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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(48): eabj5629, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537882

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in COVID-19 management, identifying patients evolving toward death remains challenging. To identify early predictors of mortality within 60 days of symptom onset (DSO), we performed immunovirological assessments on plasma from 279 individuals. On samples collected at DSO11 in a discovery cohort, high severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA (vRNA), low receptor binding domain­specific immunoglobulin G and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and elevated cytokines and tissue injury markers were strongly associated with mortality, including in patients on mechanical ventilation. A three-variable model of vRNA, with predefined adjustment by age and sex, robustly identified patients with fatal outcome (adjusted hazard ratio for log-transformed vRNA = 3.5). This model remained robust in independent validation and confirmation cohorts. Since plasma vRNA's predictive accuracy was maintained at earlier time points, its quantitation can help us understand disease heterogeneity and identify patients who may benefit from new therapies.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1137-1150.e6, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252574

ABSTRACT

While the standard regimen of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 includes two doses administered 3 weeks apart, some public health authorities are spacing these doses, raising concerns about efficacy. However, data indicate that a single dose can be up to 90% effective starting 14 days post-administration. To assess the mechanisms contributing to protection, we analyzed humoral and T cell responses three weeks after a single BNT162b2 dose. We observed weak neutralizing activity elicited in SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals but strong anti-receptor binding domain and spike antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions and cellular CD4+ T cell responses. In previously infected individuals, a single dose boosted all humoral and T cell responses, with strong correlations between T helper and antibody immunity. Our results highlight the potential role of Fc-mediated effector functions and T cell responses in vaccine efficacy. They also provide support for spacing doses to vaccinate more individuals in conditions of vaccine scarcity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier Proteins , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186423

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune profiles have been described in symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Whether the reported immune alterations are specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection or also triggered by other acute illnesses remains unclear. We performed flow cytometry analysis on fresh peripheral blood from a consecutive cohort of (a) patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, (b) patients of comparable age and sex hospitalized for another acute disease (SARS-CoV-2 negative), and (c) healthy controls. Using both data-driven and hypothesis-driven analyses, we found several dysregulations in immune cell subsets (e.g., decreased proportion of T cells) that were similarly associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and non-COVID-19-related acute illnesses. In contrast, we identified specific differences in myeloid and lymphocyte subsets that were associated with SARS-CoV-2 status (e.g., elevated proportion of ICAM-1+ mature/activated neutrophils, ALCAM+ monocytes, and CD38+CD8+ T cells). A subset of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune alterations correlated with disease severity, disease outcome at 30 days, and mortality. Our data provide an understanding of the immune dysregulation specifically associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among acute care hospitalized patients. Our study lays the foundation for the development of specific biomarkers to stratify SARS-CoV-2-positive patients at risk of unfavorable outcomes and to uncover candidate molecules to investigate from a therapeutic perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes/classification , Leukocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Monocytes/immunology , Multivariate Analysis , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quebec/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Cell Rep ; 34(9): 108790, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077816

ABSTRACT

Characterization of the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, is essential to help control the infection. The neutralization activity of plasma from patients with COVID-19 decreases rapidly during the first weeks after recovery. However, the specific role of each immunoglobulin isotype in the overall neutralizing capacity is still not well understood. In this study, we select plasma from a cohort of convalescent patients with COVID-19 and selectively deplete immunoglobulin A, M, or G before testing the remaining neutralizing capacity of the depleted plasma. We find that depletion of immunoglobulin M is associated with the most substantial loss of virus neutralization, followed by immunoglobulin G. This observation may help design efficient antibody-based COVID-19 therapies and may also explain the increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 of autoimmune patients receiving therapies that impair the production of immunoglobulin M (IgM).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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