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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24507, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597358

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic tests that detect antibodies (AB) against SARS-CoV-2 for evaluation of seroprevalence and guidance of health care measures are important tools for managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Current tests have certain limitations with regard to turnaround time, costs and availability, particularly in point-of-care (POC) settings. We established a hemagglutination-based AB test that is based on bi-specific proteins which contain a dromedary-derived antibody (nanobody) binding red blood cells (RBD) and a SARS-CoV-2-derived antigen, such as the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein (Spike-RBD). While the nanobody mediates swift binding to RBC, the antigen moiety directs instantaneous, visually apparent hemagglutination in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific AB generated in COVID-19 patients or vaccinated individuals. Method comparison studies with assays cleared by emergency use authorization demonstrate high specificity and sensitivity. To further increase objectivity of test interpretation, we developed an image analysis tool based on digital image acquisition (via a cell phone) and a machine learning algorithm based on defined sample-training and -validation datasets. Preliminary data, including a small clinical study, provides proof of principle for test performance in a POC setting. Together, the data support the interpretation that this AB test format, which we refer to as 'NanoSpot.ai', is suitable for POC testing, can be manufactured at very low costs and, based on its generic mode of action, can likely be adapted to a variety of other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Hemagglutination Tests/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Humans , Proof of Concept Study
2.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(10): 1212-1220, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444461

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Emerging evidence shows correlation between the presence of neutralization antibodies (nAbs) and protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently available commercial serology assays lack the ability to specifically identify nAbs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based nAb assay (GenScript cPass neutralization antibody assay) has recently received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the performance characteristics of this assay and compare and correlate it with the commercial assays that detect SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG). DESIGN.­: Specimens from SARS-COV-2 infected patients (n = 124), healthy donors obtained prepandemic (n = 100), and patients with non-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory infections (n = 92) were analyzed using this assay. Samples with residual volume were also tested on 3 commercial serology platforms (Abbott, Euroimmun, Siemens). Twenty-eight randomly selected specimens from patients with COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were subjected to a plaque reduction neutralization test. RESULTS.­: The cPass assay exhibited 96.1% (95% CI, 94.9%-97.3%) sensitivity (at >14 days post-positive PCR), 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100.0%) specificity, and zero cross-reactivity for the presence of non-COVID-19 respiratory infections. When compared with the plaque reduction assay, 97.4% (95% CI, 96.2%-98.5%) qualitative agreement and a positive correlation (R2 = 0.76) was observed. Comparison of IgG signals from each of the commercial assays with the nAb results from plaque reduction neutralization test/cPass assays displayed greater than 94.7% qualitative agreement and correlations with R2 = 0.43/0.68 (Abbott), R2 = 0.57/0.85 (Euroimmun), and R2 = 0.39/0.63 (Siemens), respectively. CONCLUSIONS.­: The combined data support the use of cPass assay for accurate detection of the nAb response. Positive IgG results from commercial assays associated reasonably with nAbs presence and can serve as a substitute.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal murine leukemia virus genome encoding firefly luciferase. This assay design is intended for use in laboratories with biocontainment level 2 and therefore circumvents the need for the biocontainment level 3 that would be required for replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus. To validate the pseudovirion assay, we set up comparisons with other available antibody tests including those from Abbott, Euroimmun and Siemens, using archived, known samples. RESULTS: 11 out of 12 SARS-CoV-2-infected patient serum samples showed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2-spike pseudotyped MLV viruses, with neutralizing titers-50 (NT50) that ranged from 1:25 to 1:1,417. Five historical samples from patients hospitalized for severe influenza infection in 2016 tested negative in the neutralization assay (NT50 < 25). Three serum samples with high neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2/MLV pseudoviruses showed no detectable neutralizing activity (NT50 < 25) against SARS-CoV-1/MLV pseudovirions. We also compared the semiquantitative Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, which measures binding of IgG to recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with the neutralization titers obtained in the pseudovirion assay and the results show high concordance between the two tests (R2 = 0.9344). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 spike/MLV pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing neutralizing activity of antibodies in serum or plasma from infected patients under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2. This assay offers promise also in evaluating immunogenicity of spike glycoprotein-based candidate vaccines in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukemia/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice
5.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808493

ABSTRACT

Antibody neutralization is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal MLV genome encoding firefly luciferase. These pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing immune responses under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2.

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