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1.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001609, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962969

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid creation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the precise correlates of immunity against severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still unknown. Neutralizing antibodies represent a robust surrogate of protection in early Phase III studies, but vaccines provide protection prior to the evolution of neutralization, vaccines provide protection against variants that evade neutralization, and vaccines continue to provide protection against disease severity in the setting of waning neutralizing titers. Thus, in this study, using an Ad26.CoV2.S dose-down approach in nonhuman primates (NHPs), the role of neutralization, Fc effector function, and T-cell immunity were collectively probed against infection as well as against viral control. While dosing-down minimally impacted neutralizing and binding antibody titers, Fc receptor binding and functional antibody levels were induced in a highly dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody and Fc receptor binding titers, but minimally T cells, were linked to the prevention of transmission. Conversely, Fc receptor binding/function and T cells were linked to antiviral control, with a minimal role for neutralization. These data point to dichotomous roles of neutralization and T-cell function in protection against transmission and disease severity and a continuous role for Fc effector function as a correlate of immunity key to halting and controlling SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , Receptors, Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
mBio ; : e0157722, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909595

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 replication and systemic dissemination are linked to increased COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. However, the precise immune profiles that track with enhanced viral clearance, particularly from systemic RNAemia, remain incompletely defined. To define whether antibody characteristics, specificities, or functions that emerge during natural infection are linked to accelerated containment of viral replication, we examined the relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune evolution in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia, which is tightly associated with disease severity and death. On presentation to the emergency department, S-specific IgG3, IgA1, and Fc-γ-receptor (Fcγ R) binding antibodies were all inversely associated with higher baseline plasma RNAemia. Importantly, the rapid development of spike (S) and its subunit (S1/S2/receptor binding domain)-specific IgG, especially FcγR binding activity, were associated with clearance of RNAemia. These results point to a potentially critical and direct role for SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune clearance on viral dissemination, persistence, and disease outcome, providing novel insights for the development of more effective therapeutics to resolve COVID-19. IMPORTANCE We showed that persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. We observed that SARS-CoV-2-targeted antibody maturation, specifically Fc-effector functions rather than neutralization, was strongly linked with the ability to rapidly clear viremia. This highlights the critical role of key humoral features in preventing viral dissemination or accelerating viremia clearance and provides insights for the design of next-generation monoclonal therapeutics. The main key points will be that (i) persistent SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia independently predicts severe COVID-19 and (ii) specific humoral immune functions play a critical role in halting viral dissemination and controlling COVID-19 disease progression.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(645): eabm2311, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765074

ABSTRACT

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the postboost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
mBio ; : e0214121, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650754

ABSTRACT

As public health guidelines throughout the world have relaxed in response to vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 will remain endemic, fueled by the rise of more infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, in the setting of waning natural and vaccine immunity, reinfections have emerged across the globe, even among previously infected and vaccinated individuals. As such, the ability to detect reexposure to and reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 is a key component for global protection against this virus and, more importantly, against the potential emergence of vaccine escape mutations. Accordingly, there is a strong and continued need for the development and deployment of simple methods to detect emerging hot spots of reinfection to inform targeted pandemic response and containment, including targeted and specific deployment of vaccine booster campaigns. In this study, we identify simple, rapid immune biomarkers of reinfection in rhesus macaques, including IgG3 antibody levels against nucleocapsid and FcγR2A receptor binding activity of anti-RBD antibodies, that are recapitulated in human reinfection cases. As such, this cross-species analysis underscores the potential utility of simple antibody titers and function as price-effective and scalable markers of reinfection to provide increased resolution and resilience against new outbreaks. IMPORTANCE As public health and social distancing guidelines loosen in the setting of waning global natural and vaccine immunity, a deeper understanding of the immunological response to reexposure and reinfection to this highly contagious pathogen is necessary to maintain public health. Viral sequencing analysis provides a robust but unrealistic means to monitor reinfection globally. The identification of scalable pathogen-specific biomarkers of reexposure and reinfection, however, could significantly accelerate our capacity to monitor the spread of the virus through naive and experienced hosts, providing key insights into mechanisms of disease attenuation. Using a nonhuman primate model of controlled SARS-CoV-2 reexposure, we deeply probed the humoral immune response following rechallenge with various doses of viral inocula. We identified virus-specific humoral biomarkers of reinfection, with significant increases in antibody titer and function upon rechallenge across a range of humoral features, including IgG1 to the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (RBD), IgG3 to the nucleocapsid protein (N), and FcγR2A receptor binding to anti-RBD antibodies. These features not only differentiated primary infection from reexposure and reinfection in monkeys but also were recapitulated in a sequencing-confirmed reinfection patient and in a cohort of putatively reinfected humans that evolved a PCR-positive test in spite of preexisting seropositivity. As such, this cross-species analysis using a controlled primate model and human cohorts reveals increases in antibody titers as promising cross-validated serological markers of reinfection and reexposure.

5.
Med (N Y) ; 2(12): 1327-1341.e4, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although vaccines effectively prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthy individuals, they appear to be less immunogenic in individuals with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) or receiving chronic immunosuppression therapy. METHODS: Here we assessed a cohort of 77 individuals with CID treated as monotherapy with chronic immunosuppressive drugs for antibody responses in serum against historical and variant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viruses after immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. FINDINGS: Longitudinal analysis showed the greatest reductions in neutralizing antibodies and Fc effector function capacity in individuals treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors (TNFi), and this pattern appeared to be worse against the B.1.617.2 delta virus. Within 5 months of vaccination, serum neutralizing titers of all TNFi-treated individuals tested fell below the presumed threshold correlate for antibody-mediated protection. However, TNFi-treated individuals receiving a third mRNA vaccine dose boosted their serum neutralizing antibody titers by more than 16-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine boosting or administration of long-acting prophylaxis (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) will likely be required to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this susceptible population. FUNDING: This study was supported by grants and contracts from the NIH (R01 AI157155, R01AI151178, and HHSN75N93019C00074; NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response (CEIRR) contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93021C00014; and Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers [CIVIC] contract 75N93019C00051).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(617): eabi8631, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532951

ABSTRACT

Substantial immunological changes occur throughout pregnancy to render the mother immunologically tolerant to the fetus and allow fetal growth. However, additional local and systemic immunological adaptations also occur, allowing the maternal immune system to continue to protect the dyad against pathogens both during pregnancy and after birth through lactation. This fine balance of tolerance and immunity, along with physiological and hormonal changes, contributes to increased susceptibility to particular infections in pregnancy, including more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether these changes also make pregnant women less responsive to vaccination or induce altered immune responses to vaccination remains incompletely understood. To define potential changes in vaccine response during pregnancy and lactation, we undertook deep sequencing of the humoral vaccine response in a group of pregnant and lactating women and nonpregnant age-matched controls. Vaccine-specific titers were comparable between pregnant women, lactating women, and nonpregnant controls. However, Fc receptor (FcR) binding and antibody effector functions were induced with delayed kinetics in both pregnant and lactating women compared with nonpregnant women after the first vaccine dose, which normalized after the second dose. Vaccine boosting resulted in high FcR-binding titers in breastmilk. These data suggest that pregnancy promotes resistance to generating proinflammatory antibodies and indicates that there is a critical need to follow prime-boost timelines in this vulnerable population to ensure full immunity is attained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Lactation , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502534

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a key correlate of severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes while the role of obesity on risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptom phenotype, and immune response remain poorly defined. We examined data from a prospective SARS-CoV-2 cohort study to address these questions. Serostatus, body mass index, demographics, comorbidities, and prior COVID-19 compatible symptoms were assessed at baseline and serostatus and symptoms monthly thereafter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays included an IgG ELISA targeting the spike RBD, multiarray Luminex targeting 20 viral antigens, pseudovirus neutralization, and T cell ELISPOT assays. Our results from a large prospective SARS-CoV-2 cohort study indicate symptom phenotype is strongly influenced by obesity among younger but not older age groups; we did not identify evidence to suggest obese individuals are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; and remarkably homogenous immune activity across BMI categories suggests immune protection across these groups may be similar.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109959, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474393

ABSTRACT

Antibody transfer via breastmilk represents an evolutionary strategy to boost immunity in early life. Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies have been observed in the breastmilk, the functional quality of these antibodies remains unclear. Here, we apply systems serology to characterize SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in maternal serum and breastmilk to compare the functional characteristics of antibodies in these fluids. Distinct SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses are observed in the serum and breastmilk of lactating individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, with a more dominant transfer of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM into breastmilk. Although IgGs are present in breastmilk, they are functionally attenuated. We observe preferential transfer of antibodies capable of eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and neutralization compared to other functions, pointing to selective transfer of certain functional antibodies to breastmilk. These data highlight the preferential transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgM to breastmilk, accompanied by select IgG subpopulations, positioned to create a non-pathologic but protective barrier against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Lactation/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
10.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
11.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222577

ABSTRACT

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
13.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126322

ABSTRACT

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1018, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085426

ABSTRACT

Antibodies serve as biomarkers of infection, but if sustained can confer long-term immunity. Yet, for most clinically approved vaccines, binding antibody titers only serve as a surrogate of protection. Instead, the ability of vaccine induced antibodies to neutralize or mediate Fc-effector functions is mechanistically linked to protection. While evidence has begun to point to persisting antibody responses among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, cases of re-infection have begun to emerge, calling the protective nature of humoral immunity against this highly infectious pathogen into question. Using a community-based surveillance study, we aimed to define the relationship between titers and functional antibody activity to SARS-CoV-2 over time. Here we report significant heterogeneity, but limited decay, across antibody titers amongst 120 identified seroconverters, most of whom had asymptomatic infection. Notably, neutralization, Fc-function, and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses were only observed in subjects that elicited RBD-specific antibody titers above a threshold. The findings point to a switch-like relationship between observed antibody titer and function, where a distinct threshold of activity-defined by the level of antibodies-is required to elicit vigorous humoral and cellular response. This response activity level may be essential for durable protection, potentially explaining why re-infections occur with SARS-CoV-2 and other common coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Nature ; 590(7847): 630-634, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960322

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported the protective efficacy of both natural1 and vaccine-induced2-7 immunity against challenge with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in rhesus macaques. However, the importance of humoral and cellular immunity for protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Here we show that the adoptive transfer of purified IgG from convalescent rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) protects naive recipient macaques against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in a dose-dependent fashion. Depletion of CD8+ T cells in convalescent macaques partially abrogated the protective efficacy of natural immunity against rechallenge with SARS-CoV-2, which suggests a role for cellular immunity in the context of waning or subprotective antibody titres. These data demonstrate that relatively low antibody titres are sufficient for protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques, and that cellular immune responses may contribute to protection if antibody responses are suboptimal. We also show that higher antibody titres are required for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaques. These findings have implications for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and immune-based therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Regression Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
16.
Cell ; 183(6): 1508-1519.e12, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898562

ABSTRACT

The urgent need for an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has forced development to progress in the absence of well-defined correlates of immunity. While neutralization has been linked to protection against other pathogens, whether neutralization alone will be sufficient to drive protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the broader population remains unclear. Therefore, to fully define protective humoral immunity, we dissected the early evolution of the humoral response in 193 hospitalized individuals ranging from moderate to severe. Although robust IgM and IgA responses evolved in both survivors and non-survivors with severe disease, non-survivors showed attenuated IgG responses, accompanied by compromised Fcɣ receptor binding and Fc effector activity, pointing to deficient humoral development rather than disease-enhancing humoral immunity. In contrast, individuals with moderate disease exhibited delayed responses that ultimately matured. These data highlight distinct humoral trajectories associated with resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for early functional humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Male
17.
Cell ; 183(6): 1496-1507.e16, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898561

ABSTRACT

Antibodies are key immune effectors that confer protection against pathogenic threats. The nature and longevity of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are not well defined. We charted longitudinal antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 92 subjects after symptomatic COVID-19. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 are unimodally distributed over a broad range, with symptom severity correlating directly with virus-specific antibody magnitude. Seventy-six subjects followed longitudinally to ∼100 days demonstrated marked heterogeneity in antibody duration dynamics. Virus-specific IgG decayed substantially in most individuals, whereas a distinct subset had stable or increasing antibody levels in the same time frame despite similar initial antibody magnitudes. These individuals with increasing responses recovered rapidly from symptomatic COVID-19 disease, harbored increased somatic mutations in virus-specific memory B cell antibody genes, and had persistent higher frequencies of previously activated CD4+ T cells. These findings illuminate an efficient immune phenotype that connects symptom clearance speed to differential antibody durability dynamics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mutation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1694-1700, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744383

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans is often a clinically mild illness, but some individuals develop severe pneumonia, respiratory failure and death1-4. Studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in hamsters5-7 and nonhuman primates8-10 have generally reported mild clinical disease, and preclinical SARS-CoV-2 vaccine studies have demonstrated reduction of viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts in nonhuman primates11-13. Here we show that high-dose intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters results in severe clinical disease, including high levels of virus replication in tissues, extensive pneumonia, weight loss and mortality in a subset of animals. A single immunization with an adenovirus serotype 26 vector-based vaccine expressing a stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein elicited binding and neutralizing antibody responses and protected against SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss, pneumonia and mortality. These data demonstrate vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 clinical disease. This model should prove useful for preclinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, therapeutics and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Load
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