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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2099171, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948097

ABSTRACT

Vaccines prevent infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Though recommendations regarding vaccinating patients with MS have been recently published, real-world data regarding vaccines' planning in patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for MS are missing. Our aim was, therefore, to describe vaccination coverage rates, timing-proposal and safety in real-life vaccinating patients with MS undergoing DMDs before the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination campaign. Patients followed at our MS-center were referred to individualized immunization-programs customized to Italian recommendations, patients' risks, immunity to exanthematic diseases, ongoing DMDs, or therapy-start urgency. Disease-activity stated the need for an essential immunization-cycle, whose core was composed by four vaccines: meningococcal-B, pneumococcal conjugated, Haemophilus influenzae B, and meningococcal-ACWY vaccines. Vaccines were administered prior to the planned DMD-start when possible, inactivated-vaccines >2 weeks and live-vaccines >4 weeks before treatment-start. Patients received a 6-months clinical-/radiological-follow-up after immunization. One-hundred and ninety-five patients were vaccinated between April 2017 and January 2021. 124/195 (63.6%) started a vaccination-program before therapy-start/-switch and 108/124 (87.1%) effectively completed immunization before new therapy-start without any delay. The time needed for immunization-conclusion reached a median of 27 (confidence interval 22) days in 2020. No increase in clinical-/radiological-activity 3-/6-months after immunization was noted. In conclusion, our study confirmed feasibility and safety of a vaccination-protocol in patients with MS whose duration resulted in a median of 27 days.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585221102918, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 or fingolimod showed a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in pwMS on different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). METHODS: Data on the number of vaccinated patients and the number of patients with a breakthrough infection were retrospectively collected in 27 Italian MS centers. We estimated the rate of breakthrough infections and of infection requiring hospitalization per DMT. RESULTS: 19,641 vaccinated pwMS were included in the database. After a median follow-up of 8 months, we observed 137 breakthrough infections. Compared with other DMTs, the rate of breakthrough infections was significantly higher on ocrelizumab (0.57% vs 2.00%, risk ratio (RR) = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.74-4.58, p < 0.001) and fingolimod (0.58% vs 1.62%, RR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.75-4.00, p < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in any other DMT group. In the ocrelizumab group the hospitalization rate was 16.7% versus 19.4% in the pre-vaccination era (RR = 0.86, p = 0.74) and it was 3.9% in all the other DMT groups versus 11.9% in the pre-vaccination period (RR = 0.33, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is higher in patients treated with ocrelizumab and fingolimod, and the rate of severe infections was significantly reduced in all the DMTs excluding ocrelizumab.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104042, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS (pwMS) under different DMTs and to identify correlates of reduced protection. METHODS: This is a prospective Italian multicenter cohort study, long-term clinical follow-up of the CovaXiMS (Covid-19 vaccine in Multiple Sclerosis) study. 1855 pwMS scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were enrolled and followed up to a mean time of 10 months. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough Covid-19 cases in pwMS was calculated before and after December 2021, to separate the Delta from the Omicron waves and to account for the advent of the third vaccine dose. FINDINGS: 1705 pwMS received 2 m-RNA vaccine doses, 21/28 days apart. Of them, 1508 (88.5%) had blood assessment 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose and 1154/1266 (92%) received the third dose after a mean interval of 210 days (range 90-342 days) after the second dose. During follow-up, 131 breakthrough Covid-19 infections (33 during the Delta and 98 during the Omicron wave) were observed. The probability to be infected during the Delta wave was associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose (HR=0.57, p < 0.001); the protective role of antibodies was preserved over the whole follow up (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75, p < 0.001), with a significant reduction (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.94, p=0.04) for the Omicron cases. The third dose significantly reduced the risk of infection (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90,p=0.025) during the Omicron wave. INTERPRETATION: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is mainly associated with reduced levels of the virus-specific humoral immune response. FUNDING: Supported by FISM - Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla - cod. 2021/Special-Multi/001 and financed or co-financed with the '5 per mille' public funding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327079

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 or fingolimod showed a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in pwMS on different Disease Modifying Therapy (DMT). Methods. Data on number of vaccinated patients and of patients with a breakthrough infection were retrospectively collected in 27 Italian MS centers. We estimated the rate of breakthrough infections and of infection requiring hospitalization per DMT. Findings. 19641 vaccinated pwMS were included in the database. After a median follow-up of 8 months, we observed 137 breakthrough infections. As compared to the other DMTs, the rate of breakthrough infections was significantly higher on ocrelizumab (0.57% vs 2.00%, RR=3.55,95%CI=2.74-4.58, p<0.001) and fingolimod (0.58% vs 1.62%, RR=2.65,95%CI=1.75-4.00, p<0.001), while there were no significant differences in any other DMT group. In the ocrelizumab group the hospitalization rate was 16.7% vs 19.4% in the pre-vaccination era (RR=0.86,p=0.74) and it was 3.9% in all the other DMT groups vs 11.9% in the pre-vaccination period (RR=0.33,p=0.02). Interpretation. The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is higher in patients treated with ocrelizumab and fingolimod, and the rate of severe infections was significantly reduced in all the DMTs excluding ocrelizumab.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321913

ABSTRACT

Background: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are known to affect immune response to antigens and possibly to SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response.Methods: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech, Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx, Inc). A blood collection for the measure of SARS-CoV-2 antibody before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche Diagnostics).Findings: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariate analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (178-fold decrease, p<0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease, p<0·001) and rituximab (17-fold decrease, p<0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. mRNA-1273 vaccine resulted in a systematically 3·5-fold higher antibody level than the BNT162b2 vaccine (p<0·001).Interpretation: In pwMS, therapy with anti-CD20 and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·5-higher antibody titers than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 or fingolimod. Since it is still unknown the role of T-cells vaccine response, further information is required about the role of cellular immunity triggered by vaccination to better define the most appropriate strategy to vaccinate pwMS under specific DMTs.Funding Information: FISM [2021/Special-Multi/001];the Italian Ministry of Health grant ‘Progetto Z844A 5x1000’.Declaration of Interests: MPS reports grants from Roche, during the conduct of the study;personal fees from Biogen, Merck, Roche, Sanofi, personal fees from Novartis, Medday, Geneuro, Celgene, Mylan, outside the submitted work;MI reports consulting fees from Roche, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Genzyme, Biogen;AL has received personal compensation from Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, Biogen, Merck, and Roche for public speaking and advisory boards. AL received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health, and the Italian Ministry of University;CC reports personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Biogen Idec, personal fees from Almirall, personal fees from Merck Serono, outside the submitted work;DL reports consulting fees Roche, Biogen, Teva, Mylan, Sanofi-Genzyme, fess for advisory boards from Bristol-Celgene, Merck, Novartis, JF reports consulting fees fromSanofi, Biogen, Admirall;ADS reports personal consulting fees from Biogen, Novartis, Genzyme;MS reports research support and personal consulting fees from Merk, Sanofi, Novartis, Biogen, Roche;AU has received personal compensation from Novartis, Biogen, Merck, Roche and Sanofi Genzyme for public speaking and advisory boards. AU received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health and the European Community. IS, LC, CL, GDR, CS, IG, TT, GP, PG, GPB, AM, MLS, MC, ES, MTF, LP, MU, FM, GC, RI, GL, AMR, FC, SC, MAB, DF, have nothing to dislcose.Ethics Approval Statement: The study is done in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol is approved by the regional (CER Liguria: 5/2021 - DB id 11169- 21/01/2021) and the centralized national ethical committee AIFA/Spallanzani (Parere n 351, 2020/21). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before starting any study procedures.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103581, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affects immune response to antigens. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech,Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx,Inc). A blood collection before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche-Diagnostics). The log-transform of the antibody levels was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariable analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (201-fold decrease (95%CI=128-317), p < 0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease (95%CI=16-42), p < 0·001) and rituximab (20-fold decrease (95%CI=10-43), p < 0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in a systematically 3·25-fold higher antibody level (95%CI=2·46-4·27) than with the BNT162b2 vaccine (p < 0·001). The antibody levels on anti-CD20 therapies correlated to the time since last infusion, and rituximab had longer intervals (mean=386 days) than ocrelizumab patients (mean=129 days). INTERPRETATION: In pwMS, anti-CD20 treatment and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·25-higher antibody levels than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 treatment or fingolimod. Combining our data with those on the cellular immune response to vaccines, and including clinical follow-up, will contribute to better define the most appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies in the context of DMTs and MS. FUNDING: FISM[2021/Special-Multi/001]; Italian Ministry of Health'Progetto Z844A 5 × 1000'.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Mult Scler ; 27(14): 2126-2136, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934217

ABSTRACT

The CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat of particular concern for people affected by chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), who are often treated with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs, which may increase the risk of infections in general. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, empirical guidelines on how to manage treatments for immune-mediated diseases, including MS, were released. Subsequently, the first clinical pictures and data sets have been published, describing the outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with MS treated with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Here we will review available information on how infections by human coronaviruses affect the immune system in untreated subjects and in patients affected by MS treated with drugs which modulate the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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