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1.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the USA; death occurs when patients progress to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although immunotherapy with the Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine sipuleucel-T, which targets prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), extends survival for 2-4 months, the identification of new immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) continues to be an unmet need. METHODS: We evaluated the differential expression profile of castration-resistant prostate epithelial cells that give rise to CRPC from mice following an androgen deprivation/repletion cycle. The expression levels of a set of androgen-responsive genes were further evaluated in prostate, brain, colon, liver, lung, skin, kidney, and salivary gland from murine and human databases. The expression of a novel prostate-restricted TAA was then validated by immunostaining of mouse tissues and analyzed in primary tumors across all human cancer types in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Finally, the immunogenicity of this TAA was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using autologous coculture assays with cells from healthy donors as well as by measuring antigen-specific antibodies in sera from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) from a neoadjuvant clinical trial. RESULTS: We identified a set of androgen-responsive genes that could serve as potential TAAs for PCa. In particular, we found transglutaminase 4 (Tgm4) to be highly expressed in prostate tumors that originate from luminal epithelial cells and only expressed at low levels in most extraprostatic tissues evaluated. Furthermore, elevated levels of TGM4 expression in primary PCa tumors correlated with unfavorable prognosis in patients. In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed the immunogenicity of TGM4. We found that activated proinflammatory effector memory CD8 and CD4 T cells were expanded by monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDCs) pulsed with TGM4 to a greater extent than moDCs pulsed with either PAP or prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and T cells primed with TGM4-pulsed moDCs produce functional cytokines following a prime/boost regiment or in vitro stimulation. An IgG antibody response to TGM4 was detected in 30% of vaccinated patients, while fewer than 8% of vaccinated patients developed antibody responses to PSA or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TGM4 is an immunogenic, prostate-restricted antigen with the potential for further development as an immunotherapy target.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy/methods , Prostate/metabolism , Transglutaminases/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Male , Mice
2.
Cell Rep ; 35(8): 109164, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991511

ABSTRACT

A major goal of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efforts is to elicit antibody responses that confer protection. Mapping the epitope targets of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is critical for vaccine design, diagnostics, and development of therapeutics. Here, we develop a pan-coronavirus phage display library to map antibody binding sites at high resolution within the complete viral proteomes of all known human-infecting coronaviruses in patients with mild or moderate/severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We find that the majority of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are targeted to the spike protein, nucleocapsid, and ORF1ab and include sites of mutation in current variants of concern. Some epitopes are identified in the majority of samples, while others are rare, and we find variation in the number of epitopes targeted between individuals. We find low levels of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity in individuals with no exposure to the virus and significant cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses (CoVs) in convalescent sera from patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/virology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Polyproteins/immunology , Serology , Young Adult
3.
Front Big Data ; 3: 22, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693395

ABSTRACT

The Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community is a research-driven group that is establishing a clear set of community-accepted data and metadata standards; standards-based reference implementation tools; and policies and practices for infrastructure to support the deposit, curation, storage, and use of high-throughput sequencing data from B-cell and T-cell receptor repertoires (AIRR-seq data). The AIRR Data Commons is a distributed system of data repositories that utilizes a common data model, a common query language, and common interoperability formats for storage, query, and downloading of AIRR-seq data. Here is described the principal technical standards for the AIRR Data Commons consisting of the AIRR Data Model for repertoires and rearrangements, the AIRR Data Commons (ADC) API for programmatic query of data repositories, a reference implementation for ADC API services, and tools for querying and validating data repositories that support the ADC API. AIRR-seq data repositories can become part of the AIRR Data Commons by implementing the data model and API. The AIRR Data Commons allows AIRR-seq data to be reused for novel analyses and empowers researchers to discover new biological insights about the adaptive immune system.

4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(10): 1764-1776, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102969

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Primary membranous nephropathy (MN) is characterized by the presence of antipodocyte antibodies, but studies describing phenotypic and functional abnormalities in circulating lymphocytes are limited. METHODS: We analyzed 68 different B- and T-cell subsets using flow cytometry in 30 MN patients (before initiating immunosuppression) compared with 31 patients with non-immune-mediated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 12 healthy individuals. We also measured 19 serum cytokines in MN patients and in healthy controls. Lastly, we quantified the ex vivo production of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R)-specific IgG by plasmablasts (measuring antibodies in culture supernatants and by the newly developed FluoroSpot assay [AutoImmun Diagnostika, Strasberg, Germany]) and assessed the circulating antibody repertoire by phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq). RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, plasma cells and regulatory B cells (BREG) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in MN patients compared with both control groups. The percentages of circulating plasma cells correlated with serum anti-PLA2R antibody levels (P = 0.042) and were associated with disease activity. Ex vivo-expanded PLA2R-specific IgG-producing plasmablasts generated from circulating PLA2R-specific memory B cells (mBCs) correlated with serum anti-PLA2R IgG antibodies (P < 0.001) in MN patients. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was the only significantly increased cytokine in MN patients (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference across study groups in the autoantibody and antiviral antibody repertoire. CONCLUSION: This extensive phenotypic and functional immune characterization shows that autoreactive plasma cells are present in the circulation of MN patients, providing a new therapeutic target and a candidate biomarker of disease activity.

6.
Cell ; 183(4): 982-995.e14, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991843

ABSTRACT

Initially, children were thought to be spared from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a month into the epidemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of nine MIS-C cases. All MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with intact neutralization capability. Cytokine profiling identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1), and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, and CCL28). Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of non-classical monocytes, and subsets of NK and T lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Finally, profiling the autoantigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal, and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti-IL-6R antibody and/or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL3/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult
7.
Cell Syst ; 11(1): 42-48.e7, 2020 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711842

ABSTRACT

Computational prediction of the peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins is an important tool for studying T cell immunity. The data available to develop such predictors have expanded with the use of mass spectrometry to identify naturally presented MHC ligands. In addition to elucidating binding motifs, the identified ligands also reflect the antigen processing steps that occur prior to MHC binding. Here, we developed an integrated predictor of MHC class I presentation that combines new models for MHC class I binding and antigen processing. Considering only peptides first predicted by the binding model to bind strongly to MHC, the antigen processing model is trained to discriminate published mass spectrometry-identified MHC class I ligands from unobserved peptides. The integrated model outperformed the two individual components as well as NetMHCpan 4.0 and MixMHCpred 2.0.2 on held-out mass spectrometry experiments. Our predictors are implemented in the open source MHCflurry package, version 2.0 (github.com/openvax/mhcflurry).


Subject(s)
Alleles , Antigen Presentation/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Peptides/chemistry , Humans
8.
Nat Protoc ; 14(8): 2596, 2019 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361618

ABSTRACT

The version of this paper originally published contained typesetter-introduced errors in some of the code commands, consisting of conversion of a closing backslash (\) to a forward slash (/). These errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the protocol.

9.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2206, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323809

ABSTRACT

Increased interest in the immune system's involvement in pathophysiological phenomena coupled with decreased DNA sequencing costs have led to an explosion of antibody and T cell receptor sequencing data collectively termed "adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing" (AIRR-seq or Rep-Seq). The AIRR Community has been actively working to standardize protocols, metadata, formats, APIs, and other guidelines to promote open and reproducible studies of the immune repertoire. In this paper, we describe the work of the AIRR Community's Data Representation Working Group to develop standardized data representations for storing and sharing annotated antibody and T cell receptor data. Our file format emphasizes ease-of-use, accessibility, scalability to large data sets, and a commitment to open and transparent science. It is composed of a tab-delimited format with a specific schema. Several popular repertoire analysis tools and data repositories already utilize this AIRR-seq data format. We hope that others will follow suit in the interest of promoting interoperable standards.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/genetics , Base Sequence , Database Management Systems , Information Dissemination/methods , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Datasets as Topic , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/economics , Humans , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Research Design
10.
Nat Protoc ; 13(9): 1958-1978, 2018 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190553

ABSTRACT

The binding specificities of an individual's antibody repertoire contain a wealth of biological information. They harbor evidence of environmental exposures, allergies, ongoing or emerging autoimmune disease processes, and responses to immunomodulatory therapies, for example. Highly multiplexed methods to comprehensively interrogate antibody-binding specificities have therefore emerged in recent years as important molecular tools. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for performing 'phage immunoprecipitation sequencing' (PhIP-Seq), which is a powerful method for analyzing antibody-repertoire binding specificities with high throughput and at low cost. The methodology uses oligonucleotide library synthesis (OLS) to encode proteomic-scale peptide libraries for display on bacteriophage. These libraries are then immunoprecipitated, using an individual's antibodies, for subsequent analysis by high-throughput DNA sequencing. We have used PhIP-Seq to identify novel self-antigens associated with autoimmune disease, to characterize the self-reactivity of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies, and in a large international cross-sectional study of exposure to hundreds of human viruses. Compared with alternative array-based techniques, PhIP-Seq is far more scalable in terms of sample throughput and cost per analysis. Cloning and expression of recombinant proteins are not required (versus protein microarrays), and peptide lengths are limited only by DNA synthesis chemistry (up to 90-aa (amino acid) peptides versus the typical 8- to 12-aa length limit of synthetic peptide arrays). Compared with protein microarrays, however, PhIP-Seq libraries lack discontinuous epitopes and post-translational modifications. To increase the accessibility of PhIP-Seq, we provide detailed instructions for the design of phage-displayed peptidome libraries, their immunoprecipitation using serum antibodies, deep sequencing-based measurement of peptide abundances, and statistical determination of peptide enrichments that reflect antibody-peptide interactions. Once a library has been constructed, PhIP-Seq data can be obtained for analysis within a week.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Antibodies/immunology , Immunoprecipitation , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Oligonucleotides/genetics , Peptide Library , Virus Diseases/immunology
11.
Cell Syst ; 7(1): 129-132.e4, 2018 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960884

ABSTRACT

Predicting the binding affinity of major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) proteins and their peptide ligands is important for vaccine design. We introduce an open-source package for MHC I binding prediction, MHCflurry. The software implements allele-specific neural networks that use a novel architecture and peptide encoding scheme. When trained on affinity measurements, MHCflurry outperformed the standard predictors NetMHC 4.0 and NetMHCpan 3.0 overall and particularly on non-9-mer peptides in a benchmark of ligands identified by mass spectrometry. The released predictor, MHCflurry 1.2.0, uses mass spectrometry datasets for model selection and showed competitive accuracy with standard tools, including the recently released NetMHCpan 4.0, on a small benchmark of affinity measurements. MHCflurry's prediction speed exceeded 7,000 predictions per second, 396 times faster than NetMHCpan 4.0. MHCflurry is freely available to use, retrain, or extend, includes Python library and command line interfaces, may be installed using package managers, and applies software development best practices.


Subject(s)
Forecasting/methods , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Protein Binding/immunology , Algorithms , Animals , Genes, MHC Class I/genetics , Genes, MHC Class I/physiology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/physiology , Humans , Ligands , Neural Networks, Computer , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding/physiology , Software
12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1418, 2017.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163494

ABSTRACT

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of immunoglobulin (B-cell receptor, antibody) and T-cell receptor repertoires has increased dramatically since the technique was introduced in 2009 (1-3). This experimental approach explores the maturation of the adaptive immune system and its response to antigens, pathogens, and disease conditions in exquisite detail. It holds significant promise for diagnostic and therapy-guiding applications. New technology often spreads rapidly, sometimes more rapidly than the understanding of how to make the products of that technology reliable, reproducible, or usable by others. As complex technologies have developed, scientific communities have come together to adopt common standards, protocols, and policies for generating and sharing data sets, such as the MIAME protocols developed for microarray experiments. The Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire (AIRR) Community formed in 2015 to address similar issues for HTS data of immune repertoires. The purpose of this perspective is to provide an overview of the AIRR Community's founding principles and present the progress that the AIRR Community has made in developing standards of practice and data sharing protocols. Finally, and most important, we invite all interested parties to join this effort to facilitate sharing and use of these powerful data sets (join@airr-community.org).

15.
J Virol ; 89(2): 1105-18, 2015 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378488

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: The high-mannose patch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) during natural infection relatively frequently, and consequently, this region has become a major target of vaccine design. However, it has also become clear that antibody recognition of the region is complex due, at least in part, to variability in neighboring loops and glycans critical to the epitopes. bnAbs against this region have some shared features and some distinguishing features that are crucial to understand in order to design optimal immunogens that can induce different classes of bnAbs against this region. Here, we compare two branches of a single antibody lineage, in which all members recognize the high-mannose patch. One branch (prototype bnAb PGT128) has a 6-amino-acid insertion in CDRH2 that is crucial for broad neutralization. Antibodies in this branch appear to favor a glycan site at N332 on gp120, and somatic hypermutation is required to accommodate the neighboring V1 loop glycans and glycan heterogeneity. The other branch (prototype bnAb PGT130) lacks the CDRH2 insertion. Antibodies in this branch are noticeably effective at neutralizing viruses with an alternate N334 glycan site but are less able to accommodate glycan heterogeneity. We identify a new somatic variant within this branch that is predominantly dependent on N334. The crystal structure of PGT130 offers insight into differences from PGT128. We conclude that different immunogens may be required to elicit bnAbs that have the optimal characteristics of the two branches of the lineage described. IMPORTANCE: Development of an HIV vaccine is of vital importance for prevention of new infections, and it is thought that elicitation of HIV bnAbs will be an important component of an effective vaccine. Increasingly, bnAbs that bind to the cluster of high-mannose glycans on the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120, are being highlighted as important templates for vaccine design. In particular, bnAbs from IAVI donor 36 (PGT125 to PGT131) have been shown to be extremely broad and potent. Combination of these bnAbs enhanced neutralization breadth considerably, suggesting that an optimal immunogen should elicit several antibodies from this family. Here we study the evolution of this antibody family to inform immunogen design. We identify two classes of bnAbs that differ in their recognition of the high-mannose patch and show that different immunogens may be required to elicit these different classes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/immunology , HIV Antibodies/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(13): 4928-33, 2014 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24639495

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immune system confers protection by generating a diverse repertoire of antibody receptors that are rapidly expanded and contracted in response to specific targets. Next-generation DNA sequencing now provides the opportunity to survey this complex and vast repertoire. In the present work, we describe a set of tools for the analysis of antibody repertoires and their application to elucidating the dynamics of the response to viral vaccination in human volunteers. By analyzing data from 38 separate blood samples across 2 y, we found that the use of the germ-line library of V and J segments is conserved between individuals over time. Surprisingly, there appeared to be no correlation between the use level of a particular VJ combination and degree of expansion. We found the antibody RNA repertoire in each volunteer to be highly dynamic, with each individual displaying qualitatively different response dynamics. By using combinatorial phage display, we screened selected VH genes paired with their corresponding VL library for affinity against the vaccine antigens. Altogether, this work presents an additional set of tools for profiling the human antibody repertoire and demonstrates characterization of the fast repertoire dynamics through time in multiple individuals responding to an immune challenge.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Clone Cells , Genetic Vectors , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Male , Mutation/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , V(D)J Recombination/genetics , Vaccination
17.
Front Immunol ; 4: 358, 2013.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24298272

ABSTRACT

Analyses of somatic hypermutation (SHM) patterns in B cell immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences contribute to our basic understanding of adaptive immunity, and have broad applications not only for understanding the immune response to pathogens, but also to determining the role of SHM in autoimmunity and B cell cancers. Although stochastic, SHM displays intrinsic biases that can confound statistical analysis, especially when combined with the particular codon usage and base composition in Ig sequences. Analysis of B cell clonal expansion, diversification, and selection processes thus critically depends on an accurate background model for SHM micro-sequence targeting (i.e., hot/cold-spots) and nucleotide substitution. Existing models are based on small numbers of sequences/mutations, in part because they depend on data from non-coding regions or non-functional sequences to remove the confounding influences of selection. Here, we combine high-throughput Ig sequencing with new computational analysis methods to produce improved models of SHM targeting and substitution that are based only on synonymous mutations, and are thus independent of selection. The resulting "S5F" models are based on 806,860 Synonymous mutations in 5-mer motifs from 1,145,182 Functional sequences and account for dependencies on the adjacent four nucleotides (two bases upstream and downstream of the mutation). The estimated profiles can explain almost half of the variance in observed mutation patterns, and clearly show that both mutation targeting and substitution are significantly influenced by neighboring bases. While mutability and substitution profiles were highly conserved across individuals, the variability across motifs was found to be much larger than previously estimated. The model and method source code are made available at http://clip.med.yale.edu/SHM.

18.
PLoS Pathog ; 9(11): e1003754, 2013.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24278016

ABSTRACT

Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) are typically highly somatically mutated, raising doubts as to whether they can be elicited by vaccination. We used 454 sequencing and designed a novel phylogenetic method to model lineage evolution of the bnAbs PGT121-134 and found a positive correlation between the level of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and the development of neutralization breadth and potency. Strikingly, putative intermediates were characterized that show approximately half the mutation level of PGT121-134 but were still capable of neutralizing roughly 40-80% of PGT121-134 sensitive viruses in a 74-virus panel at median titers between 15- and 3-fold higher than PGT121-134. Such antibodies with lower levels of SHM may be more amenable to elicitation through vaccination while still providing noteworthy coverage. Binding characterization indicated a preference of inferred intermediates for native Env binding over monomeric gp120, suggesting that the PGT121-134 lineage may have been selected for binding to native Env at some point during maturation. Analysis of glycan-dependent neutralization for inferred intermediates identified additional adjacent glycans that comprise the epitope and suggests changes in glycan dependency or recognition over the course of affinity maturation for this lineage. Finally, patterns of neutralization of inferred bnAb intermediates suggest hypotheses as to how SHM may lead to potent and broad HIV neutralization and provide important clues for immunogen design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Female , HIV Antibodies/genetics , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Male , Polysaccharides/genetics , Polysaccharides/immunology
19.
J Autoimmun ; 43: 1-9, 2013 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23497938

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune disease results from a loss of tolerance to self-antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Completely understanding this process requires that targeted antigens be identified, and so a number of techniques have been developed to determine immune receptor specificities. We previously reported the construction of a phage-displayed synthetic human peptidome and a proof-of-principle analysis of antibodies from three patients with neurological autoimmunity. Here we present data from a large-scale screen of 298 independent antibody repertoires, including those from 73 healthy sera, using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing. The resulting database of peptide-antibody interactions characterizes each individual's unique autoantibody fingerprint, and includes specificities found to occur frequently in the general population as well as those associated with disease. Screening type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients revealed a prematurely polyautoreactive phenotype compared with their matched controls. A collection of cerebrospinal fluids and sera from 63 multiple sclerosis patients uncovered novel, as well as previously reported antibody-peptide interactions. Finally, a screen of synovial fluids and sera from 64 rheumatoid arthritis patients revealed novel disease-associated antibody specificities that were independent of seropositivity status. This work demonstrates the utility of performing PhIP-Seq screens on large numbers of individuals and is another step toward defining the full complement of autoimmunoreactivities in health and disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibody Specificity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Autoantigens/genetics , Autoantigens/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Female , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Peptide Library , Young Adult
20.
Nat Biotechnol ; 31(4): 331-334, 2013 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503679

ABSTRACT

Identifying physical interactions between proteins and other molecules is a critical aspect of biological analysis. Here we describe PLATO, an in vitro method for mapping such interactions by affinity enrichment of a library of full-length open reading frames displayed on ribosomes, followed by massively parallel analysis using DNA sequencing. We demonstrate the broad utility of the method for human proteins by identifying known and previously unidentified interacting partners of LYN kinase, patient autoantibodies, and the small-molecules gefitinib and dasatinib.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , Protein Interaction Maps , Humans , Protein Binding , src-Family Kinases/metabolism
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