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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 903290, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911121

ABSTRACT

Background: The study investigated the level of behavioral intention to consult doctors for flu symptoms (BICDFS) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and examined its associations with illness representations of COVID-19 and fear of COVID-19 during clinic visits in a general Chinese adult population. Methods: A random telephone survey was conducted among 300 residents in Hong Kong, China in April 2020 when the second wave of COVID-19 was just ended in the region. The participants were asked about their intention to consult doctors if they had mild or severe flu symptoms in the next week (from 1 = definitely no to 5 = definitely yes). Illness representations of COVID-19 were measured by the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). The fear of COVID-19 during clinic visits were assessed by two single items. Linear regression adjusted for background variables and hierarchical strategies were employed. Results: Of the participants, 52.3 and 92.0% showed an intention to consult doctors for mild and severe flu symptoms, respectively. Adjusted for background factors, COVID-19-related cognitive representations (consequences: standardized b = 0.15, p = 0.010; understanding: standardized b = 0.21, p = 0.001) and emotional representations (concern: standardized b = 0.17, p = 0.001; negative emotions: standardized b = 0.19, p = 0.001) were positively associated with BICDFS. In the hierarchical model, independent significant factors of BICDFS included understanding (standardized b = 0.16, p = 0.013) and negative emotions (standardized b = 0.17, p = 0.008). The fear-related variables showed non-significant associations with the BICDFS. Conclusions: Promotion of care-seeking behaviors for flu symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic should consider improving people's understanding of COVID-19 and providing advice on related coping strategies for emotional responses to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , Ambulatory Care , China/epidemiology , Fear , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intention , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Telephone
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restriction of gathering size in all public areas is a newly and commonly exercised governmental social distancing policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its effectiveness depends on the general public's compliance. This study applied the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to investigate determinants (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, and perceived self-efficacy) of compliance with the social distancing policy of banning gathering of >4 people in all public areas (BG4PA) in the Hong Kong general adult population. METHODS: 300 participants were interviewed through a population-based telephone survey during April 21-28, 2020. RESULTS: The compliance rate of BG4PA was high (78%). Adjusted for the background factors, multiple linear regression analysis found that perceived response efficacy and perceived self-efficacy were significantly and positively associated with compliance with BG4PA (p<0.05), while the associations between perceived severity/perceived susceptibility and compliance were of marginal significance (0.05

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Internet Interv ; 28: 100541, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796618

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health emergencies may lead to severe psychological stress, especially for healthcare workers, including frontline healthcare workers and public health workers. However, few stress management interventions have been implemented for healthcare workers even though they require more comprehensive interventions than the general public. Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a novel psychological self-help intervention developed by the World Health Organization. It is accessible, scalable, and cost-effective and has the potential to be quickly applied to help people cope with stress and adversity. The major objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of SH+ interventions on the alleviation of stress levels and mental health problems among healthcare workers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of SH+ will be conducted to investigate the stress level and mental health status of Chinese healthcare workers and control subjects in Guangzhou. Assessments will be performed before (baseline), at the end of (1 month), and 2 months after (3 months) the intervention. After completing the baseline screening questionnaire, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups in a 1:1 ratio by block randomization. During the 1-month intervention period, the intervention group will receive the SH+ intervention and the control group will receive information about mental health promotion. The intervention will be delivered by the research assistant via social media platforms. The primary outcome is the level of stress, which will be measured by a 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes including mental health symptoms will also be collected. Discussion: Given the potential for multiple COVID-19 waves and other infectious disease pandemics in the future, we expect that SH+ will be an effective stress management intervention for healthcare workers. The findings from this study will facilitate the application of SH+, and the trial is expected to be extended to a larger population in the future.

4.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(8): 2327-2338, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703444

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study investigated the association between resilience, stigma, life satisfaction and the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination among Chinese HCWs. It also explored the mediating role of stigma and life satisfaction on the association between resilience and intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: An anonymous cross-sectional survey. METHODS: 1733 HCWs from five hospitals in four provinces of mainland China completed a cross-sectional online survey in October and November 2020. RESULTS: Among the HCWs, the rate of intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was 73.1%. Results from structural equation modelling showed that resilience was associated both directly, and indirectly with greater intent to receive a COVID-19 vaccination through two pathways: first by increasing life satisfaction, and second by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Promoting the resilience of HCWs has the potential to increase the COVID-19 vaccination uptake rate among HCWs in China. IMPACT: This study tested the relationship between several psychological factors and the COVID-19 vaccination intention of HCWs in China, finding that resilience played a significant role in improving COVID-19 vaccination intention rates by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
5.
J Ment Health ; 31(4): 534-542, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant negative socio-political, economic, and psychological consequences. AIMS: To investigate the impact of individual-level (illness representations of COVID-19) and structurally derived (anticipated social-political development in the economy, security, and social harmony in the next year) factors, and their potential moderation effects on depressive symptoms. METHODS: An anonymous population-based telephone survey was conducted among the general public of Hong Kong, China during 3-10 April 2020 (n = 300, response rate 56%). Depressive symptoms were assessed by the validated Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. RESULTS: Of the participants, 8.7% showed probable moderate-to-severe depression. Hierarchical linear regression models showed that illness representations of personal/treatment control and emotional responses and anticipated deterioration in social harmony were independently and significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Anticipated deterioration in security significantly moderated the associations between perceived consequence/treatment control of COVID-19 and depressive symptoms, such that the associations were stronger among people who anticipated a strong deterioration in security. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that perceptions of COVID-19 and future social-political development jointly and interactively contributed to depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health professionals and promotions should take the multiple-level mental health determinants into account.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Change
6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(5): 609-615, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between factors based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) and behavioral intention among doctors and nurses in China toward free and self-paid (600 RMB or US$91) severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination given 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 362 doctors and 1,702 nurses in major departments of 5 hospitals of 3 Chinese provinces. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was conducted from October to November 2020, facilitated by hospital administrators through online WeChat/QQ working groups. Data on outcome expectations, self-efficacy, norms, and COVID-19-related work experiences were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analyses. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed that physical (eg, protective effect of vaccination) and self-evaluative outcome expectations (eg, anticipated regret), self-efficacy, norms (eg, descriptive norm, subjective norm, professional norm, and moral norm), and job satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with the free and self-paid SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intention outcomes among doctors and nurses, adjusted for background variables. Doctors who had engaged in COVID-19-related work reported higher self-paid vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion is needed to improve the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among healthcare workers. Such interventions may consider modifying the identified factors of vaccination intention, including strengthening perceived efficacy, positive feelings about vaccination, the need to avoid future regret, self-efficacy, and social norms. Future studies should examine the actual behavior patterns of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and the efficacy of promotion intervention should be tested in randomized controlled studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Psychological Theory , Vaccination/psychology
7.
Vaccine ; 40(4): 612-620, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 vaccination needs a high population coverage to achieve herd immunity. We investigated prevalence of three scenarios of intention of free COVID-19 vaccination involving: 1) 80% effectiveness and rare and mild side effects (Scenario 1), 2) 50% effectiveness and rare and mild side effect RMSE (Scenario 2), and 3) immediate vaccination (Scenario 3), and their associated factors derived from the pre-intentional motivational phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). METHODS: A random population-based telephone survey interviewed 450 Chinese adults in the general population (September 16-30, 2020). The four HAPA constructs included a) risk perception scale, b) overall scale/four subscales of positive outcome expectancy of COVID-19 vaccination, c) overall scale/three subscales of negative outcome expectancy of COVID-19 vaccination, and d) the overall scale/two subscales of self-efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination under Scenarios 1 to 3 was 38.0%, 11.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for background factors showed that 1) the associations between risk perception and the three scenarios of intention were non-significant; 2) the overall scale/four subscales of positive outcome expectancy were in general positively associated with two scenarios of intention (80% effectiveness and immediate vaccination); 3) the overall scale/three subscales of negative outcome expectancy were in general negatively associated with all three scenarios of intention; 4) the overall scale/two subscales of self-efficacy were only positively associated with the intention that involved 80% effectiveness. When all the four overall scales were entered into an adjusted model, positive and negative outcome expectancy, but not risk perception and self-efficacy, were independently associated with the three scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: In this study population, the prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination was very low and might not result in population protection. Health promotion should modify outcome expectancies to increase intention of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination are evolving over time, leading to potential changes in vaccination intention among unvaccinated people, which helps in the predictions of vaccination rates. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccination intention at the population level during a post-rollout period and two potential mechanisms underlying the change via the mediation/suppression effects that involve the perceived benefits/severe side effects of vaccination. METHODS: Two serial random population-based telephone surveys interviewed 358 and 145 Chinese adults (aged 18-70) who were unvaccinated and who were unscheduled for COVID-19 vaccination, respectively, in May and August 2021 in Hong Kong, China. RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccination intention increased from 14.5% to 22.8%, while the levels of perceived benefits (protection and travel-related advantages due to vaccination) and the perceived risk of severe side effects resulting from COVID-19 vaccination both significantly declined over time. Structural equation modeling found a simultaneous partial suppression effect via perceived benefits and a partial mediation effect via perceived severe side effects between the time when the surveys were conducted and COVID-19 vaccination intention, with adjustment for background factors. CONCLUSION: Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination are likely to change over time and partially account for changes in vaccination intention, sometimes in opposite directions. Ongoing health promotion may take such changes into account. Serial surveillance is warranted to monitor these changes.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among nurses is a global public health concern and it is imperative to understand associated factors. Information environment plays a critical role in shaping health behaviors, while few studies explored such effects in the context of COVID-19 vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1902 nurses in China. The study investigated the effects of social media exposure/interpersonal discussion on intention of COVID-19 vaccination and tested whether perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines (perceived vaccine efficacy, perceived duration of protection, and perceived effectiveness in preventing resurgences) mediated such associations. Results showed that about 68.0% and 56.5% of the participants had an intention of free and self-paid COVID-19 vaccinations, respectively. Frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion were positively associated with vaccination intentions. Perceived vaccine efficacy significantly mediated the effects of frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion, whereas perceived effectiveness in preventing resurgences suppressed the effects of frequent social media exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination was relatively low among Chinese nurses and health promotion is needed. Frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion potentially enhanced vaccination intentions via increased perceived vaccine efficacy. The findings can help inform the development of relevant health communication interventions.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524209

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy is prevalent, and relatively few studies have explored how variables related to personal and external motives have affected the intention to vaccinate. The present study investigated the association between perceived personal benefits, variables reflecting external motives (i.e., perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride) and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. The interaction between perceived personal benefits and the three factors reflecting external motives on intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination was also examined. A total of 6922 university students from five provinces of China completed a cross-sectional survey. Results showed that adjusting for significant background variables, perceived personal benefits, perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride were all significant factors of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Results from interaction analyses also showed that the association between perceived personal benefits and COVID-19 vaccination intention was stronger among those with lower levels of national pride. Findings highlighted the important role of self-directed interest and external motives in promoting uptake of COVID-19 vaccination.

11.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(6): 1235-1246, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the associations between some factors related to working from home status (WFHS) and positive/negative experiences due to social distancing and their interactions effects on depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A random population-based telephone survey interviewed income-earning adults in the Hong Kong general population during April 21-28, 2020 (n = 200). RESULTS: Mild to severe depression (according to PHQ-9) was reported by 12% of the participants. The prevalence of WFHS categories was 14% for 3-7 days and 13% for ≥ 8 days (past 2 weeks). The multivariable regression analysis showed that, social isolation (ß = 0.36; p < 0.001), relaxation feeling in daily life (ß = - 0.22; p = 0.002), and WFHS ≥ 8 days (ß = 0.15; p = 0.027), but not perceived huge inconvenience and improved family relationship, were associated with depressive symptoms. Statistically significant interaction effects were found. Some positive experiences buffered the potential harms of some negative experiences of social distancing on depressive symptoms; WFHS ≥ 8 days significantly moderated the risk/protective effects of social isolation, improved family relationship, and relaxation feeling on depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing is double-edged. Positive experiences should be maximized while negative experiences be minimized, as both were directly and interactively associated with depression. Intensive but not mild to moderate (< 80%) WFHS may impact depressive symptoms negatively via its direct association with depression; it also moderated the associations between positive/negative experiences due to social distancing and depression. Further research is required to discern the inter-relationships among WFHS, positive/negative experiences of social distancing, and depression to better cope with the stressful pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(2): 291-300, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted many people's life. Negative impacts of pandemic measures and economic hardship on psychological well-being are common among the global populations. In Hong Kong, the pandemic not only affects the local populations, but also the migrant Filipina domestic helpers (FDH). Despite the distress, evidence suggests that people still experience positive changes (aka adversarial growth) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect the same applies to FDH in Hong Kong. Studies have shown that coping resources (e.g., resilience, social support, literacy of trauma-related information), cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies are associated with adversarial growth among individuals living with highly stressful events. Relevant studies for migrant populations in the COVID-19 context are limited. This study examined the psychosocial correlates of adversarial growth among FDH in Hong Kong. METHOD: By convenient sampling, FDH (N = 266) recruited from public gathering venues were asked to complete a cross-sectional survey. Their COVID-19-related distress, work-related stress, COVID-19 information literacy, emotional and material support, resilience, cognitive appraisals (harm, threat, challenge), and coping strategies (religious coping, positive reframing, acceptance) were measured. RESULTS: Controlled for covariates, hierarchical regression results showed that higher levels of resilience (ß = .21), emotional support (ß = .16), COVID-19-related information literacy (ß = .15), and religious coping (ß = .16) were associated with higher adversarial growth (ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS: FDH in Hong Kong reported positive changes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our findings, facilitating those FDH's resilience, emotional support, COVID-19 information literacy, and religious coping might be important strategies to enhance their adversarial growth. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19 vaccination programs have been rolled out. To inform health promotion, this study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of performance or being scheduled to perform at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (PSCV) in a Chinese adult general population. METHODS: An anonymous, random telephone survey interviewed 500 adults aged 18-75 in Hong Kong, China from 14-27 May 2021. RESULTS: The prevalence of PSCV was 21.0%, which was significantly lower among females and those aged ≤30. Positively associated factors of PSCV included perceived protection effect of vaccination, self-perceived physical fitness for vaccination, compulsory COVID-19 testing experience, perceived need to travel, general trust toward the government, and trust toward the governmental vaccination program, while negatively associated factors included perceived low efficacy of vaccination, concerns about side effects, and chronic disease status. Furthermore, the association between sex and PSCV was fully mediated by stronger concern about side effects and lower levels of self-perceived physical fitness for COVID-19 vaccination among females than males. CONCLUSION: Moderately low prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination was observed in Hong Kong, where there was no shortage of vaccine supply. To achieve herd immunity, health promotion is greatly warranted and may incorporate messages based on the findings of this study.

14.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274948

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused severe and multi-dimensional resource losses among individuals. The Conservation of Resource (COR) theory postulates that resource loss generates related stress responses. It can suitably be applied to understand the pandemic's encompassing adverse consequences. Yet, no assessment tool exists. This study hence developed and validated the COR Scale for COVID-19 (CORS-COVID-19) to facilitate relevant research. The five hypothesized domains included losses in financial resource, family resource, future control, fun, and social resource. A population-based random telephone survey interviewed 300 Chinese adults in the general population in Hong Kong, China during April 3-10, 2020. The levels of different types of resource losses were high (especially for loss in fun). The 5-factor structure identified by factor analysis matches with the five hypothesized dimensions. Its psychometric properties are acceptable, including good internal consistency, content validity (the correlations between the items and their respective subscales were stronger than that between the items and the other four subscales), concurrent validity (significant correlations between the scale/subscale scores and both emotional distress due to COVID-19 and satisfaction with living in Hong Kong), and convergent validity (significant correlations between specific subscales and corresponding external variables). Relatively high floor effects were detected in some subscales. The scale, which is the first of the types to assess resource losses during a pandemic, can provide theory-based understandings/assessment about the negative impacts of COVID-19. It also facilitates warranted comparisons across countries and time periods in future studies. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01933-y.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3322-3332, 2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272939

ABSTRACT

This study investigated parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination for children under the age of 18 years among Chinese parents who are healthcare workers. A closed online survey among full-time doctors or nurses employed by the five collaborative hospitals who had access to smartphones was conducted. Facilitated by the hospital administrators, prospective participants received an invitation sent by the research team via the existing WeChat/QQ groups to complete an online questionnaire. A total of 2,281 participants completed the survey. This study was a sub-analysis of 1332 participants who had at least one child under the age of 18 years. Among the participants, 44.5% reported that they would likely or very likely to have their children under the age of 18 years take up COVID-19 vaccination in the next six months. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, perceived higher vaccine efficacy, longer protection duration, perceived high/very high chance for China to prevent another wave of COVID-19 outbreak with vaccines in place and willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination for themselves were associated with higher parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination. At interpersonal level, higher frequency of information exposure through social media and direct interpersonal communication were associated with higher parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination, while knowing some people who experienced serious side effects following COVID-19 vaccination were associated with lower parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination. Despite their important roles in vaccination promotion, Chinese doctors and nurses showed low parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination. Effective health promotion is needed when COVID-19 vaccination become available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Parents , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(9): 2894-2902, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193697

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and warrant COVID-19 vaccination to reduce nosocomial infections. This study investigated: (1) the prevalence of behavioral intention of COVID-19 vaccination (BICV) under eight scenarios combining vaccines' effectiveness/safety/cost, plus two general scenarios of free/self-paid vaccination given governmental/hospital recommendations, (2) perceptions involving preferred timing of COVID-19 vaccination and impacts of various attributes on BICV, and (3) factors of BICV based on the Health Belief Model. An anonymous online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,254 full-time doctors/nurses in three Chinese provinces during 10/2020-11/2020. The prevalence of BICV was 75.1%/68.0% among nurses/doctors under the most optimum scenario of this study (free/80% effectiveness/rare mild side effects); it dropped to 64.6%/56.5% if it costed 600 Yuan (USD90). Similar prevalence was obtained (72.7%/71.2%) if the vaccination was recommended by the government/hospitals but dropped to <50% if effectiveness was 50% or mild side effects were common; 13.0% preferred to take up COVID-19 vaccination at the soonest (81.8% would wait and see). Scientific proof (completion of phase III clinical trials and approval from health authorities) was rated the highest in its impacts on vaccination decision, followed by vaccines' performance, and then logistics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy (but neither perceived susceptibility nor perceived barriers) were significantly associated with the two BICV outcomes. The coverage of COVID-19 vaccination would be high only if the vaccines perform well. Health promotion may take the findings into account.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Personnel , Humans , Intention , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
17.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is very critical in controlling COVID-19. This study mainly aimed to (1) investigate behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under various specific scenarios, and (2) associated factors of the afore-mentioned vaccination intentions. METHODS: A random anonymous telephone survey interviewed 450 Chinese adults from September 16-30, 2020 in Hong Kong, China. Nine scenarios of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccinations were measured combining effectiveness (80% versus 50%), safety (rare versus common mild side effect), and cost (free versus HK$ 500). RESULTS: The prevalence of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under the 9 specific scenarios was very low and varied greatly (4.2% to 38.0%). The prospective countries of manufacture also influenced vaccination intention (eg, Japan: 55.8% vs China: 31.1%). Only 13.1% intended to take up COVID-19 vaccination at the soonest upon its availability. The attributes of effectiveness and side effect influenced vaccination intention most. Positively associated factors of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination included trust/satisfaction toward the government, exposure to positive social media information about COVID-19 vaccines, descriptive norms, perceived impact on the pandemic, perceived duration of protectiveness, and life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Intention of COVID-19 vaccination was low in the Hong Kong general population, especially among younger people, females, and single people. Health promotion is warranted to enhance the intention. The significant factors identified in this study may be considered when designing such health promotion. Future research is required to confirm the findings in other countries. Such studies should pay attention to the specific context of cost, safety, and effectiveness, which would lead to different responses in the level of behavioral intention of COVID-19 vaccination (BICV).

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069886

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused a devastating impact on public health and made the development of the COVID-19 vaccination a top priority. Herd immunity through vaccination requires a sufficient number of the population to be vaccinated. Research on factors that promote intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination is warranted. Based on Diffusion of Innovations Theory, this study examines the association between the perceived efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination, use of social media for COVID-19 vaccine-related information, openness to experience and descriptive norm with the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination, and the moderating role of openness to experience among 6922 university students in mainland China. The intention to receive the free and self-paid COVID-19 vaccination is 78.9% and 60.2%, respectively. Results from path analyses show that perceived efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination, use of social media for COVID-19 vaccine-related information, and openness to experience and descriptive norm are all positively associated with the intention to receive COVID-19 free and self-paid vaccination. The association between the perceived efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination and descriptive norm with the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination is stronger among those with a lower level of openness to experience. Our findings support the usefulness of Diffusion of Innovations Theory and the moderating role of openness of experience in explaining intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccination.

19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24495, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although lockdown and mandatory quarantine measures have played crucial roles in the sharp decrease of the number of newly confirmed/suspected COVID-19 cases, concerns have been raised over the threat that these measures pose to mental health, especially the mental health of vulnerable groups, including pregnant women. Few empirical studies have assessed whether and how these control measures may affect mental health, and no study has investigated the prevalence and impacts of the use of eHealth resources among pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated (1) the effects of lockdown and mandatory quarantine on mental health problems (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms), (2) the potential mediation effects of perceived social support and maladaptive cognition, and (3) the moderation effects of eHealth-related factors (ie, using social media to obtain health information and using prenatal care services during the COVID-19 pandemic) on pregnant women in China. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 19,515 pregnant women from all 34 Chinese provincial-level administrative regions from February 25 to March 10, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 19,515 participants, 12,209 (62.6%) were subjected to lockdown in their areas of residence, 737 (3.8%) were subjected to mandatory quarantine, 8712 (44.6%) had probable mild to severe depression, 5696 (29.2%) had probable mild to severe anxiety, and 1442 (7.4%) had suicidal ideations. Only 640 (3.3%) participants reported that they used online prenatal care services during the outbreak. Significant sociodemographic/maternal factors of anxiety/depressive symptoms included age, education, occupation, the area of residence, gestational duration, the number of children born, complication during pregnancy, the means of using prenatal care services, and social media use for obtaining health information. Multiple indicators multiple causes modeling (χ214=495.21; P<.05; comparative fit index=.99; nonnormed fit index=.98; root mean square error of approximation=.04, 90% CI 0.038-0.045) showed that quarantine was directly and indirectly strongly associated with poor mental health through decreased perceived social support and increased maladaptive cognition (B=.04; ß=.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.02; P=.001), while lockdown was indirectly associated with mental health through increased social support and maladaptive cognition among pregnant women (B=.03; ß=.03, 95% CI 0.02-0.03; P=.001). Multigroup analyses revealed that the use of social media for obtaining health information and the means of using prenatal care services were significant moderators of the model paths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide epidemiological evidence for the importance of integrating mental health care and eHealth into the planning and implementation of control measure policies. The observed social and cognitive mechanisms and moderators in this study are modifiable, and they can inform the design of evidence-based mental health promotion among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Vaccine ; 39(7): 1148-1156, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines for COVID-19 are anticipated to be available by 2021. Vaccine uptake rate is a crucial determinant for herd immunity. We examined factors associated with acceptance of vaccine based on (1). constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), (2). trust in the healthcare system, new vaccine platforms and manufacturers, and (3). self-reported health outcomes. METHODS: A population-based, random telephone survey was performed during the peak of the third wave of COVID-19 outbreak (27/07/2020 to 27/08/2020) in Hong Kong. All adults aged ≥ 18 years were eligible. The survey included sociodemographic details; self-report health conditions; trust scales; and self-reported health outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were applied to examine independent associations. The primary outcome is the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: We conducted 1200 successful telephone interviews (response rate 55%). The overall vaccine acceptance rate after adjustment for population distribution was 37.2% (95% C.I. 34.5-39.9%). The projected acceptance rates exhibited a "J-shaped" pattern with age, with higher rates among young adults (18-24 years), then increased linearly with age. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that perceived severity, perceived benefits of the vaccine, cues to action, self-reported health outcomes, and trust in healthcare system or vaccine manufacturers were positive correlates of acceptance; whilst perceived access barriers and harm were negative correlates. Remarkably, perceived susceptibility to infection carried no significant association, whereas recommendation from Government (aOR = 10.2, 95% C.I. 6.54 to 15.9, p < 0.001) was as the strongest driving factor for acceptance. Other key obstacles of acceptance included lack of confidence on newer vaccine platforms (43.4%) and manufacturers without track record (52.2%), which are of particular relevance to the current context. CONCLUSIONS: Governmental recommendation is an important driver, whereas perceived susceptibility is not associated with acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. These HBM constructs and independent predictors inform evidence-based formulation and implementation of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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