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1.
Int J Surg ; : 106836, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007758
2.
Am J Health Promot ; : 8901171221121292, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the associations between frequent exposure to positive/negative information about vaccine efficacy/safety on social media and intention of COVID-19 vaccination, and to test if media literacy and perceived information quality would moderate such associations. DESIGN: A multi-city cross-sectional survey. SETTING: At five universities in different regions of China. SUBJECTS: 6922 university students (a response rate of 72.3%). MEASURES: frequency of exposure to social media information about COVID-19 vaccination, media literacy, perceived information quality, intention of COVID-19 vaccination, and sociodemographic characteristics. ANALYSIS: Logistic regression analysis was conducted to test main and interaction effects. RESULTS: Higher exposure to positive information about vaccine efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, P < .001) and vaccine safety (AOR = 1.27, P < .001) were positively associated with vaccination intention. No significant associations were shown between exposure to negative information about vaccine efficacy/safety and vaccination intention. Higher net exposure to negative vs positive information was negatively associated with vaccination intention (AOR = .82, P < .001). High media literacy was further found to attenuate the effect of negative information exposure and strengthen that of positive information exposure. Perceived information quality was not a significant moderator. CONCLUSION: The valence of social media information regarding the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines and individuals' media literacy jointly shaped COVID-19 vaccination intention. The findings can inform the development of effective health promotion strategies for enhancing COVID-19 vaccination.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 903290, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911121

ABSTRACT

Background: The study investigated the level of behavioral intention to consult doctors for flu symptoms (BICDFS) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and examined its associations with illness representations of COVID-19 and fear of COVID-19 during clinic visits in a general Chinese adult population. Methods: A random telephone survey was conducted among 300 residents in Hong Kong, China in April 2020 when the second wave of COVID-19 was just ended in the region. The participants were asked about their intention to consult doctors if they had mild or severe flu symptoms in the next week (from 1 = definitely no to 5 = definitely yes). Illness representations of COVID-19 were measured by the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). The fear of COVID-19 during clinic visits were assessed by two single items. Linear regression adjusted for background variables and hierarchical strategies were employed. Results: Of the participants, 52.3 and 92.0% showed an intention to consult doctors for mild and severe flu symptoms, respectively. Adjusted for background factors, COVID-19-related cognitive representations (consequences: standardized b = 0.15, p = 0.010; understanding: standardized b = 0.21, p = 0.001) and emotional representations (concern: standardized b = 0.17, p = 0.001; negative emotions: standardized b = 0.19, p = 0.001) were positively associated with BICDFS. In the hierarchical model, independent significant factors of BICDFS included understanding (standardized b = 0.16, p = 0.013) and negative emotions (standardized b = 0.17, p = 0.008). The fear-related variables showed non-significant associations with the BICDFS. Conclusions: Promotion of care-seeking behaviors for flu symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic should consider improving people's understanding of COVID-19 and providing advice on related coping strategies for emotional responses to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , Ambulatory Care , China/epidemiology , Fear , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intention , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Telephone
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903356

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers are vulnerable to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) due to stressful work during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate whether the associations between COVID-19 work-related stressors and PTSS would be mediated by maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and moderated by perceived family support based on stress-coping theory. An anonymous online survey was conducted among 1449 doctors and nurses in five hospitals in China between October and November 2020 during the "post-outbreak" period. The prevalence of PTSS assessed by the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale Self-Report was 42%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that worries about being infected with COVID-19, perceived difficulties in family caregiving, coping strategies of rumination, catastrophizing, acceptance, and perceived family support were independently associated with PTSS. Furthermore, maladaptive and adaptive coping partially mediated the association between COVID-19 work-related stressors and PTSS.The results of multi-group analyses showed that perceived family support tended to intensify the associations between COVID-19 work-related stressors and adaptive coping and between adaptive coping and PTSS, whereas perceived family support attenuated the positive association between COVID-19 work-related stressors and PTSS. The findings suggest tailor-made health interventions with respect to alleviation of work-related stressors and coping skill training to reduce the risk of PTSS among healthcare workers, especially for those with lower perceived family support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restriction of gathering size in all public areas is a newly and commonly exercised governmental social distancing policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its effectiveness depends on the general public's compliance. This study applied the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to investigate determinants (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, and perceived self-efficacy) of compliance with the social distancing policy of banning gathering of >4 people in all public areas (BG4PA) in the Hong Kong general adult population. METHODS: 300 participants were interviewed through a population-based telephone survey during April 21-28, 2020. RESULTS: The compliance rate of BG4PA was high (78%). Adjusted for the background factors, multiple linear regression analysis found that perceived response efficacy and perceived self-efficacy were significantly and positively associated with compliance with BG4PA (p<0.05), while the associations between perceived severity/perceived susceptibility and compliance were of marginal significance (0.05

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3298-3304, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (e.g., SARS) had increased the uptake of influenza vaccination (IV). It is uncertain whether such was also true for COVID-19. This study hence investigated prevalence of IV behavior/intention prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated cognitive factors. METHODS: A self-administered, online, and anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6,922 university students of five provinces in China during November 1-28, 2020 (response rate: 72.3%). RESULTS: Of all the participants, 35.1% self-reported behavioral intention of IV (next 12 months), while 62.9% reported an increased intention of IV due to COVID-19. However, only 4.7% and 2.9% had taken up IV during the 12-month period prior to the outbreak (1/2019-12/2019) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (1-11/2020), respectively. Adjusted for the background factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that in general the COVID-19 related perceptions (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived chance of having another wave of COVID-19 outbreak) were significantly and positively associated the IV behavior (during the COVID-19 outbreak) and intention of IV uptake in the next 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced actual behavior and intention of IV uptake among university students during the pandemic. Efforts are warranted to reduce the intention-behavior gap of IV uptake; modification of perceived susceptibility and perceived severity regarding COVID-19 may help. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study and explore other factors affecting IV uptake during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2054261, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806174

ABSTRACT

Ethnic minorities account for 8% of the Hong Kong population, most are Filipino and Indonesian domestic helpers taking care of children and the elderly. To understand the COVID-19 vaccination rates and factors associated with vaccine acceptance of ethnic minorities, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study recruiting Hong Kong ethnic minorities aged ≥18 years between 1 July and 18 July 2021 in public areas. Demographics, knowledge about COVID-19, vaccination status, intention and reasons to receive the vaccine, and planning to be re-vaccinated were analyzed. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using unpaired t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Potential confounders were adjusted using multiple logistic regression. 2,012 ethnic minorities participated, with a mean age of 39 years, of which 97.6% were female, 79.5% were Filipino, and 17.5% were Indonesian. 80.6% of participants were categorized as vaccine acceptance, and 69.2% were willing to be re-vaccinated. There were significantly more Filipinos than Indonesians in the vaccine acceptance group (p < .001). Subjects in the vaccine acceptance group were more likely to have higher education (p < .001), a higher COVID-19 knowledge score (p < .001), received information from the Government website (p = .003) and not from their friends or family members (p = .02), and were more confident in judging the accuracy of the information (p < .001). Logistic regression showed the mean knowledge score (ß = 3.07, p < .001) and receiving information from official Government websites (adjusted OR = 1.37, p = .03) were significant factors that positively influenced vaccine acceptance. The Hong Kong Government should improve COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among ethnic minorities through public education using official channels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination
8.
Int J Surg ; 100: 106605, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799907
9.
Internet Interv ; 28: 100541, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796618

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health emergencies may lead to severe psychological stress, especially for healthcare workers, including frontline healthcare workers and public health workers. However, few stress management interventions have been implemented for healthcare workers even though they require more comprehensive interventions than the general public. Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a novel psychological self-help intervention developed by the World Health Organization. It is accessible, scalable, and cost-effective and has the potential to be quickly applied to help people cope with stress and adversity. The major objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of SH+ interventions on the alleviation of stress levels and mental health problems among healthcare workers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of SH+ will be conducted to investigate the stress level and mental health status of Chinese healthcare workers and control subjects in Guangzhou. Assessments will be performed before (baseline), at the end of (1 month), and 2 months after (3 months) the intervention. After completing the baseline screening questionnaire, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups in a 1:1 ratio by block randomization. During the 1-month intervention period, the intervention group will receive the SH+ intervention and the control group will receive information about mental health promotion. The intervention will be delivered by the research assistant via social media platforms. The primary outcome is the level of stress, which will be measured by a 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes including mental health symptoms will also be collected. Discussion: Given the potential for multiple COVID-19 waves and other infectious disease pandemics in the future, we expect that SH+ will be an effective stress management intervention for healthcare workers. The findings from this study will facilitate the application of SH+, and the trial is expected to be extended to a larger population in the future.

10.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(8): 2327-2338, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703444

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study investigated the association between resilience, stigma, life satisfaction and the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination among Chinese HCWs. It also explored the mediating role of stigma and life satisfaction on the association between resilience and intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: An anonymous cross-sectional survey. METHODS: 1733 HCWs from five hospitals in four provinces of mainland China completed a cross-sectional online survey in October and November 2020. RESULTS: Among the HCWs, the rate of intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was 73.1%. Results from structural equation modelling showed that resilience was associated both directly, and indirectly with greater intent to receive a COVID-19 vaccination through two pathways: first by increasing life satisfaction, and second by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Promoting the resilience of HCWs has the potential to increase the COVID-19 vaccination uptake rate among HCWs in China. IMPACT: This study tested the relationship between several psychological factors and the COVID-19 vaccination intention of HCWs in China, finding that resilience played a significant role in improving COVID-19 vaccination intention rates by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313902

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 being a rapidly evolving pandemic, early lessons from the first deaths must be learnt to help feed into the public health guidelines. This study, therefore, aims to present the first two deaths due to COVID-19 in Uganda and their public health relevance. Cases : The first case was a 34-year female and support staff at a health center II. She first presented with COVID-19 like symptoms before dying on 21 st July 2020. The second case was an 80 years old female, who also presented with COVID-19 like symptoms before dying on 24 th July 2020. The postmortem samples of both cases were confirmed positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: This study identifies a need for timely identification and testing of COVID-19 suspects, strengthening of health center capacity, as well as more awareness for effective prevention and control of COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316021

ABSTRACT

Background: This study primarily aimed to evaluate the associations between mental distress and COVID-19-related changes in behavioral outcomes, and potential modifiers (age, gender, and educational attainment) of such associations. Methods: An online survey using anonymous network sampling was conducted in China during April-May, 2020 using a 74-item questionnaire distributed through social media. A national sample of 10,545 adults in 31 provinces provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related mental distress, and changes in behavioral outcomes. Structural equation models were used for data analyses. Results: About 13% of adults reported experiencing at least one symptom of mental distress. After adjusting for covariates, greater mental distress was associated with increased smoking and alcohol consumption (among current smokers and drinkers) and with both increased and decreased physical activity. Underweight adults were more likely to lose body weight (≥ 1 kg) whereas overweight adults were more likely to gain weight by the same amount. Association between mental distress and change in physical activity was stronger in adults aged 40 and above and those with high education. Conclusions: Mental distress was associated with increased smoking in males but not females. These findings inform the design of tailored public health interventions aimed to mitigate long-term negative consequences of mental distress on outcomes.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315224

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health workers at the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) and primary health care institutes (PHIs) were among the main workers who implemented prevention, control, and containment measures. However, their efforts and health status have not been well documented. We aimed to investigate the working conditions and health status of front line public health workers in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: : Between 18 February and 1 March 2020, we conducted an online cross-sectional survey of 2,313 CDC workers and 4,004 PHI workers in five provinces across China experiencing different scales of COVID-19 epidemic. We surveyed all participants about their work conditions, roles, burdens, perceptions, mental health, and self-rated health using a self-constructed questionnaire and standardised measurements (i.e., Patient Health Questionnaire and General Anxiety Disorder scale). To examine the independent associations between working conditions and health outcomes, we used multivariate regression models controlling for potential confounders. Results: : The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and poor self-rated health was 21.3%, 19.0%, and 9.8%, respectively, among public health workers (27.1%, 20.6%, and 15.0% among CDC workers and 17.5%, 17.9%, and 6.8% among PHI workers). The majority (71.6%) made immense efforts in both field and non-field work. Nearly 20.0% have worked all night for more than 3 days, and 45.3% had worked throughout the Chinese New Year holiday. Three risk factors and two protective factors were found to be independently associated with all three health outcomes in our final multivariate models: working all night for >3 days (multivariate odds ratio [ORm]=1.67~1.75, p <0.001), concerns about infection at work (ORm=1.46~1.89, p <0.001), perceived troubles at work (ORm=1.10~1.28, p <0.001), initiating COVID-19 prevention work after January 23 (ORm=0.78~0.82, p =0.002~0.008), and ability to persist for > 1 month at the current work intensity (ORm=0.44~0.55, p <0.001). Conclusions: : Chinese public health workers made immense efforts and personal sacrifices to control the COVID-19 epidemic and faced the risk of mental health problems. Efforts are needed to improve the working conditions and health status of public health workers and thus maintain their morale and effectiveness during the fight against COVID-19.

14.
J Ment Health ; 31(4): 534-542, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant negative socio-political, economic, and psychological consequences. AIMS: To investigate the impact of individual-level (illness representations of COVID-19) and structurally derived (anticipated social-political development in the economy, security, and social harmony in the next year) factors, and their potential moderation effects on depressive symptoms. METHODS: An anonymous population-based telephone survey was conducted among the general public of Hong Kong, China during 3-10 April 2020 (n = 300, response rate 56%). Depressive symptoms were assessed by the validated Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. RESULTS: Of the participants, 8.7% showed probable moderate-to-severe depression. Hierarchical linear regression models showed that illness representations of personal/treatment control and emotional responses and anticipated deterioration in social harmony were independently and significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Anticipated deterioration in security significantly moderated the associations between perceived consequence/treatment control of COVID-19 and depressive symptoms, such that the associations were stronger among people who anticipated a strong deterioration in security. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that perceptions of COVID-19 and future social-political development jointly and interactively contributed to depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health professionals and promotions should take the multiple-level mental health determinants into account.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Change
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(5): 609-615, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between factors based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) and behavioral intention among doctors and nurses in China toward free and self-paid (600 RMB or US$91) severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination given 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Public hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 362 doctors and 1,702 nurses in major departments of 5 hospitals of 3 Chinese provinces. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was conducted from October to November 2020, facilitated by hospital administrators through online WeChat/QQ working groups. Data on outcome expectations, self-efficacy, norms, and COVID-19-related work experiences were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for data analyses. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis showed that physical (eg, protective effect of vaccination) and self-evaluative outcome expectations (eg, anticipated regret), self-efficacy, norms (eg, descriptive norm, subjective norm, professional norm, and moral norm), and job satisfaction were significantly and positively associated with the free and self-paid SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intention outcomes among doctors and nurses, adjusted for background variables. Doctors who had engaged in COVID-19-related work reported higher self-paid vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion is needed to improve the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among healthcare workers. Such interventions may consider modifying the identified factors of vaccination intention, including strengthening perceived efficacy, positive feelings about vaccination, the need to avoid future regret, self-efficacy, and social norms. Future studies should examine the actual behavior patterns of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and the efficacy of promotion intervention should be tested in randomized controlled studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Psychological Theory , Vaccination/psychology
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 294: 114692, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586481

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Mass testing is considered as an important policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and high population coverage is pivotal to its effectiveness. A range of factors derived from health behaviour theories were hypothesized to be associated with public uptake of mass testing, including illness representations of COVID-19, perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived efficacy of the testing program, and general trust toward governmental measures for controlling COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the multi-dimensional factors associated with participation in a free and voluntary population-wide mass COVID-19 testing program. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong within two weeks after the Universal Community Testing Program for COVID-19 concluded on September 14, 2020. A random population-based telephone survey interviewed 443 Hong Kong general adults who were aged ≥18 and had not joined other COVID-19 testing programs. The dependent variable was participation in the Universal Community Testing Program. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the associations of participation in the program with the proposed factors. RESULTS: The standardized participation rate of the testing program was estimated to be about 37.2% among the general adults (33.0% among males; 40.8% among females) in Hong Kong. The participation rates were significantly lower among males and younger adults. Adjusted for socio-demographics, significant factors included four dimensions of illness representations of COVID-19 (treatment control: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; illness identity: AOR = 1.10; concern: AOR = 1.14; emotions: AOR = 1.10), perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 (AOR = 1.40), perceived efficacy of the testing program (AOR = 2.73), and trust toward governmental control measures (AOR = 4.30). CONCLUSIONS: The participation rate of the population-wide mass testing program was not high among general adults in Hong Kong, evidence-based health promotion is necessary. The study informs some critical factors to be addressed to effectively boost public support for the mass testing policy in response to emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Vaccine ; 40(4): 612-620, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 vaccination needs a high population coverage to achieve herd immunity. We investigated prevalence of three scenarios of intention of free COVID-19 vaccination involving: 1) 80% effectiveness and rare and mild side effects (Scenario 1), 2) 50% effectiveness and rare and mild side effect RMSE (Scenario 2), and 3) immediate vaccination (Scenario 3), and their associated factors derived from the pre-intentional motivational phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). METHODS: A random population-based telephone survey interviewed 450 Chinese adults in the general population (September 16-30, 2020). The four HAPA constructs included a) risk perception scale, b) overall scale/four subscales of positive outcome expectancy of COVID-19 vaccination, c) overall scale/three subscales of negative outcome expectancy of COVID-19 vaccination, and d) the overall scale/two subscales of self-efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination under Scenarios 1 to 3 was 38.0%, 11.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for background factors showed that 1) the associations between risk perception and the three scenarios of intention were non-significant; 2) the overall scale/four subscales of positive outcome expectancy were in general positively associated with two scenarios of intention (80% effectiveness and immediate vaccination); 3) the overall scale/three subscales of negative outcome expectancy were in general negatively associated with all three scenarios of intention; 4) the overall scale/two subscales of self-efficacy were only positively associated with the intention that involved 80% effectiveness. When all the four overall scales were entered into an adjusted model, positive and negative outcome expectancy, but not risk perception and self-efficacy, were independently associated with the three scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: In this study population, the prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination was very low and might not result in population protection. Health promotion should modify outcome expectancies to increase intention of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination are evolving over time, leading to potential changes in vaccination intention among unvaccinated people, which helps in the predictions of vaccination rates. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccination intention at the population level during a post-rollout period and two potential mechanisms underlying the change via the mediation/suppression effects that involve the perceived benefits/severe side effects of vaccination. METHODS: Two serial random population-based telephone surveys interviewed 358 and 145 Chinese adults (aged 18-70) who were unvaccinated and who were unscheduled for COVID-19 vaccination, respectively, in May and August 2021 in Hong Kong, China. RESULTS: The prevalence of vaccination intention increased from 14.5% to 22.8%, while the levels of perceived benefits (protection and travel-related advantages due to vaccination) and the perceived risk of severe side effects resulting from COVID-19 vaccination both significantly declined over time. Structural equation modeling found a simultaneous partial suppression effect via perceived benefits and a partial mediation effect via perceived severe side effects between the time when the surveys were conducted and COVID-19 vaccination intention, with adjustment for background factors. CONCLUSION: Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination are likely to change over time and partially account for changes in vaccination intention, sometimes in opposite directions. Ongoing health promotion may take such changes into account. Serial surveillance is warranted to monitor these changes.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among nurses is a global public health concern and it is imperative to understand associated factors. Information environment plays a critical role in shaping health behaviors, while few studies explored such effects in the context of COVID-19 vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1902 nurses in China. The study investigated the effects of social media exposure/interpersonal discussion on intention of COVID-19 vaccination and tested whether perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines (perceived vaccine efficacy, perceived duration of protection, and perceived effectiveness in preventing resurgences) mediated such associations. Results showed that about 68.0% and 56.5% of the participants had an intention of free and self-paid COVID-19 vaccinations, respectively. Frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion were positively associated with vaccination intentions. Perceived vaccine efficacy significantly mediated the effects of frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion, whereas perceived effectiveness in preventing resurgences suppressed the effects of frequent social media exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of intention of COVID-19 vaccination was relatively low among Chinese nurses and health promotion is needed. Frequent social media exposure and interpersonal discussion potentially enhanced vaccination intentions via increased perceived vaccine efficacy. The findings can help inform the development of relevant health communication interventions.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524209

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy is prevalent, and relatively few studies have explored how variables related to personal and external motives have affected the intention to vaccinate. The present study investigated the association between perceived personal benefits, variables reflecting external motives (i.e., perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride) and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. The interaction between perceived personal benefits and the three factors reflecting external motives on intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination was also examined. A total of 6922 university students from five provinces of China completed a cross-sectional survey. Results showed that adjusting for significant background variables, perceived personal benefits, perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride were all significant factors of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Results from interaction analyses also showed that the association between perceived personal benefits and COVID-19 vaccination intention was stronger among those with lower levels of national pride. Findings highlighted the important role of self-directed interest and external motives in promoting uptake of COVID-19 vaccination.

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