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1.
J Travel Med ; 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244420

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on long-term associations between COVID-19 and risks of multi-organ complications and mortality in older population is limited. This study evaluates these associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The cohorts included patients aged ≥60 year diagnosed with COVID-19 infection (cases), between 16 March 2020 and 31 May 2021 from the UK Biobank (UKB cohort, n = 11 330); and between 01 April 2020 and 31 May 2022 from the electronic health records in Hong Kong (HK cohort, n = 213 618). Each patient was randomly matched with up to 10 individuals without COVID-19 infection based on age and sex (UKB, n = 325 812; HK, n = 1 411 206) and were followed for up to 18 months until 31 August 2021 for UKB, and up to 28 months until 15 August 2022 for HK cohort. Caracteristics between cohorts were further adjusted with propensity score-based marginal mean weighting through stratification. For evaluating long-term association of COVID-19 with multi-organ disease complications and mortality after 21-days of diagnosis, Cox regression was employed. RESULT: Older adults with COVID-19 were associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes [major cardiovascular disease (stroke, heart failure and coronary heart disease): hazard ratio (UKB): 1.4 (95% Confidence interval: 1.2,1.7), HK:1.2 (95% CI: 1.1,1.3)]; myocardial infarction: HR (UKB): 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4,2.5), HK:1.2 (95% CI: 1.1,1.5)]; respiratory outcomes [interstitial lung disease: HR (UKB: 3.5 (95% CI: 2.6,4.7), HK:6.6 (95% CI: 2.1,21.2); chronic pulmonary disease: HR (UKB): 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2,2.1), HK:1.7 (95% CI: 1.4,2.1)]; neuropsychiatric outcomes [seizure: HR (UKB): 2.7 (95% CI: 1.7,4.2), HK:1.8 (95% CI: 1.4,2.3)]; and renal outcomes [acute kidney disease: HR (UKB): 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1,1.6), HK:1.7 (95% CI: 1.4,2.1)]; and all-cause mortality [HR (UKB): 4.8 (95% CI: 4.4,5.4), HK:2.7 (95% CI: 2.6,2.8)]. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with long-term risks of multi-organ complications in older adults (aged ≥60). Infected patients in this age-group may benefit from appropriate monitoring of signs/symptoms for developing these complications.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2209201, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate waning effectiveness against severe and fatal COVID-19 with two to three doses of CoronaVac/BNT162b2, where data are limited. METHODS: A case-control study included individuals aged ≥18 years, unvaccinated or received two to three doses of CoronaVac/BNT162b2, using electronic healthcare databases in Hong Kong. Those with first COVID-19-related hospitalization, severe complications, or mortality between 1 January and 15 August 2022 were defined as cases and matched with up-to-10 controls by age, sex, index date, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated at different time intervals from second and third-dose vaccination (0-13 up-to 210-240 days) using conditional logistic regression adjusted for comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: By 211-240 days after second dose, VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization reduced to 46.6% (40.7-51.8%) for BNT162b2 and 36.2% (28.0-43.4%) for CoronaVac, and VE against COVID-19-related mortality were 73.8% (55.9-84.4%) and 76.6% (60.8-86.0%). After third dose, VE against COVID-19-related hospitalization decreased from 91.2% (89.5-92.6%) for BNT162b2 and 76.7% (73.7-79.4%) for CoronaVac at 0-13 days, to 67.1% (60.4-72.6%) and 51.3% (44.2-57.5%) at 91-120 days. VE against COVID-19-related mortality for BNT162b2 remained high from 0-13 days [98.2% (95.0-99.3%)] to 91-120 days [94.6% (77.7-98.7%)], and for CoronaVac reduced from 0-13 days [96.7% (93.2-98.4%)] to 91-120 days [86.4% (73.3-93.1%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Significant risk reduction against COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality after CoronaVac or BNT162b2 vaccination was observed for >240 and >120 days after second and third doses compared to unvaccinated, despite significant waning over time. Timely administration of booster doses could provide higher levels of protection.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization
3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 60: 102000, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316357

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence on post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) has shown inconsistent findings. This study aimed to generate coherent evidence on the post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 infection using electronic healthcare records across two regions. Methods: In this retrospective, multi-database cohort study, patients with COVID-19 aged 18 or above between April 1st 2020 and May 31st 2022 from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HKHA) and March 16th 2020 and May 31st 2021 from the UK Biobank (UKB) databases and their matched controls were followed for up to 28 and 17 months, respectively. Covariates between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 controls were adjusted using propensity score-based inverse probability treatment weighting. Cox proportional regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of clinical sequelae, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality 21 days after COVID-19 infection. Findings: A total of 535,186 and 16,400 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 from HKHA and UKB, of whom 253,872 (47.4%) and 7613 (46.4%) were male, with a mean age (±SD) of 53.6 (17.8) years and 65.0 (8.5) years, respectively. Patients with COVID-19 incurred greater risk of heart failure (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.65, 2.01), atrial fibrillation (1.31; 1.16, 1.48), coronary artery disease (1.32; 1.07, 1.63), deep vein thrombosis (1.74; 1.27, 2.37), chronic pulmonary disease (1.61; 1.40, 1.85), acute respiratory distress syndrome (1.89; 1.04, 3.43), interstitial lung disease (3.91; 2.36, 6.50), seizure (2.32; 1.12, 4.79), anxiety disorder (1.65; 1.29, 2.09), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.52; 1.23, 1.87), end-stage renal disease (1.76; 1.31, 2.38), acute kidney injury (2.14; 1.69, 2.71), pancreatitis (1.42; 1.10, 1.83), cardiovascular (2.86; 1.25, 6.51) and all-cause mortality (4.16; 2.11, 8.21) mortality during their post-acute phase of infection. Interpretation: The consistent greater risk of PASC highlighted the need for sustained multi-disciplinary care for COVID-19 survivors. Funding: Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Collaborative Research Fund, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and AIR@InnoHK, administered by the Innovation and Technology Commission, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(6): 403-413, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorder have a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent poor outcomes. Few studies have evaluated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among people with substance use disorder. We aimed to estimate the vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Fosun-BioNTech) and CoronaVac (Sinovac) against SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) infection and related hospital admission in this population. METHODS: We did a matched case-control study using electronic health databases in Hong Kong. Individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder between Jan 1, 2016, and Jan 1, 2022, were identified. People aged 18 years and older with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Jan 1 to May 31, 2022, and people with COVID-19-related hospital admission from Feb 16 to May 31, 2022, were included as cases and were matched by age, sex, and previous clinical history with controls from all individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder who attended the Hospital Authority health services: up to three controls for SARS-CoV-2 infection and up to ten controls for hospital admission. Conditional logistical regression was used to evaluate the association between vaccination status (ie, one, two, or three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac) and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospital admission, adjusted for baseline comorbidities and medication use. FINDINGS: Among 57 674 individuals with substance use disorder, 9523 people with SARS-CoV-2 infections (mean age 61·00 years, SD 14·90; 8075 [84·8%] males and 1448 [15·2%] females) were identified and matched to 28 217 controls (mean age 60·99 years, 14·67; 24 006 [85·1%] males and 4211 [14·9%] females), and 843 people with COVID-19-related hospital admissions (mean age 70·48 years, SD 14·68; 754 [89·4%] males and 89 [10·6%] females) were identified and matched to 7459 controls (mean age 70·24 years, 13·87; 6837 [91·7%] males and 622 [8·3%] females). Data on ethnicity were not available. We observed significant vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection for two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination (20·7%, 95% CI 14·0-27·0, p<0·0001) and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 41·5%, 34·4-47·8, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 13·6%, 5·4-21·0, p=0·0015; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 31·3%, 19·8-41·1, p<0·0001), but not for one dose of either vaccine or two doses of CoronaVac. Significant vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospital admission was detected after one dose of BNT162b2 vaccination (35·7%, 3·8-57·1, p=0·032), two-dose vaccination (both BNT162b2 73·3%, 64·3 to 80·0, p<0·0001; both CoronaVac 59·9%, 50·2-67·7, p<0·0001), and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 86·3%, 75·6-92·3, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 73·5% 61·0-81·9, p<0·0001; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 83·7%, 64·6-92·5, p<0·0001), but not after one dose of CoronaVac. INTERPRETATION: For both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, two-dose or three-dose vaccination was protective against COVID-19-related hospital admission and the booster dose provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with substance use disorder. Our findings confirm the importance of booster doses in this population during the period dominated by the omicron variant. FUNDING: Health Bureau, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Hospitals
5.
Primary care diabetes ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2263401

ABSTRACT

Background The effect directly from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on health and fatality has received considerable attention, particularly among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, evidence on the indirect impact of disrupted healthcare services during the pandemic on people with T2DM is limited. This systematic review aims to assess the indirect impact of the pandemic on the metabolic management of T2DM people without a history of COVID-19 infection. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies that compared diabetes-related health outcomes between pre-pandemic and during-pandemic periods in people with T2DM and without the COVID-19 infection and published from January 1, 2020, to July 13, 2022. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall effect on the diabetes indicators, including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profiles, and weight control, with different effect models according to the heterogeneity. Results Eleven observational studies were included in the final review. No significant changes in HbA1c levels [weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.06 (95% CI −0.12 to 0.24)] and body weight index (BMI) [0.15 (95% CI −0.24 to 0.53)] between the pre-pandemic and during-pandemic were found in the meta-analysis. Four studies reported lipid indicators;most reported insignificant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 2) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 3);two studies reported an increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride. Conclusions This review did not find significant changes in HbA1c and BMI among people with T2DM after data pooling, but a possible worsening in lipids parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were limited data on long-term outcomes and healthcare utilization, which warrants further research. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42022360433.

6.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(4): 505-514, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether hospitalized patients benefit from COVID-19 oral antivirals is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine the real-world effectiveness of molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the Omicron outbreak. DESIGN: Target trial emulation study. SETTING: Electronic health databases in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: The molnupiravir emulated trial included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or older between 26 February and 18 July 2022 (n = 16 495). The nirmatrelvir-ritonavir emulated trial included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or older between 16 March and 18 July 2022 (n = 7119). INTERVENTION: Initiation of molnupiravir or nirmatrelvir-ritonavir within 5 days of hospitalization with COVID-19 versus no initiation of molnupiravir or nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. MEASUREMENTS: Effectiveness against all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or use of ventilatory support within 28 days. RESULTS: The use of oral antivirals in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (molnupiravir: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81 to 0.93]; nirmatrelvir-ritonavir: HR, 0.77 [CI, 0.66 to 0.90]) but no significant risk reduction in terms of ICU admission (molnupiravir: HR, 1.02 [CI, 0.76 to 1.36]; nirmatrelvir-ritonavir: HR, 1.08 [CI, 0.58 to 2.02]) or the need for ventilatory support (molnupiravir: HR, 1.07 [CI, 0.89 to 1.30]; nirmatrelvir-ritonavir: HR, 1.03 [CI, 0.70 to 1.52]). There was no significant interaction between drug treatment and the number of COVID-19 vaccine doses received, thereby supporting the effectiveness of oral antivirals regardless of vaccination status. No significant interaction between nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment and age, sex, or Charlson Comorbidity Index was observed, whereas molnupiravir tended to be more effective in older people. LIMITATION: The outcome of ICU admission or need for ventilatory support may not capture all severe COVID-19 cases; unmeasured confounders, such as obesity and health behaviors, may exist. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir reduced all-cause mortality in both vaccinated and unvaccinated hospitalized patients. No significant reduction in ICU admission or the need for ventilatory support was observed. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Health and Medical Research Fund Research on COVID-19, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Research Grants Council, Collaborative Research Fund; and Health Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(3): 229-237, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect directly from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on health and fatality has received considerable attention, particularly among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, evidence on the indirect impact of disrupted healthcare services during the pandemic on people with T2DM is limited. This systematic review aims to assess the indirect impact of the pandemic on the metabolic management of T2DM people without a history of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies that compared diabetes-related health outcomes between pre-pandemic and during-pandemic periods in people with T2DM and without the COVID-19 infection and published from January 1, 2020, to July 13, 2022. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall effect on the diabetes indicators, including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profiles, and weight control, with different effect models according to the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Eleven observational studies were included in the final review. No significant changes in HbA1c levels [weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.06 (95% CI -0.12 to 0.24)] and body weight index (BMI) [0.15 (95% CI -0.24 to 0.53)] between the pre-pandemic and during-pandemic were found in the meta-analysis. Four studies reported lipid indicators; most reported insignificant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 2) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 3); two studies reported an increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride. CONCLUSIONS: This review did not find significant changes in HbA1c and BMI among people with T2DM after data pooling, but a possible worsening in lipids parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were limited data on long-term outcomes and healthcare utilization, which warrants further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022360433.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pandemics , Glycated Hemoglobin , COVID-19/epidemiology , Lipoproteins, HDL
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observable symptoms of Bell's palsy following vaccinations may arouse concern over the safety profiles of novel COVID-19 vaccines in the general public. However, there are only a few studies on Bell's palsy following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination with inconclusive findings. This study aimed to update the previous analysis on the risk of Bell's palsy following mRNA (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: This study included cases aged ≥16-years-old with a new diagnosis of Bell's palsy within 28 days after BNT162b2 vaccinations from the population-based electronic health records in Hong Kong, using a nested case-control and self-controlled case series (SCCS) analyses were employed. The association between Bell's palsy and BNT162b2 was evaluated using conditional logistic and Poisson regression in nested case-control and SCCS analysis, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 54 individuals were newly diagnosed with Bell's palsy after BNT162b2 vaccinations. The incidence of Bell's palsy was 1.58 (95% CI:1.19-2.07) per 100,000 doses administered. The nested case-control analysis showed significant association between BNT162b2 vaccinations and Bell's palsy (Adjusted OR: 1.543, 95%CI:1.123 - 2.121), with up to 1.112 excess events per 100,000 people receiving two doses of BNT162b2. An increased risk of Bell's palsy was observed during the first 14 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 in both nested case-control (Adjusted OR: 2.325, 95%CI:1.414 - 3.821) and SCCS analysis (Adjusted IRR=2.44, 95%CI:1.32-4.50). CONCLUSION: There is an overall increased risk of Bell's palsy following BNT162b2 vaccination, particularly within the first 14 days after the second dose, but the absolute risk was very low.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early antiviral therapy was effective in the treatment of COVID-19. We assessed the efficacy and safety of combined interferon beta-1b and remdesivir treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, prospective open-label, randomized-controlled trial involving high-risk adults hospitalized for COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned to a 5-day interferon beta-1b 16 million units daily and remdesivir 200mg loading on day 1 followed by 100mg daily on day 2 to 5 (combination-group), or to remdesivir only of similar regimen (control-group) (1:1). The primary end-point was the time to complete alleviation of symptoms (NEWS2 = 0). RESULTS: Two-hundred and twelve patients were enrolled. The median days of starting treatment from symptom-onset was 3 days. The median age was 65 years and 159 patients (75%) had chronic disease. The baseline demographics were similar. There was no mortality. For the primary-endpoint, the combination-group was significantly quicker to NEWS2 = 0 (4 versus 6.5 days; hazard-ratio [HR],6.59; 95% confidence-interval [CI],6.1-7.09; p < 0.0001) when compared to the control-group. For the secondary endpoints, the combination-group was quicker to negative NPS VL (6 versus 8 days; HR,8.16; 95% CI,7.79-8.52; p < 0.0001) and develop seropositive IgG (8 versus 10 days; HR,10.78; 95% CI,9.98-11.58; p < 0.0001). All adverse events resolved upon follow-up. Combination group (HR,4.1 95%CI,1.9-8.6, p < 0.0001), was the most significant independent factor associated with NEWS2 = 0 on day 4. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with interferon beta-1b and remdesivir was safe and better than remdesivir only in alleviating symptoms, shorten viral shedding and hospitalization with earlier seropositivity in high-risk COVID-19 patients.

12.
CMAJ ; 195(4): E143-E152, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a prevalent risk factor for COVID-19-related complications and death. We sought to evaluate the association of homologous booster vaccination using BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or CoronaVac (Sinovac) with COVID-19-related deaths among people with multimorbidity during the initial Omicron wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using routine clinical records from public health care facilities in Hong Kong, we conducted a territory-wide retrospective cohort study comparing people aged 18 years or older with 2 or more chronic conditions who received a homologous booster (third) dose with those who received only 2 doses, between Nov. 11, 2021, and Mar. 31, 2022. The primary outcome was death related to COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 120 724 BNT162b2 recipients (including 87 289 who received a booster), followed for a median of 34 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-63) days and 127 318 CoronaVac recipients (including 94 977 who received a booster), followed for a median of 38 (IQR 22-77) days. Among BNT162b2 recipients, booster-vaccinated people had fewer COVID-19-related deaths than those who received 2 doses (5 v. 34, incidence rate 1.3 v. 23.4 per million person-days, weighted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.16). We observed similar results among recipients of CoronaVac booster vaccination compared with those who received only 2 doses (26 v. 88, incidence rate 5.3 v. 53.1 per million person-days, weighted IRR 0.08, 95% CI 0.05-0.12). INTERPRETATION: Among people with multimorbidity, booster vaccination with BNT162b2 or CoronaVac was associated with reductions of more than 90% in COVID-19-related mortality rates compared with only 2 doses. These results highlight the crucial role of booster vaccination for protecting vulnerable populations as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
13.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 15(1): 32-42, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The real-world management and clinical characteristics of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in Hong Kong and its implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination are unknown. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with CSU and the role of an immunologist-led Urticaria Clinic as well as the impact of CSU on COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Hong Kong. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical data of 257 CSU patients were collected and analyzed. Association analyses were performed to identify the relationships between variables and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake. RESULTS: After the immunologist review, the Weekly Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was significantly lower than baseline (median: 0.00 vs. 12.0, P < 0.001). Changes in UAS7 were significantly greater among patients with baseline UAS7 ≥ 16 compared to those with UAS7 < 16 (median: -24.0 vs. -2.00, P < 0.001). CSU patients had lower COVID-19 vaccination rates than the general population with only 176 (68.5%) and 165 (65.0%) receiving at least one dose and 2 doses of vaccination, respectively. The presence of concomitant suspected drug allergy was associated with lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; P = 0.010), while regular pharmacological treatment was associated with higher COVID-19 vaccine uptake among CSU patients (OR, 3.79; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: A dedicated immunologist-led Urticaria Clinic may effectively improve CSU management and outcomes in Hong Kong.

14.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosed vaccine-related "allergies" lead to unnecessary vaccine deferrals and incomplete vaccinations, leaving patients unprotected against COVID-19. To overcome limitations and queues for Allergist assessment, the "VAS-Track" pathway was developed to evaluate patients via a multi-disciplinary triage model including nurses, non-specialists, and Allergists. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effectiveness and safety of VAS-Track and evaluate its real-world impact in terms of vaccination rates and COVID-19 protection. METHODS: Patients referred to VAS-Track between September 2021 and March 2022 were recruited. Subgroup analysis was performed with prospective pre- and post-clinic antibody levels. RESULTS: Nurse-assisted screening identified 10,412 (76%) referrals as inappropriate. 369 patients were assessed by VAS-Track. Overall, 100% of patients were recommended to complete vaccination and 332 (90%) completed their primary series. No patients reported any significant allergic reactions following subsequent vaccination. Vaccination completion rates between patients seen by non-specialists and additional Allergist review were similar (90% vs. 89%, p = 0.617). Vaccination rates were higher among patients with prior history of immediate-type reactions (odds ratio: 2.43, p = 0.025). Subgroup analysis revealed that only 20% (56/284) of patients had seropositive COVID-19 neutralizing antibody levels (≥ 15 AU/mL) prior to VAS-Track, which increased to 92% after vaccine completion (pre-clinic antibody level 6.0 ± 13.5 AU/mL vs. post-clinic antibody level 778.8 ± 337.4 AU/mL, p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A multi-disciplinary allergy team was able to streamline our COVID-19 VAS services, enabling almost all patients to complete their primary series, significantly boosting antibody levels and real-world COVID-19 protection. We propose similar multidisciplinary models to be further utilized, especially in the settings with limited allergy services.

15.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 162, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160220

ABSTRACT

Evidence on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines among people who recovered from a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is warranted to inform vaccination recommendations. Using the territory-wide public healthcare and vaccination records of over 2.5 million individuals in Hong Kong, we examined the potentially differential risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and mortality between those receiving two homologous doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac versus those with a previous infection receiving only one dose amid the Omicron epidemic. Results show a single dose after a SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a lower risk of infection (BNT162b2: adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.475, 95% CI: 0.410-0.550; CoronaVac: adjusted IRR = 0.397, 95% CI: 0.309-0.511) and no significant difference was detected in the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization or mortality compared with a two-dose vaccination regimen. Findings support clinical recommendations that those with a previous infection could receive a single dose to gain at least similar protection as those who received two doses without a previous infection.

16.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In view of limited evidence that specifically addresses vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the older population, this study aims to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in older adults during the Omicron BA.2 outbreak. METHODS: This case-control study analysed data available between January and March 2022 from the electronic health databases in Hong Kong and enrolled individuals aged 60 or above. Each case was matched with up to 10 controls by age, sex, index date and Charlson Comorbidity Index for the four outcomes (COVID-19 infection, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, severe complications, and all-cause mortality) independently. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to evaluate VE of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac against COVID-19-related outcomes within 28 days after COVID-19 infection among participants stratified by age groups (60-79, ≥ 80 years old). RESULTS: A dose-response relationship between the number of vaccine doses received and protection against severe or fatal disease was observed. Highest VE (95% CI) against COVID-19 infection was observed in individuals aged ≥80 who received three doses of BNT162b2 [75.5% (73.1%-77.7%)] or three doses of CoronaVac [53.9% (51.0%-56.5%)] compared to those in the younger age group who received three doses of BNT162b2 [51.1% (49.9%-52.4%)] or three doses of CoronaVac [2.0% (-0.1%-4.1%)]. VE (95% CI) was higher for other outcomes, reaching 91.9% (89.4%-93.8%) and 86.7% (84.3%-88.8%) against COVID-19-related hospitalisation; 85.8% (61.2%-94.8%) and 89.8% (72.4%-96.3%) against COVID-19-related severe complications; and 96.4% (92.9%-98.2%) and 95.0% (92.1%-96.8%) against COVID-19-related mortality after three doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in older vaccine recipients, respectively. A similar dose-response relationship was established in younger vaccine recipients and after stratification by sex and Charlson Comorbidity Index. CONCLUSION: Both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination were effective in protecting older adults against COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related severe outcomes amidst the Omicron BA.2 pandemic, and VE increased further with the third dose.

17.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063150, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993028

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant spill-over effect on people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) over the long term, beyond the direct effect of COVID-19 infection. Evaluating changes in health outcomes, health service use and costs can provide evidence to optimise care for people with NCDs during and after the pandemic, and to better prepare outbreak responses in the future. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a population-based cohort study using electronic health records of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA) CMS, economic modelling and serial cross-sectional surveys on health service use. This study includes people aged ≥18 years who have a documented diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease or chronic kidney disease with at least one attendance at the HA hospital or clinic between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019, and without COVID-19 infection. Changes in all-cause mortality, disease-specific outcomes, and health services use rates and costs will be assessed between pre-COVID-19 and-post-COVID-19 pandemic or during each wave using an interrupted time series analysis. The long-term health economic impact of healthcare disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic will be studied using microsimulation modelling. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson/negative binomial regression will be used to evaluate the effect of different modes of supplementary care on health outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong, the HA Hong Kong West Cluster (reference number UW 21-297). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2304-2314, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991970

ABSTRACT

Data regarding protection against mortality and severe complications after Omicron BA.2 infection with CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines remains limited. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of severe complications and mortality following 1-3 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 using electronic health records database. Cases were adults with their first COVID-19-related mortality or severe complications between 1 January and 31 March 2022, matched with up-to 10 controls by age, sex, index date, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related mortality and severe complications by type and number of doses was estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for comorbidities and medications. Vaccine effectiveness (95% CI) against COVID-19-related mortality after two doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were 90.7% (88.6-92.3) and 74.8% (72.5-76.9) in those aged ≥65, 87.6% (81.4-91.8) and 80.7% (72.8-86.3) in those aged 50-64, 86.6% (71.0-93.8) and 82.7% (56.5-93.1) in those aged 18-50. Vaccine effectiveness against severe complications after two doses of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac were 82.1% (74.6-87.3) and 58.9% (50.3-66.1) in those aged ≥65, 83.0% (69.6-90.5) and 67.1% (47.1-79.6) in those aged 50-64, 78.3% (60.8-88.0) and 77.8% (49.6-90.2) in those aged 18-50. Further risk reduction with the third dose was observed especially in those aged ≥65 years, with vaccine effectiveness of 98.0% (96.5-98.9) for BNT162b2 and 95.5% (93.7-96.8) for CoronaVac against mortality, 90.8% (83.4-94.9) and 88.0% (80.8-92.5) against severe complications. Both CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccination were effective against COVID-19-related mortality and severe complications amidst the Omicron BA.2 pandemic, and risks decreased further with the third dose.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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