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2.
Intern Med J ; 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of COVID-19 systemic consequences is a wide research field in which respiratory function assessment has a pivotal role. However, the available data in the literature are still sparse and need further strengthening. AIM: To assess respiratory function 4-6 months after hospital discharge based on lung disease severity in patients who overcome COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients hospitalised either in the Internal Medicine Department (IMD) for moderate to severe disease or in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for critical disease underwent spirometry with maximal flow-volume curve, lung volumes, lung diffusion capacity (DLCO ) and six-minute walking test (6-MWT). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were analysed: 40 from the IMD and 48 from the ICU. In both cohorts, there was a greater prevalence of male patients. In the IMD cohort, 38% of patients showed at least one altered respiratory parameter, while 62% in the ICU cohort did so (P < 0.05). Total lung capacity (TLC) and DLCO were the most frequently altered parameters: 15% and 33% from IMD versus 33% and 56% from ICU, respectively (P < 0.05). In IMD patients, 5% had only restrictive deficit, 22% had only lung diffusion impairment and 10% had both. In ICU patients, 6% had only restrictive deficit, 29% had only lung diffusion impairment and 27% had both (P < 0.05). ICU patients showed a higher frequency of abnormal 6-MWT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lung function tests and 6-MWT are highly informative tools for monitoring the negative consequences of COVID-19 pneumonia, which were more frequent and more complex in patients discharged from ICU.

3.
J Crit Care ; 76: 154285, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This work aimed to compare physical impairment in survivors of classic ARDS compared with COVID-19-associated ARDS (CARDS) survivors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study on 248 patients with CARDS and compared them with a historical cohort of 48 patients with classic ARDS. Physical performance was evaluated at 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge, using the Medical Research Council Scale (MRCss), 6-min walk test (6MWT), handgrip dynamometry (HGD), and fatigue severity score (FSS). We also assessed activities of daily living (ADLs) using the Barthel index. RESULTS: At 6 months, patients with classic ARDS had lower HGD (estimated difference [ED]: 11.71 kg, p < 0.001; ED 31.9% of predicted value, p < 0.001), 6MWT distance (ED: 89.11 m, p < 0.001; ED 12.96% of predicted value, p = 0.032), and more frequent significant fatigue (OR 0.35, p = 0.046). At 12 months, patients with classic ARDS had lower HGD (ED: 9.08 kg, p = 0.0014; ED 25.9% of predicted value, p < 0.001) and no difference in terms of 6MWT and fatigue. At 12 months, patients with classic ARDS improved their MRCss (ED 2.50, p = 0.006) and HGD (ED: 4.13 kg, p = 0.002; ED 9.45% of predicted value, p = 0.005), while those with CARDS did not. Most patients in both groups regained independence in ADLs at 6 months. COVID-19 diagnosis was a significant independent predictor of better HGD (p < 0.0001) and 6MWT performance (p = 0.001), and lower prevalence of fatigue (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Both classic ARDS and CARDS survivors experienced long-term impairments in physical functioning, confirming that post-intensive care syndrome remains a major legacy of critical illness. Surprisingly, however, persisting disability was more common in survivors of classic ARDS than in CARDS survivors. In fact, muscle strength measured with HGD was reduced in survivors of classic ARDS compared to CARDS patients at both 6 and 12 months. The 6MWT was reduced and fatigue was more common in classic ARDS compared to CARDS at 6 months but differences were no longer significant at 12 months. Most patients in both groups regained independent function in ADLs at 6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 Testing , Hand Strength , Survivors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
4.
Life (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143352

ABSTRACT

Excessive sedation is associated with poor outcome in critically ill acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Whether this prognostic effect varies among ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 has yet to be determined. We compared the prognostic value of excessive sedation­in terms of delirium, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU-LOS) and ICU mortality­between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill ARDS patients. This was a second analysis of prospectively collected data in four European academic centers pertaining to 101 adult critically ill ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 disease. Depth of sedation (DOS) and delirium were monitored through processed electroencephalogram (EEG) and the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU). Our main exposure was excessive sedation and how it relates to the presence of delirium, ICU-LOS and ICU mortality. The criterion for excessive sedation was met in 73 (72.3%) patients; of these, 15 (82.2%) and 58 (69.1%) were in non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 ARDS groups, respectively. The criteria of delirium were met in 44 patients (60.3%). Moreover, excessive sedation was present in 38 (86.4%) patients with delirium (p < 0.001). ICU death was ascertained in 41 out of 101 (41.0%) patients; of these, 37 (90.2%) had excessive sedation (p < 0.001). The distribution of ICU-LOS among excessive-sedated and non-sedated patients was 22 (16−27) vs. 14 (10.5−19.5) days (p < 0.001), respectively. In a multivariable framework, excessive sedation was independently associated with the development of delirium (p = 0.001), increased ICU mortality (p = 0.009) and longer ICU-LOS (p = 0.000), but only in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Independent of age and gender, excessive sedation might represent a risk factor for delirium in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Similarly, excessive sedation shows to be an independent predictor of ICU-LOS and ICU mortality. The use of continuous EEG-based depth of sedation (DOS) monitoring and delirium assessment in critically ill COVID-19 patients is warranted.

6.
J Neurol Sci ; 432: 120061, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536918

ABSTRACT

The exact incidence of neurological and cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 in the long term is yet unknown. The aim of this research is to investigate the type of neurological and cognitive impairment in COVID-19 cases of different severity. Two hundred fifteen patients, who had developed COVID-19, were examined 4 months after the diagnosis by means of neurological exam and extensive cognitive evaluation, investigating general cognition, memory, verbal fluency, visuospatial abilities and executive functions. Fifty-two of them were treated in intensive care unit (ICU patients), whereas 163 were not hospitalized (non-ICU patients). Neurological deficits were found in 2/163 (1.2%) of non-ICU and in 7/52 (13.5%) of the ICU cases, all involving the peripheral nervous system. ICU patients performed significantly worse in all the neuropsychological tests and showed a worse age- and education-corrected cognitive impairment: Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) was higher in ICU than in non-ICU patients (median ICU 3 vs 2, p = .001). CII significantly correlated with age in both groups, was unrelated to length of follow- up, diabetes and hypertension and - only for ICU patients- to PaO2/FiO2 at ICU admission. Obtained results support the greater susceptibility of COVID-19 patients, treated in ICU, to develop neurological deficits and cognitive impairment at a four-month follow up, as compared to cases with mild/moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Cognition , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(1-2): 72-79, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498263

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 175 million persons infected and 3.8 million deaths so far and is having a devastating impact on both low and high-income countries, in particular on hospitals and Intensive Care Units (ICU). The ICU mortality during the first pandemic wave ranged from 40% to 85% during the busiest ICU period for admissions around the peak of the surge, and those surviving are frequently faced with impairments affecting physical, cognitive, and mental health status, complicating the postacute phase of COVID-19, which in the pre-COVID period, were defined collectively as postintensive care syndrome (PICS). Long COVID is defined as four weeks of persisting symptoms after the acute illness, and post-COVID syndrome and chronic COVID-19 are the proposed terms to describe continued symptomatology for more than 12 weeks. Overall, 50% of ICU survivors suffer from new physical, mental, and/or cognitive problems at 1 year after ICU discharge. The prevalence, severity, and duration of the various impairments in ICU survivors are poorly defined, with substantial variations among published series, and may reflect differences in the timing of assessment, the outcome measured, the instruments utilized, and thresholds adopted to establish the diagnosis, the qualification of personnel delivering the tests, the resource availability as well diversity in patients' case-mix. Future longitudinal studies of adequate sample size with repeated assessments of validated outcomes and comparison with non-COVID-19 ICU patients are needed to fully explore the long-term outcome of ICU patients with COVID-19. In this article, we focus on chronic COVID-19 in ICU survivors and present state-of-the-art data regarding long-term complications related to critical illness and the treatments and organ support received.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/psychology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors/psychology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
8.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(1): 141-150, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lombardy was the most affected Italian region by the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and underwent urgent reorganization for the management of emergencies, including subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm (aSAH). The aim of the study was to define demographics, clinical, and therapeutic features of aSAH during the COVID-19 outbreak and compare these with a historical cohort. METHODS: In this observational multicenter cohort study, patients aged 18 years or older, who were diagnosed with aSAH at the participating centers in Lombardy from March 9 to May 10, 2020, were included (COVID-19 group). In order to minimize bias related to possible SAH seasonality, the control group was composed of patients diagnosed with aSAH from March 9 to May 10 of the three previous years, 2017-2018-2019 (pre-pandemic group). Twenty-three demographic, clinical, and therapeutic features were collected. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients during the COVID-19 period and 179 in the control group were enrolled at 14 centers. Only 4 patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The "diagnostic delay" was significantly increased (+ 68%) in the COVID-19 group vs. pre-pandemic (1.06 vs. 0.63 days, respectively, p-value = 0.030), while "therapeutic delay" did not differ significantly between the two periods (0.89 vs. 0.74 days, p-value = 0.183). Patients with poor outcome (GOS at discharge from 1 to 3) were higher during the COVID-19 period (54.2%) compared to pre-pandemic (40.2%, p = 0.044). In logistic regression analysis, in which outcome was the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), five variables showed p-values < 0.05: age at admission, WFNS grade, treatment (none), days in ICU, and ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a significantly increased "diagnostic delay" for subarachnoid hemorrhages during the first COVID-19 outbreak in Lombardy. However, despite the dramatic situation that the healthcare system was experiencing, the Lombardy regional reorganization model, which allowed centralization of neurosurgical emergencies such as SAHs, avoided a "therapeutic delay" and led to results overall comparable to the control period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
10.
Thorax ; 77(3): 300-303, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443628

ABSTRACT

We report on the outcome of 114 COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months after intensive care unit discharge with assessment of physical, mental and cognitive impairments. Critical illness polyneuromyopathy was diagnosed in 23 patients (39%). Handgrip dynamometry was 70% predicted at 3 months and significantly improved over time, whereas the 6 min walk test (80% predicted) and severe fatigue (27% of patients) did not. Independence in activities of daily living (ADL) was achieved by 98% at 3 months. Cognitive impairment (28% at 3 months) improved over time, whereas depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, present in 9%, 10% and 4% at 3 months, did not. Normalised health-related quality of life was good. COVID-19-associated ARDS leads to persisting impairment in performance-based measures of physical function, while ADL, cognitive and mental health status, and health-related quality of life may be less impaired. Trial registration number NCT04608994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Activities of Daily Living , Cognition , Hand Strength , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors/psychology
12.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
13.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(6): e0430, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270758

ABSTRACT

To describe the epidemiology of superinfections (occurring > 48 hr after hospital admission) and their impact on the ICU and 28-day mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data. SETTING: University-affiliated adult ICU. PATIENTS: Ninety-two coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU from February 21, 2020, to May 6, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of superinfection at ICU admission was 21.7%, and 53 patients (57.6%) had at least one superinfection during ICU stay, with a total of 75 (82%) ventilator-associated pneumonia and 57 (62%) systemic infections. The most common pathogens responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 26, 34.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 14, 18.7%). Bloodstream infection occurred in 16 cases, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 8, 14.0%), Enterococcus species (n = 6, 10.5%), and Streptococcus species (n = 2, 3.5%). Fungal infections occurred in 41 cases, including 36 probable (30 by Candida albicans, six by C. nonalbicans) and five proven invasive candidiasis (three C. albicans, two C. nonalbicans). Presence of bacterial infections (odds ratio, 10.53; 95% CI, 2.31-63.42; p = 0.005), age (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31; p = 0.001), and the highest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63; p = 0.032) were independently associated with ICU or 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of superinfections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation was high in this series, and bacterial superinfections were independently associated with ICU or 28-day mortality (whichever comes first).

14.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(7): 751-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Single cases and small series of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide. We evaluated incidence and clinical features of GBS in a cohort of patients from two regions of northern Italy with the highest number of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: GBS cases diagnosed in 12 referral hospitals from Lombardy and Veneto in March and April 2020 were retrospectively collected. As a control population, GBS diagnosed in March and April 2019 in the same hospitals were considered. RESULTS: Incidence of GBS in March and April 2020 was 0.202/100 000/month (estimated rate 2.43/100 000/year) vs 0.077/100 000/month (estimated rate 0.93/100 000/year) in the same months of 2019 with a 2.6-fold increase. Estimated incidence of GBS in COVID-19-positive patients was 47.9/100 000 and in the COVID-19-positive hospitalised patients was 236/100 000. COVID-19-positive patients with GBS, when compared with COVID-19-negative subjects, showed lower MRC sum score (26.3±18.3 vs 41.4±14.8, p=0.006), higher frequency of demyelinating subtype (76.6% vs 35.3%, p=0.011), more frequent low blood pressure (50% vs 11.8%, p=0.017) and higher rate of admission to intensive care unit (66.6% vs 17.6%, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an increased incidence of GBS during the COVID-19 outbreak in northern Italy, supporting a pathogenic link. COVID-19-associated GBS is predominantly demyelinating and seems to be more severe than non-COVID-19 GBS, although it is likely that in some patients the systemic impairment due to COVID-19 might have contributed to the severity of the whole clinical picture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1477-1486, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have unveiled a relationship between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and obesity. The aims of this multicenter retrospective cohort study were to disentangle the association of BMI and associated metabolic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and current smoking status) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to intensive care units for COVID-19 in 21 centers (in Europe, Israel, and the United States) were enrolled in this study between February 19, 2020, and May 19, 2020. Primary and secondary outcomes were the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and 28-day mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1,461 patients were enrolled; the median (interquartile range) age was 64 years (40.9-72.0); 73.2% of patients were male; the median BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (25.4-32.3); a total of 1,080 patients (73.9%) required IMV; and the 28-day mortality estimate was 36.1% (95% CI: 33.0-39.5). An adjusted mixed logistic regression model showed a significant linear relationship between BMI and IMV: odds ratio = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.12-1.45) per 5 kg/m2 . An adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model showed a significant association between BMI and mortality, which was increased only in obesity class III (≥40; hazard ratio = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.06-2.64]). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, a linear association between BMI and the need for IMV, independent of other metabolic risk factors, and a nonlinear association between BMI and mortality risk were observed.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Europe , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , United States
16.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 20, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and depletes the lungs of surfactant, leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation and death. The feasibility and safety of surfactant delivery in COVID-19 ARDS patients have not been established. METHODS: We performed retrospective analyses of data from patients receiving off-label use of exogenous natural surfactant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven COVID-19 PCR positive ARDS patients received liquid Curosurf (720 mg) in 150 ml normal saline, divided into five 30 ml aliquots) and delivered via a bronchoscope into second-generation bronchi. Patients were matched with 14 comparable subjects receiving supportive care for ARDS during the same time period. Feasibility and safety were examined as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. RESULTS: Patients showed no evidence of acute decompensation following surfactant installation into minor bronchi. Cox regression showed a reduction of 28-days mortality within the surfactant group, though not significant. The surfactant did not increase the duration of ventilation, and health care providers did not convert to COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: Surfactant delivery through bronchoscopy at a dose of 720 mg in 150 ml normal saline is feasible and safe for COVID-19 ARDS patients and health care providers during the pandemic. Surfactant administration did not cause acute decompensation, may reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation duration in COVID-19 ARDS patients. This study supports the future performance of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of meticulous sub-bronchial lavage with surfactant as treatment for patients with COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung/drug effects , Phospholipids/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , Aged , Biological Products/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Phospholipids/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Pulmonary Surfactants/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1345-1355, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042172

ABSTRACT

Importance: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically ill and require care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: To evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring treatment in ICUs in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 3988 consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinating center (Fondazione IRCCS [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico] Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network from February 20 to April 22, 2020. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. Follow-up was completed on May 30, 2020. Exposures: Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, long-term medications, and ventilatory support at ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to death in days from ICU admission to hospital discharge. The independent risk factors associated with mortality were evaluated with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of the 3988 patients included in this cohort study, the median age was 63 (interquartile range [IQR] 56-69) years; 3188 (79.9%; 95% CI, 78.7%-81.1%) were men, and 1998 of 3300 (60.5%; 95% CI, 58.9%-62.2%) had at least 1 comorbidity. At ICU admission, 2929 patients (87.3%; 95% CI, 86.1%-88.4%) required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The median follow-up was 44 (95% CI, 40-47; IQR, 11-69; range, 0-100) days; median time from symptoms onset to ICU admission was 10 (95% CI, 9-10; IQR, 6-14) days; median length of ICU stay was 12 (95% CI, 12-13; IQR, 6-21) days; and median length of IMV was 10 (95% CI, 10-11; IQR, 6-17) days. Cumulative observation time was 164 305 patient-days. Hospital and ICU mortality rates were 12 (95% CI, 11-12) and 27 (95% CI, 26-29) per 1000 patients-days, respectively. In the subgroup of the first 1715 patients, as of May 30, 2020, 865 (50.4%) had been discharged from the ICU, 836 (48.7%) had died in the ICU, and 14 (0.8%) were still in the ICU; overall, 915 patients (53.4%) died in the hospital. Independent risk factors associated with mortality included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.60-1.92), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.88), high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), high positive end-expiratory pressure (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) or low Pao2:Fio2 ratio (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87) on ICU admission, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28-2.19), hypercholesterolemia (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), and type 2 diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39). No medication was independently associated with mortality (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.42; angiotensin receptor blockers HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, most patients required IMV. The mortality rate and absolute mortality were high.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 1020-1026, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006326

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Treatment with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is frequent. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds led clinicians to deliver NIV also outside ICUs. Data about the use of NIV in COVID-19 is limited.Objectives: To describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 treated with NIV outside the ICUs. To investigate the factors associated with NIV failure (need for intubation or death).Methods: In this prospective, single-day observational study, we enrolled adult patients with COVID-19 who were treated with NIV outside the ICU from 31 hospitals in Lombardy, Italy.Results: We collected data on demographic and clinical characteristics, ventilatory management, and patient outcomes. Of 8,753 patients with COVID-19 present in the hospitals on the study day, 909 (10%) were receiving NIV outside the ICU. A majority of patients (778/909; 85%) patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was delivered by helmet in 617 (68%) patients. NIV failed in 300 patients (37.6%), whereas 498 (62.4%) patients were discharged alive without intubation. Overall mortality was 25%. NIV failure occurred in 152/284 (53%) patients with an arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio <150 mm Hg. Higher C-reactive protein and lower PaO2/FiO2 and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Conclusions: The use of NIV outside the ICUs was common in COVID-19, with a predominant use of helmet CPAP, with a rate of success >60% and close to 75% in full-treatment patients. C-reactive protein, PaO2/FiO2, and platelet counts were independently associated with increased risk of NIV failure.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04382235).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Hospital Mortality , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Patients' Rooms , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Cannula , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(11): 1234-1245, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976681

ABSTRACT

With 63,098 confirmed cases on 17 April 2020 and 11,384 deaths, Lombardy has been the most affected region in Italy by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To cope with this emergency, the COVID-19 Lombardy intensive care units (ICU) network was created. The network identified the need of defining a list of clinical recommendations to standardize treatment of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three core topics were identified: 1) rational use of intensive care resources; 2) ventilation strategies; 3) non-ventilatory interventions. Identification of patients who may benefit from ICU treatment is challenging. Clinicians should consider baseline performance and frailty status and they should adopt disease-specific staging tools. Continuous positive airway pressure, mainly delivered through a helmet as elective method, should be considered as initial treatment for all patients with respiratory failure associated with COVID-19. In case of persisting dyspnea and/or desaturation despite 4-6 hours of noninvasive ventilation, endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered. In the early phase, muscle relaxant use and volume-controlled ventilation is recommended. Prone position should be performed in patients with PaO2/FiO2≤100 mmHg. For patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia, we do not recommend empiric antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Consultation of an infectious disease specialist is suggested before start of any antiviral therapy. In conclusion, the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network identified a list of best practice statements supported by the available evidence and clinical experience or identified as panel members expert opinions for the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Pandemics
20.
Bioanalysis ; 12(17): 1223-1230, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 emergency has created an enormous stress on providers that have been transformed into coronavirus disease hospitals. This article presents the experience of the clinical laboratory of Spedali Civili in Brescia (a teaching hospital in Lombardy with over 1500 beds) in managing the crisis, and to offer practical considerations for laboratory testing for this cohort of patients. Our contribution is threefold: by comparing the demand for tests in two representative period before and within the crisis, we show the change in compositions of the analytes that other labs may expect; we present the new panels of tests that hospital staff can order with different advantage for wards and laboratory; and we show how to reorganize staff on the basis of changes mentioned above.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Services/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinalysis
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