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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118002

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac314, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051508

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the functional consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine side effects. To support patient counseling and public health messaging, we describe the risk and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent work or usual activities and/or lead to medical care ("severe" side effects). Methods: The EPICC study is a longitudinal cohort study of Military Healthcare System beneficiaries including active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. We studied 2789 adults who were vaccinated between December 2020 and December 2021. Results: Severe side effects were most common with the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) vaccine, followed by mRNA-1273 (Moderna) then BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). Severe side effects were more common after the second than first dose (11% vs 4%; P < .001). First (but not second) dose side effects were more common in those with vs without prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (9% vs 2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.84; 95% CI, 3.8-9.1), particularly if the prior illness was severe or critical (13% vs 2%; aOR, 10.57; 95% CI, 5.5-20.1) or resulted in inpatient care (17% vs 2%; aOR, 19.3; 95% CI, 5.1-72.5). Side effects were more common in women than men but not otherwise related to demographic factors. Conclusions: Vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent usual activities were more common after the second than first dose and varied by vaccine type. First dose side effects were more likely in those with a history of COVID-19-particularly if that prior illness was severe or associated with inpatient care. These findings may assist clinicians and patients by providing a real-world evaluation of the likelihood of experiencing impactful postvaccine symptoms.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac275, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961127

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient-reported outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are an important measure of the full burden of coronavirus disease (COVID). Here, we examine how (1) infecting genotype and COVID-19 vaccination correlate with inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) Plus score, including by symptom domains, and (2) FLU-PRO Plus scores predict return to usual activities and health. Methods: The epidemiology, immunology, and clinical characteristics of pandemic infectious diseases (EPICC) study was implemented to describe the short- and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal, observational cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were run with FLU-PRO Plus scores as the outcome variable, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of FLU-PRO Plus scores on return to usual health or activities. Results: Among the 764 participants included in this analysis, 63% were 18-44 years old, 40% were female, and 51% were White. Being fully vaccinated was associated with lower total scores (ß = -0.39; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.21). The Delta variant was associated with higher total scores (ß = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.45). Participants with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores were less likely to report returning to usual health and activities (health: hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.57; activities: HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.67). Fully vaccinated participants were more likely to report returning to usual activities (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.48). Conclusions: Full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with decreased severity of patient-reported symptoms across multiple domains, which in turn is likely to be associated with earlier return to usual activities. In addition, infection with the Delta variant was associated with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores than previous variants, even after controlling for vaccination status.

4.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940240

ABSTRACT

Background There is limited information on the functional consequences of COVID-19 vaccine side effects. To support patient counseling and public health messaging, we describe the risk and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent work or usual activities and/or lead to medical care (“severe” side effects). Methods The EPICC study is a longitudinal cohort study of Military Healthcare System beneficiaries including active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. We studied 2,789 adults who were vaccinated between December 2020 and December 2021. Results Severe side effects were most common with the Ad26.COV2.S-(Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) vaccine followed by mRNA-1273-(Moderna) then BNT162b2-(Pfizer/BioNTech). Severe side effects were more common after the second than first dose (11% vs 4%, p < 0.001). First (but not second) dose side effects were more common in those with versus without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9% vs 2%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.84[3.8-9.1]), particularly if the prior illness was severe or critical (13% vs 2%, aOR = 10.57[5.5-20.1]) or resulted in inpatient care (17% vs 2%, aOR = 19.3[5.1-72.5]). Side effects were more common in women than men but not otherwise related to demographic factors. Conclusions Vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent usual activities were more common after the second than first dose and varied by vaccine type. First dose side effects were more likely in those with a history of COVID-19 – particularly if that prior illness was severe or associated with inpatient care. These findings may assist clinicians and patients by providing a real-world evaluation of the likelihood of experiencing impactful post-vaccine symptoms.

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898163

ABSTRACT

Background Patient reported outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection are an important measure of the full burden of COVID. Here, we examine how 1) infecting genotype and COVID-19 vaccination correlate with FLU-PRO Plus score, including by symptom domains, and 2) FLU-PRO Plus scores predict return to usual activities and health. Methods The EPICC study was implemented to describe the short- and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal, observational cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were run with FLU-PRO Plus scores as the outcome variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of FLU-PRO Plus scores on return to usual health or activities. Results Among the 764 participants included in this analysis, 63% were 18-44 years old, 40% were female, and 51% were white. Being fully vaccinated was associated with lower total scores (β=-0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57, -0.21)). The Delta variant was associated with higher total scores (β=0.25 (95% CI 0.05, 0.45)). Participants with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores were less likely to report returning to usual health and activities (Health: hazard ratio (HR) 0.46 (95% CI 0.37, 0.57);Activities: HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47, 0.67)). Fully vaccinated participants were more likely to report returning to usual activities (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.04, 1.48)). Conclusions Full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with decreased severity of patient-reported symptoms across multiple domains, which in turn is likely to be associated with earlier return to usual activities. In addition, infection with the Delta variant was associated with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores than previous variants, even after controlling for vaccination status.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comparing humoral responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, or combinations of vaccine/infection ('hybrid immunity'), may clarify predictors of vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We studied 2660 U.S. Military Health System beneficiaries with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection-alone (n = 705), vaccination-alone (n = 932), vaccine-after-infection (n = 869), and vaccine-breakthrough-infection (n = 154). Peak anti-spike-IgG responses through 183 days were compared, with adjustment for vaccine product, demography, and comorbidities. We excluded those with evidence of clinical or sub-clinical SARS-CoV-2 reinfection from all groups. RESULTS: Multivariable regression results indicated vaccine-after-infection anti-spike-IgG responses were higher than infection-alone (p < 0.01), regardless of prior infection severity. An increased time between infection and vaccination was associated with a greater post-vaccination IgG response (p < 0.01). Vaccination-alone elicited a greater IgG response, but more rapid waning of IgG (p < 0.01), compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-receipt was associated with greater IgG responses compared to JNJ-78436735 (p < 0.01), regardless of infection history. Those with vaccine-after-infection or vaccine-breakthrough-infection had a more durable anti-spike-IgG response compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-receipt elicited higher anti-spike-IgG responses than infection-alone, although IgG levels waned faster in those vaccinated (compared to infection-alone). Vaccine-after-infection elicits a greater humoral response compared to vaccine or infection alone; and the timing, but not disease severity, of prior infection predicted these post-vaccination IgG responses. While differences between groups were small in magnitude, these results offer insights into vaccine immunogenicity variations that may help inform vaccination timing strategies.

7.
Mil Med ; 2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence has emerged showing potential benefit of Remdesivir and dexamethasone in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but results from large randomized control trials are conflicting. While initial data for dexamethasone indicated a mortality benefit, the impact of Remdesivir was best demonstrated in decreased time to recovery. Despite extensive disease burden throughout the world efficacy data of individual interventions is lacking in part due to extensive concurrent use of confounding investigational therapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the impact of Remdesivir and dexamethasone on real-world outcomes in severe COVID-19. All patients admitted to our community hospital between March 2020 and December 31, 2020 were included, and all patients admitted before national guidelines endorsed Remdesivir and dexamethasone outside of clinical trials were treated with only supportive care and used as historical controls. No other investigational therapeutics were utilized. This study was reviewed and approved by the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital IRB. RESULTS: 58 hospitalized patients met criteria for severe COVID-19 as confirmed by RT-PCR, and 14 (25%) were used as historical controls. Baseline demographics and overall mortality rate (7.1%) did not significantly differ between the groups. The median length of stay was 7 days and 6 days in the historical control group and interventional group, respectively (P = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an appreciable impact on the duration of hospitalization when Remdesivir and dexamethasone were added to supportive care in a community hospital. This study was not sufficiently powered to detect the previously described mortality benefit of dexamethasone.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 897-900, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702282

ABSTRACT

Little is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 "vaccine-breakthrough" infections (VBIs). Here we characterize 24 VBIs in predominantly young healthy persons. While none required hospitalization, a proportion endorsed severe symptoms and shed live virus as high as 4.13 × 103 plaque-forming units/mL. Infecting genotypes included both variant-of-concern (VOC) and non-VOC strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phenotype , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , Virus Shedding
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab623, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are the standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. If less invasive alternatives to NP swabs (eg, oropharyngeal [OP] or nasal swabs [NS]) are comparably sensitive, the use of these techniques may be preferable in terms of comfort, convenience, and safety. METHODS: This study compared the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples collected on the same day among participants with at least one positive PCR test. RESULTS: Overall, 755 participants had at least one set of paired swabs. Concordance between NP and other swab types was 75% (NS), 72% (OP), 54% (rectal swabs [RS]), and 78% (NS/OP combined). Kappa values were moderate for the NS, OP, and NS/OP comparisons (0.50, 0.45, and 0.54, respectively). Highest sensitivity relative to NP (0.87) was observed with a combination of NS/OP tests (positive if either NS or OP was positive). Sensitivity of the non-NP swab types was highest in the first week postsymptom onset and decreased thereafter. Similarly, virus RNA quantity was highest in the NP swabs as compared with NS, OP, and RS within two weeks postsymptom onset. OP and NS performance decreased as virus RNA quantity decreased. No differences were noted between NS specimens collected at home or in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: NP swabs detected more SARS-CoV-2 cases than non-NP swabs, and the sensitivity of the non-NP swabs decreased with time postsymptom onset. While other swabs may be simpler to collect, NP swabs present the best chance of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, which is essential for clinical care as well as genomic surveillance.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab556, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical outcomes, functional burden, and complications 1 month after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a prospective US Military Health System (MHS) cohort of active duty, retiree, and dependent populations using serial patient-reported outcome surveys and electronic medical record (EMR) review. METHODS: MHS beneficiaries presenting at 9 sites across the United States with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test, a COVID-19-like illness, or a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure were eligible for enrollment. Medical history and clinical outcomes were collected through structured interviews and International Classification of Diseases-based EMR review. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were determined by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1202 participants were enrolled. There were 1070 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 132 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants. In the first month post-symptom onset among the SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, there were 212 hospitalizations, 80% requiring oxygen, 20 ICU admissions, and 10 deaths. Risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization included race (increased for Asian, Black, and Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White), age (age 45-64 and 65+ compared with <45), and obesity (BMI≥30 compared with BMI<30). Over 2% of survey respondents reported the need for supplemental oxygen, and 31% had not returned to normal daily activities at 1 month post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, reporting Asian, Black, or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and obesity are associated with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization. A proportion of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections require long-term oxygen therapy; the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on short-term functional status was substantial. A significant number of MHS beneficiaries had not yet returned to normal activities by 1 month.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome Plus (FLU-PRO Plus) is a patient-reported outcome data collection instrument assessing symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections across 8 body systems. This study evaluated the measurement properties of FLU-PRO Plus in a study enrolling individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort study (EPICC) in US Military Health System beneficiaries evaluated for COVID-19 was utilized. Adults with symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with FLU-PRO Plus survey information within 1 week of symptom onset were included. Reliability of FLU-PRO Plus was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 2 days' reproducibility). Known-groups validity was assessed using patient global assessment (PGA) of disease severity. Patient report of return to usual health was used to assess responsiveness (day 1-6/7). RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-six SARS-CoV-2-positive participants were included in the analysis. Reliability among those who reported no change in their symptoms from one day to the next was high for most domains (ICC range, 0.68-0.94 for day 1 to day 2). Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate to high correlation between the PGA rating of disease severity and domain and total scores (eg, total scores correlation: 0.69 [influenza-like illness severity], 0.69 [interference in daily activities], and -0.58 [physical health]). In addition, FLU-PRO Plus demonstrated good known-groups validity, with increasing domain and total scores observed with increasing severity ratings. CONCLUSIONS: FLU-PRO Plus performs well in measuring signs and symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infection with excellent construct validity, known-groups validity, and responsiveness to change. Standardized data collection instruments facilitate meta-analyses, vaccine effectiveness studies, and other COVID-19 research activities.

13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab421, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of high-risk patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may improve outcomes. Although many predictive scoring systems exist, their complexity may limit utility in COVID-19. We assessed the prognostic performance of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and an age-based modification (NEWS+age) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter US Military Health System (MHS) observational cohort study. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19 not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at admission and with a baseline NEWS were included. We analyzed each scoring system's ability to predict key clinical outcomes, including progression to invasive ventilation or death, stratified by baseline severity (low [0-3], medium [4-6], and high [≥7]). RESULTS: Among 184 included participants, those with low baseline NEWS had significantly shorter hospitalizations (P < .01) and lower maximum illness severity (P < .001). Most (80.2%) of low NEWS vs 15.8% of high NEWS participants required no or at most low-flow oxygen supplementation. Low NEWS (≤3) had a negative predictive value of 97.2% for progression to invasive ventilation or death; a high NEWS (≥7) had high specificity (93.1%) but low positive predictive value (42.1%) for such progression. NEWS+age performed similarly to NEWS at predicting invasive ventilation or death (NEWS+age: area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [AUROC], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.65-0.73; NEWS: AUROC, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.75). CONCLUSIONS: NEWS and NEWS+age showed similar test characteristics in an MHS COVID-19 cohort. Notably, low baseline scores had an excellent negative predictive value. Given their easy applicability, these scoring systems may be useful in resource-limited settings to identify COVID-19 patients who are unlikely to progress to critical illness.

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