsychiatric symptoms by discharge. One patient received intravenous steroids for treatment for psychiatric symptoms; 3/5 other patients received immunotherapy for MIS-C, including IVIG, high-dose steroids, anakinra, and tocilizumab. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, including MIG, MPC, MIP-1ß, and TARC were significantly elevated in NP-COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Two of five patients had elevated CSF neurofilament light chain. CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers to the full-length spike, receptor binding domain and N-terminal domain were significantly elevated. SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers strongly correlated with pro-inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (P≤0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: A spectrum of neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations can occur in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CSF pro-inflammatory chemokines and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may serve as biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 mediated NP-COVID-19. Additional study is required to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuroinflammation in children with COVID-19 and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258620

ABSTRACT

Low plasma arginine bioavailability has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and immune dysregulation. The role of arginine in COVID-19 is unknown, but could contribute to cellular damage if low. Our objective was to determine arginine bioavailability in adults and children with COVID-19 vs. healthy controls. We hypothesized that arginine bioavailability would be low in patients with COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We conducted a prospective observational study of three patient cohorts; arginine bioavailability was determined in asymptomatic healthy controls, adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and hospitalized children/adolescents <21 y old with COVID-19, MIS-C, or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection identified on admission screen. Mean patient plasma amino acids were compared to controls using the Student's t test. Arginine-to-ornithine ratio, a biomarker of arginase activity, and global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR, arginine/[ornithine+citrulline]) were assessed in all three groups. A total of 80 patients were included (28 controls, 32 adults with COVID-19, and 20 pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C). Mean plasma arginine and arginine bioavailability ratios were lower among adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C compared to controls. There was no difference between arginine bioavailability in children with COVID-19 vs. MIS-C. Adults and children with COVID-19 and MIS-C in our cohort had low arginine bioavailability compared to healthy adult controls. This may contribute to immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19. Low arginine-to-ornithine ratio in patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C suggests an elevation of arginase activity. Further study is merited to explore the role of arginine dysregulation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/blood , COVID-19/blood , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Virology ; 559: 1-9, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142294

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, functional non-neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), are poorly understood. We developed an ADCC assay utilizing a stably transfected, dual-reporter target cell line with inducible expression of a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the cell surface. Using this assay, we analyzed 61 convalescent serum samples from adults with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and 15 samples from healthy uninfected controls. We found that 56 of 61 convalescent serum samples induced ADCC killing of SARS-CoV-2 S target cells, whereas none of the 15 healthy controls had detectable ADCC. We then found a modest decline in ADCC titer over a median 3-month follow-up in 21 patients who had serial samples available for analysis. We confirmed that the antibody-dependent target cell lysis was mediated primarily via the NK FcγRIIIa receptor (CD16). This ADCC assay had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting serologic immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to measure severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological responses in children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) compared with those with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), those with Kawasaki disease (KD), and hospitalized pediatric controls. METHODS: From March 17, 2020, to May 26, 2020, we prospectively identified hospitalized children with MIS-C (n = 10), symptomatic COVID-19 (n = 10), and KD (n = 5) and hospitalized controls (n = 4) at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. With institutional review board approval, we obtained prospective and residual blood samples from these children and measured SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G (IgG), full-length spike IgG, and nucleocapsid protein antibodies using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies using live-virus focus-reduction neutralization assays. We statistically compared the log-transformed antibody titers among groups and performed linear regression analyses. RESULTS: All children with MIS-C had high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies, which correlated with full-length spike IgG antibodies (R 2 = 0.956; P < .001), nucleocapsid protein antibodies (R 2 = 0.846; P < .001), and neutralizing antibodies (R 2 = 0.667; P < .001). Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody titers (geometric mean titer 6800; 95% confidence interval 3495-13 231) than children with COVID-19 (geometric mean titer 626; 95% confidence interval 251-1563; P < .001), children with KD (geometric mean titer 124; 95% confidence interval 91-170; P < .001), and hospitalized controls (geometric mean titer 85; P < .001). All children with MIS-C also had detectable RBD immunoglobulin M antibodies, indicating recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. RBD IgG titers correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R 2 = 0.512; P < .046) and with hospital (R 2 = 0.548; P = .014) and ICU lengths of stay (R 2 = 0.590; P = .010). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 serology may have a role in establishing the diagnosis of MIS-C, distinguishing it from similar clinical entities, and stratifying risk for adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests , Phosphoproteins/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL