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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Beliefs that the risks from a COVID-19 vaccine outweigh the risks from getting COVID-19 and concerns that the vaccine development process was rushed and lacking rigor have been identified as important drivers of hesitancy and refusal to get a COVID-19 vaccine. We tested whether messages designed to address these beliefs and concerns might promote intentions to get a COVID-19 vaccine. METHOD: We conducted an online survey fielded between March 8-23, 2021 with US Veteran (n = 688) and non-Veteran (n = 387) respondents. In a between-subjects experiment, respondents were randomly assigned to a control group (with no message) or to read one of two intervention messages: 1. a fact-box styled message comparing the risks of getting COVID-19 compared to the vaccine, and 2. a timeline styled message describing the development process of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. RESULTS: Most respondents (60%) wanted a COVID-19 vaccine. However, 17% expressed hesitancy and 23% did not want to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The fact-box styled message and the timeline message did not significantly improve vaccination intentions, F(2,358) = 0.86, p = .425, [Formula: see text] = .005, or reduce the time respondents wanted to wait before getting vaccinated, F(2,306) = 0.79, p = .453, [Formula: see text] = .005, compared to no messages. DISCUSSION: In this experimental study, we did not find that providing messages about vaccine risks and the development process had an impact on respondents' vaccine intentions. Further research is needed to identify how to effectively address concerns about the risks associated with COVID-19 vaccines and the development process and to understand additional factors that influence vaccine intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccine Development , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccines
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e025915, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079126

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy
3.
Transfusion ; 62(11): 2271-2281, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the transfusion medicine community has experienced unprecedented blood supply shortages since March 2020. As such, numerous changes to everyday practice have occurred with a specific emphasis on blood conservation. We sought to determine the strategies used to mitigate blood shortages and promote blood conservation during the pandemic. METHODS: An anonymous, 37-question survey was developed using Research Electronic Data Capture and distributed via e-mail to transfusion medicine specialists across the US obtained via publicly available databases. RESULTS: Amongst surveyed [41.1% response rate (51/124 institutions)], 98.0% experienced a product shortage, with the greatest number reporting red blood cell (RBC) shortages (92.0%). This led to 35.3% of institutions altering the composition and/or number of blood product suppliers, including a 100% increase in the number of institutions acquiring blood from organizations that connect hospital transfusion services with blood collection centers (e.g., Blood Buy) compared to before March 2020. Prospective triaging of blood products was the most common blood conservation strategy (68.1%), though 35.4% altered their RBC exchange or transfusion program for patients receiving chronic RBC transfusion/exchange. As a result of these changes, 78.6% of institutions reported that these changes resulted in a reduction in blood product usage, and 38.1% reported a decrease in product wastage. CONCLUSIONS: Most hospitals experienced the effects of the supply shortage, and many of them implemented blood conserving measures. Conservation strategies were associated with decreased blood utilization and waste, and future studies could evaluate whether these changes persist.


Subject(s)
Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Blood Transfusion , Hospitals
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2235837, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059204

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effectiveness of public health measures implemented to mitigate the spread and impact of SARS-CoV-2 relies heavily on honesty and adherence from the general public. Objective: To examine the frequency of, reasons for, and factors associated with misrepresentation and nonadherence regarding COVID-19 public health measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study recruited a national, nonprobability sample of US adults to participate in an online survey using Qualtrics online panels (participation rate, 1811 of 2260 [80.1%]) from December 8 to 23, 2021. The survey contained screening questions to allow for a targeted sample of one-third who had had COVID-19, one-third who had not had COVID-19 and were vaccinated, and one-third who had not had COVID-19 and were unvaccinated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The survey assessed 9 different types of misrepresentation and nonadherence related to COVID-19 public health measures and the reasons underlying such behaviors. Additional questions measured COVID-19-related beliefs and behaviors and demographic characteristics. Results: The final sample included 1733 participants. The mean (SD) participant age was 41 (15) years and the sample predominantly identified as female (1143 of 1732 [66.0%]) and non-Hispanic White (1151 of 1733 [66.4%]). Seven hundred twenty-one participants (41.6%) reported misrepresentation and/or nonadherence in at least 1 of the 9 items; telling someone they were with or about to be with in person that they were taking more COVID-19 preventive measures than they actually were (420 of 1726 [24.3%]) and breaking quarantine rules (190 of 845 [22.5%]) were the most common manifestations. The most commonly endorsed reasons included wanting life to feel normal and wanting to exercise personal freedom. All age groups younger than 60 years (eg, odds ratio for those aged 18-29 years, 4.87 [95% CI, 3.27-7.34]) and those who had greater distrust in science (odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.23]) had significantly higher odds of misrepresentation and/or nonadherence for at least 1 of the 9 items. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US adults, nearly half of participants reported misrepresentation and/or nonadherence regarding public health measures against COVID-19. Future work is needed to examine strategies for communicating the consequences of misrepresentation and nonadherence and to address contributing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S5): S545-S554, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054654

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To investigate trends in the use and quality of telehealth for contraceptive care during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Methods. The 2021 Guttmacher Survey of Reproductive Health Experiences is a national online survey of 6211 people assigned female at birth, aged 18 to 49 years, and that ever had penile‒vaginal sex. We used weighted bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions to analyze the use of telehealth for contraceptive care and the quality of this care. Results. Of the respondents, 34% received a contraceptive service in the 6 months before the survey; of this group, 17% utilized telehealth. Respondents who were uninsured at some point in the 6 months before the survey had greater odds of using telehealth for this care. Respondents had lower odds of rating the person-centeredness of their care as "excellent" if they received services via telehealth compared with in person (25% vs 39%). Conclusions. Telehealth has helped bridge gaps in contraceptive care deepened by COVID-19. More work is needed to improve the quality of care and reduce access barriers to ensure telehealth can meet its full potential as part of a spectrum of care options. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S5):S545-S554. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306886).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contraceptive Agents , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S317-S325, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attributable to the Delta variant in the United States among pregnant people is limited. We assessed the risk for severe COVID-19 by pregnancy status in the period of Delta variant predominance compared with the pre-Delta period. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among symptomatic women of reproductive age (WRA) were assessed. We calculated adjusted risk ratios for severe disease including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death comparing the pre-Delta period (1 January 2020-26 June 2021) and the Delta period (27 June 2021-25 December 2021) for pregnant and nonpregnant WRA. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, the risk of ICU admission during the Delta period was 41% higher (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.41 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.17-1.69]) for pregnant WRA and 9% higher (aRR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.00-1.18]) for nonpregnant WRA. The risk of invasive ventilation or ECMO was higher for pregnant (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.26-2.65]) and nonpregnant (aRR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.17-1.54]) WRA in the Delta period. During the Delta period, the risk of death was 3.33 (95% CI, 2.48-4.46) times the risk in the pre-Delta period among pregnant WRA and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.49-1.77) among nonpregnant WRA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, pregnant and nonpregnant WRA were at increased risk for severe COVID-19 in the Delta period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S303-S307, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051342

ABSTRACT

We describe 2116 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during Delta and Omicron circulation from July 2021 through January 2022. Half of MIS-C patients were aged 5-11 years, 52% received intensive care unit-level care, and 1.1% died. Only 3.0% of eligible patients were fully vaccinated prior to MIS-C onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
8.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The stress-sensitization hypothesis posits that individuals with prior trauma are at elevated risk for poor mental health when faced with subsequent stressors. Little work has examined whether those who have demonstrated psychological resilience to prior trauma would show either increased resilience or vulnerability to subsequent stressors. We examined pre-pandemic psychological resilience to lifetime trauma in relation to mental health outcomes amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a major societal stressor. METHODS: The sample included 16,900 trauma-exposed women from the Nurses' Health Study II. Pre-pandemic resilience was defined by psychological health in 2017-2019 (characterized by levels of both distress and positive emotional well-being) relative to lifetime trauma. Resilience was defined categorically by cross-classifying unfavorable, adequate, and favorable psychological health by higher versus lower trauma burden, and continuously as the residual difference in predicted versus actual psychological health regressed on trauma burden. Mental health outcomes as of May-August 2020 included psychological distress symptoms and overall positive emotional well-being. Associations were assessed using covariate-adjusted regression models. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic resilience was associated with lower distress and higher well-being early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Relative to the women showing highest resilience (favorable psychological health despite higher trauma), only those with lower trauma and favorable prior psychological health had significantly lower distress and higher positive emotional well-being during the pandemic. Higher continuous pre-pandemic resilience was also significantly associated with lower distress and higher positive emotional well-being during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Preventing mental health problems following trauma may contribute to protecting population well-being amid major stressors.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1820, 2022 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may have disproportionately affected already disadvantaged populations. METHODS: We analysed data from 2710 young adult participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We assessed the associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs, e.g. abuse, neglect, measures of family dysfunction) with changes to health-related behaviours (meals, snacks, exercise, sleep, alcohol and smoking/vaping), and to financial and employment status during the first UK lockdown between March-June 2020. RESULTS: Experiencing 4+ ACEs was associated with reporting decreased sleep quantity during lockdown (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.18) and increased smoking and/or vaping (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 0.99-3.43); no other associations were seen between ACEs or SEP and health-related behaviour changes. Adverse financial and employment changes were more likely for people with low SEP and for people who had experienced multiple ACEs; e.g. a history of 4+ ACEs was associated with being furloughed or on other leave during lockdown (OR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.35-2.74). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of young adults, there was little evidence that lockdown worsened inequalities in health-related behaviours. However, adverse financial and employment consequences of lockdown were more likely to be experienced by people who have already experienced socioeconomic deprivation or childhood adversity, thereby widening social inequalities and demonstrating the need for support into adulthood for those with a history of ACEs.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Employment , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 345, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Employment disruptions can impact smoking and alcohol consumption. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries implemented furlough schemes to prevent job loss. We examine how furlough was associated with smoking, vaping and alcohol consumption in the UK. METHODS: Data from 27,841 participants in eight UK adult longitudinal surveys were analysed. Participants self-reported employment status and current smoking, current vaping and alcohol consumption (>4 days/week or 5+ drinks per typical occasion) both before and during the early stages of the pandemic (April-July 2020). Risk ratios were estimated within each study using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for a range of potential confounders, including pre-pandemic behaviour. Findings were synthesised using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Compared to stable employment and after adjustment for pre-pandemic characteristics, furlough was not associated with smoking (ARR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.95-1.16; I2: 10%), vaping (ARR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.74-1.08; I2: 0%) or drinking (ARR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.94-1.13; I2: 48%). There were similar findings for no longer being employed, and stable unemployment, though this varied by sex: stable unemployment was associated with smoking for women (ARR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.00-1.82; I2: 47%) but not men (0.84; 95% CI: 0.67-1.05; I2: 0%). No longer being employed was associated with vaping among women (ARR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.59-4.72; I2: 0%) but not men (ARR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.83-1.87; I2: 0%). CONCLUSIONS: We found no clear evidence of furlough or unemployment having adverse impacts on smoking, vaping or drinking behaviours during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Differences in risk compared to those who remained employed were largely explained by pre-pandemic characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaping , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): 891-898, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a postinfectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complication that has disproportionately affected racial/ethnic minority children. We conducted a pilot study to investigate risk factors for MIS-C aiming to understand MIS-C disparities. METHODS: This case-control study included MIS-C cases and SARS-CoV-2-positive outpatient controls less than 18 years old frequency-matched 4:1 to cases by age group and site. Patients hospitalized with MIS-C were admitted between March 16 and October 2, 2020, across 17 pediatric hospitals. We evaluated race, ethnicity, social vulnerability index (SVI), insurance status, weight-for-age and underlying medical conditions as risk factors using mixed effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 241 MIS-C cases with 817 outpatient SARS-CoV-2-positive at-risk controls. Cases and controls had similar sex, age and U.S. census region distribution. MIS-C patients were more frequently previously healthy, non-Hispanic Black, residing in higher SVI areas, and in the 95th percentile or higher for weight-for-age. In the multivariable analysis, the likelihood of MIS-C was higher among non-Hispanic Black children [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.07; 95% CI: 1.23-3.48]. Additionally, SVI in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles (aOR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.18-2.97 and aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.19-3.47, respectively) were independent factors along with being previously healthy (aOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.18-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop MIS-C after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, underlying medical conditions, and weight-for-age. Investigation of the potential contribution of immunologic, environmental, and other factors is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15517, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028729

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to significantly impact the global population, thus countermeasure platforms that enable rapid development of therapeutics against variants of SARS-CoV-2 are essential. We report use of a phage display human antibody library approach to rapidly identify neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate the binding and neutralization capability of two nAbs, STI-2020 and STI-5041, against the SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 strain as well as the Alpha and Beta variants. STI-2020 and STI-5041 were protective when administered intravenously or intranasally in the golden (Syrian) hamster model of COVID-19 challenged with the WA-1 strain or Beta variant. The ability to administer nAbs intravenously and intranasally may have important therapeutic implications and Phase 1 healthy subjects clinical trials are ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(11): 1081-1091, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013279

ABSTRACT

Importance: Few risk factors for long-lasting (≥4 weeks) COVID-19 symptoms have been identified. Objective: To determine whether high levels of psychological distress before SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by depression, anxiety, worry, perceived stress, and loneliness, are prospectively associated with increased risk of developing post-COVID-19 conditions (sometimes called long COVID). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from 3 large ongoing, predominantly female cohorts: Nurses' Health Study II, Nurses' Health Study 3, and the Growing Up Today Study. Between April 2020 and November 2021, participants were followed up with periodic surveys. Participants were included if they reported no current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection at the April 2020 baseline survey when distress was assessed and returned 1 or more follow-up questionnaires. Exposures: Depression, anxiety, worry about COVID-19, perceived stress, and loneliness were measured at study baseline early in the pandemic, before SARS-CoV-2 infection, using validated questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was self-reported during each of 6 monthly and then quarterly follow-up questionnaires. COVID-19-related symptoms lasting 4 weeks or longer and daily life impairment due to these symptoms were self-reported on the final questionnaire, 1 year after baseline. Results: Of 54 960 participants, 38.0% (n = 20 902) were active health care workers, and 96.6% (n = 53 107) were female; the mean (SD) age was 57.5 (13.8) years. Six percent (3193 participants) reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result during follow-up (1-47 weeks after baseline). Among these, probable depression (risk ratio [RR], 1.32; 95% CI = 1.12-1.55), probable anxiety (RR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), worry about COVID-19 (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.17-1.61), perceived stress (highest vs lowest quartile: RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18-1.81), and loneliness (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61) were each associated with post-COVID-19 conditions (1403 cases) in generalized estimating equation models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and comorbidities. Participants with 2 or more types of distress prior to infection were at nearly 50% increased risk for post-COVID-19 conditions (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23-1.80). All types of distress were associated with increased risk of daily life impairment (783 cases) among individuals with post-COVID-19 conditions (RR range, 1.15-1.51). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that preinfection psychological distress may be a risk factor for post-COVID-19 conditions in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future work should examine the biobehavioral mechanism linking psychological distress with persistent postinfection symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4784, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991598

ABSTRACT

Regional connectivity and land travel have been identified as important drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the generalizability of this finding is understudied outside of well-sampled, highly connected regions. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of regional and intercontinental connectivity to the source-sink dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 for Jordan and the Middle East. By integrating genomic, epidemiological and travel data we show that the source of introductions into Jordan was dynamic across 2020, shifting from intercontinental seeding in the early pandemic to more regional seeding for the travel restrictions period. We show that land travel, particularly freight transport, drove introduction risk during the travel restrictions period. High regional connectivity and land travel also drove Jordan's export risk. Our findings emphasize regional connectedness and land travel as drivers of transmission in the Middle East.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Travel
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

17.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 147, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the UK implemented the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (furlough) to minimise job losses. Our aim was to investigate associations between furlough and diet, physical activity, and sleep during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on 25,092 participants aged 16-66 years from eight UK longitudinal studies. Changes in employment, including being furloughed, were based on employment status before and during the first lockdown. Health behaviours included fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Study-specific estimates obtained using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and pre-pandemic health and health behaviours, were statistically pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Associations were also stratified by sex, age, and education. RESULTS: Across studies, between 8 and 25% of participants were furloughed. Compared to those who remained working, furloughed workers were slightly less likely to be physically inactive (RR = 0.85; [95% CI 0.75-0.97]; I 2 = 59%) and did not differ overall with respect to low fruit and vegetable consumption or atypical sleep, although findings for sleep were heterogenous (I 2 = 85%). In stratified analyses, furlough was associated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption among males (RR = 1.11; [1.01-1.22]; I 2 = 0%) but not females (RR = 0.84; [0.68-1.04]; I 2 = 65%). Considering changes in quantity, furloughed workers were more likely than those who remained working to report increases in fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, and hours of sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Those furloughed exhibited similar health behaviours to those who remained in employment during the initial stages of the pandemic. There was little evidence to suggest that adoption of such social protection policies in the post-pandemic recovery period and during future economic crises had adverse effects on population health behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Exercise , Fruit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vegetables , Young Adult
18.
Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie ; 101:S233, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967661

ABSTRACT

Introduction Reprocessing of medical devices becomes increasingly complex, due to higher hygiene requirements. Former studies revealed satisfactory bactericidal properties of UV-C light disinfection in otorhinolaryngological endoscopes. Especially in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, virucidal properties are of high importance. In this study the virucidal efficacy of UV-C light disinfection was analyzed using a bacteriophage model. Materials and methods MS-2 bacteriophages were used as surrogate for stable viruses with high tenacity. The bacteriophage samples were irradiated for up to three cycles of 25 seconds by UV-C light (D25, UV-Smart Technologies B.V.). A dilution series of the irradiated test samples was mixed with 1x108 CFU of Escherichia coli. After incubation plaque formation of Escherichia coli were counted and hence the phage concentration was determined. Results The initial contamination of the test samples was 1.8x1012 plaque forming units (pfu). After 25 seconds of UV-C light irradiation, a non-significant Log reduction of 2.2 was found (p = 0,82). After 50 and 75 seconds of UV-exposure a significant Log reduction of 3.4 e.g. 5.1 (p = 0.05 e.g. p = 0.004) was found. The control sample showed a titer of 1.2 x 1010 pfu. Conclusion The tested UV system seems to provide a significant virucidal effect after a short time of exposure. In combination with the results of the bacteriological testing it appears suitable for clinical use as a substitute for current disinfection methods.

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