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2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis, even in a severe and lethal form, may occur after COVID-19 mRNA (BNT162b2) vaccination. However, its pathway, morphomolecular characterization and treatment are still unknown. METHODS: Routine hematochemical screening, ECG, Holter monitoring, 2D echocardiogram cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and invasive cardiac studies (cardiac catheterization, selective coronary angiography, left ventriculography and left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy) are reported from three patients (39F-pt1, 78M-pt2, 52M-pt3) with severe compromise of conduction tissue (junctional rhythm and syncope, pt1) or cardiac function compromise (LVEF ≤ 35%, pt2 and pt3) after COVID-19 mRNA (BNT162b2). RESULTS: Hematochemical data and coronary angiography were normal in the patients studied. Histology showed in all three patients extensive myocardial infiltration of degranulated eosinophils and elevation of serum cationic protein directly responsible for cardiomyocyte damage. These findings demonstrate myocarditis hypersensitivity to some component of the vaccine (spike protein?) acting as a hapten to some macromolecules of cardiomyocytes. Steroid administration (prednisone, 1 mg/kg die for 3 days, followed by 0.33 mg/kg for 4 weeks) was followed by complete recovery of cardiac contractility in pt2 and pt3. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic myocarditis is a possible adverse reaction to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Its pathway is mediated by release of cationic protein and responds to short courses of steroid administration.

3.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 1-9, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635014

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory system but has been correlated with cardiovascular manifestations such as myocarditis, heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, and arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias are the second most frequent complication affecting about 30% of patients. Several mechanisms may lead to an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias during COVID-19 infection, ranging from direct myocardial damage to extracardiac involvement. The aim of this review is to describe the role of COVID-19 in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and provide a comprehensive guidance for their monitoring and management.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Flutter , COVID-19 , Catheter Ablation , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
4.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601919

ABSTRACT

Aims The outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced a reorganization of the healthcare system. In order to prevent potential risk of exposure, virtual visit (VV) has been implemented in the treatment and follow-up of COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of VV in the management of post COVID-19 cardiovascular patients. Methods and results We enrolled all patients with cardiovascular comorbidities tested negative for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and discharged from our Cardiology Department from January 2021 to June 2021. We scheduled a VV after 30 days from discharge to check the clinical status of the patients, optimize therapy, and establish a Follow-up protocol. Blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and body weight were registered. To evaluate the patients’ satisfaction of VV, a questionnaire was administered. We performed 25 VVs in the study period;the mean age of patients was 67.5 ± 15.6 and male were 15 (65.2%). The mean duration of VV was 25.9 ± 4.6 min. The caregiver had an active role in nine (36%) cases. No urgent/emergent in‐person examinations were performed. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached and VV was preferred to in-person evaluation. Conclusions VV visit was useful to Follow-up post COVID-19 cardiovascular patients. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached without jeopardizing quality of care.

5.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601783

ABSTRACT

Aims Cardiovascular sequelae in COVID-19 survivors remain largely unclear and can potentially go unrecognized. Reports on follow-up focused on cardiovascular evaluation after hospital discharge are currently scarce. Aim of this prospective study was to assess cardiovascular sequelae in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. Methods and results The study was conducted at ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome—Policlinico ‘Umberto I’. After 2 months from discharge, n = 230 COVID-19 survivors underwent a follow-up visit at a dedicated ‘post-COVID Outpatient Clinic’. A cardiovascular evaluation including electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography was performed. Further tests were requested when clinically indicated. Medical history, symptoms, arterial-blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography, and treatment of both in-hospital and follow-up evaluation were recorded. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed. A total of 36 (16%) COVID-19 survivors showed persistence or delayed onset of cardiovascular disease at 2-months follow-up visit. Persistent condition was recorded in 62% of survivors who experienced an in-hospital cardiovascular disease. Delayed cardiovascular involvement included: myocarditis, pericarditis, ventricular disfunction, new onset of systemic hypertension and arrhythmias. At 1-year telephone follow-up, 105 (45%) survivors reported persistent symptoms, with dyspnoea and fatigue being the most frequent. 60% of survivors showed persistent chest CT abnormalities and among those 28% complained of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms at long term follow-up. Conclusions Our preliminary data showed persistent or delayed onset of cardiovascular involvement (16%) at short-term follow-up and persistent symptoms (45%) at long-term follow-up. These findings suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.

6.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601776

ABSTRACT

Aims During the COVID-19 pandemic in-person visits for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices should be replaced by remote monitoring (RM), in order to prevent viral transmission. A direct home-delivery service of the RM communicator has been implemented at 49 Italian arrhythmia centres. Methods and results According to individual patient preference or the organizational decision of the centre, patients were assigned to the home-delivery group or the standard in-clinic delivery group. In the former case, patients received telephone training on the activation process and use of the communicator. In June 2020, the centres were asked to reply to an ad hoc questionnaire to describe and evaluate their experience in the previous 3 months. RM was activated in 1324 patients: 821 (62%) received the communicator at home and the communicator was activated remotely. Activation required one additional call in 49% of cases, and the median time needed to complete the activation process was 15 min (25th–75th percentile: 10–20). 753 (92%) patients were able to complete the correct activation of the system. At the time when the questionnaire was completed, 743 (90%) communicators were regularly transmitting data. The service was generally deemed useful (96% of respondents) in facilitating the activation of RM during the COVID-19 pandemic and possibly beyond. Conclusions Home delivery of the communicator proved to be a successful approach to system activation, and received positive feedback from clinicians. The increased use of a RM protocol will reduce risks for both providers and patients, while maintaining high-quality care.

7.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601695

ABSTRACT

Aims Following the COVID‐19 pandemic‐related lockdown period in Italy, people have experienced psycho-physical distress. Many hospitals were converted in COVID-19 healthcare places and many specialist outpatient’s services were drastically reduced. Virtual visits may represent a strategy to overcome the lack of HF outpatient’s services, during this period. Our own experience underlines the importance of virtual visits to face the clinical and health status deterioration, associated with COVID-19, in HF outpatients. Methods and results We conducted an observational study, enrolling consecutive HF outpatients, previously hospitalized at the Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiology and Cardiovascular Sciences of Sapienza University of Rome, who were discharged within 31 March 2019, and 30 April 2019. Two follow-up periods were scheduled: (i) within 20–30 days after the beginning of lockdown (ii) at 3 months after lockdown’s end. Virtual visits were conducted through telephone, assessing changes in clinical and health status;the latter was assessed through the short version of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). According to the presence of at least one sign of HF deterioration, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: patients who experienced a modification in at least one clinical parameter suggestive of HF deterioration. Group 2: patients who do not experienced any modification of HF deterioration clinical parameter. KCCQ-12 mean scores were compared between the two groups, at both scheduled virtual visits, in order to evaluate any change in HF outpatients’ health status, during and after the COVID-19-related-lockdown. 160 HF outpatients have been included in the study: 63 in the group 1, 97 in the group 2. At the first virtual visit, group 1 reported significantly lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [46.2 (±14.6) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% 11.6 to − 3.6;P = 0.0003]. At the second virtual visit, group 1 patients reported a slightly, but not statistically significant, lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [52.2 (± 13.3) vs. 53.1(±14.4);95% CI: −5.4 to 3.6;P = 0.69]. Comparing the KCCQ-12 mean scores of each group between the two scheduled virtual visits, group 1 reported a statistically significant increase at the second visit, compared to the first [52.2 (±13.3) vs. 46.2 (±14.6);CI: 95% 1.1–11;P = 0.017]. Group 2 showed no statistically significant variation of mean KCCQ-12 score between the two follow-up periods [53.1 (±14.4) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% −4.3 to 3;P = 0.704]. Conclusions we observed a significant worsening of health status in HF outpatients who have experienced clinical deterioration. Therefore, patients were either hospitalized or received the optimization of diuretic and anti-hypertensive therapies. A significant health status improvement was observed at three months after the end of the lockdown, suggesting the importance of virtual visit as an adequate method to follow-up HF outpatients, reporting particular benefits in those with worsening of HF clinical signs and health status.

8.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602422

ABSTRACT

Aims Significant concern has been raised about the effect of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV therapies on COVID-19 course. On the other hand, COVID-19 could worse pre-existing CVD or trigger the development of new-onset CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and CV therapy with the clinical course of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods and results Consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to the Cardiovascular COVID-19 Unit at Policlinico Umberto I of Rome between December 2020 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients underwent a cardiovascular evaluation including troponin, electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiogram. Data on medical history, pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and therapy were collected. Admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU), as well as the development of new-onset CVD, were considered as endpoint of the study. Among n = 229 patients enrolled, 22 (10%) died. Nearly half of patients (112, 49%) were admitted to the ICU/CICU. The presence of prior ischaemic heart disease nearly doubled the probability of hospitalization in the ICU/CICU (HR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.132–3.866, P 0.018). In regards of therapy, beta blockers reduced the likelihood of admission in the ICU/CICU (HR: −1016, 95% CI: 0.192–10.682, P 0.002). However, neither the use of RAAS blockers, heparin or dexamethasone influenced the risk of ICU/CICU admission (respectively, HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.498–1.450, P 0.551;HR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.435–1.356, P 0.363;HR: 0.861, 95% CI: 0.453–1.635, P 0.647). N = 89 patients (39%) experienced a new onset CVD including arrythmias (18.3%) with nearly half experiencing atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome (10.9%), acute pulmonary embolism (5.3%), heart failure (HF) (3%), and myocarditis and pericarditis (1.3%). A pre-existing diagnosis of HF substantially increased the likelihood of new onset CVD (HR: 2.380, 95% CI: 1.004–5.638, P 0.049). However, treatment with heparin or dexamethasone reduced the risk of new onset CVD (HR: 0.482 95% CI: 0.268–0.867, P 0.015;HR: 0.487, 95% CI: 0.253–0.937, P 0.031, respectively). Conclusions Our study found that hospitalized COVID-19 patients who have at least one CV risk factor or pre-existing CVD had a greater likelihood of being admitted to the ICU/CICU and experiencing new onset CVD.

9.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602407

ABSTRACT

Aims Remote monitoring (RM) has significantly transformed the standard of care for patients with cardiac electronic implantable devices. It provides easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device‐related issues, without the need of in‐person visits. Methods and results Starting 1 March, 332 patients were introduced to an RM programme during the Italian lockdown to limit the risk of in‐hospital exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus‐2. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the modality of RM delivery [home (n = 229) vs. office (n = 103) delivered]. The study aimed at assessing the efficacy of the new follow‐up protocol, assessed as mean RM activation time (AT), and the need for technical support. In addition, patients’ acceptance and anxiety status were quantified via the Home Monitoring Acceptance and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7‐item scale. AT time was less than 48 h in 93% of patients and 7% of them required further technical support. Despite a higher number of trans‐telephonic technical support in the home‐delivered RM group, mean AT was similar between groups (1.33 ± 0.83 days in home‐delivered vs. 1.28 ± 0.81 days in office‐delivered patients;P = 0.60). A total of 28 (2.5%) urgent/emergent in‐person examinations were required. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached in both groups whereas anxiety status was higher in the office‐delivered group. Conclusions The adoption of RM resulted in high patient satisfaction, regardless of the modality of modem delivery;nonetheless, in‐office modem delivery was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms.

10.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602268

ABSTRACT

Aims During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in-person visits were reduced to prevent potential risk of exposure. Virtual visits (VVs) represent an innovative model to take care of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of VV in the management of CIED patients. Methods and results We performed a prospective study including all CIED patients who received a VV from July 2020 to July 2021. Blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and body weight were registered by the patient. Moreover, we sent to the patient a questionnaire to evaluate the patients’ satisfaction about VV. We enrolled 182 patients in the study period. The mean age of patients was 70.2 ± 13.5 years-old and the majority (61.1%) was male. In two cases, VVs were not performed due to technical issues. Overall, 70.9% of patients utilized a smartphone, while 20.1% and 9% used, respectively, a tablet or a personal computer. The mean duration of VV was 27.8 ± 7.8 min. Patients helped by a caregiver were 64 (35.2%). One urgent/emergent in‐person visit was performed in a patient with acute heart failure. Overall, VV was preferred to in-person evaluation. Conclusion VV is a safe and feasible approach to follow-up CIED patients. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached after VV. The use of VV has promising potential and should be implemented beyond COVID-19 period and integrated in the healthcare system as a new model of care.

11.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 53-62, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509627

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are widely variable and may involve several districts. Although the clinical course is mostly characterized by respiratory involvement, up to 30% of hospitalized patients have evidence of myocardial injury due to acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock. In particular, myocarditis is a well-recognized severe complication of COVID-19 and is associated with fulminant cardiogenic shock and sudden cardiac death. In this article, the authors aim to present a comprehensive review about COVID-19-related myocarditis, including clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup, and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 125-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487632

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic, patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) refused scheduled follow-up visits because of the risk of infection. In this scenario, different telemedicine strategies have been implemented to ensure continuity of care to CIED patients. Patients can be monitored through dedicated applications, telephone calls, or virtual visits providing easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device-related issues, without the need for in-person visits. This review provides a comprehensive description of the many possible applications of telemedicine for CIED patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pacemaker, Artificial , Telemedicine , Electronics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Europace ; 22(12): 1855-1863, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059434

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe ECG modifications and arrhythmic events in COVID-19 patients undergoing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy in different clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: COVID-19 patients at seven institutions receiving HCQ therapy from whom a baseline and at least one ECG at 48+ h were available were enrolled in the study. QT/QTc prolongation, QT-associated and QT-independent arrhythmic events, arrhythmic mortality, and overall mortality during HCQ therapy were assessed. A total of 649 COVID-19 patients (61.9 ± 18.7 years, 46.1% males) were enrolled. HCQ therapy was administrated as a home therapy regimen in 126 (19.4%) patients, and as an in-hospital-treatment to 495 (76.3%) hospitalized and 28 (4.3%) intensive care unit (ICU) patients. At 36-72 and at 96+ h after the first HCQ dose, 358 and 404 ECGs were obtained, respectively. A significant QT/QTc interval prolongation was observed (P < 0.001), but the magnitude of the increase was modest [+13 (9-16) ms]. Baseline QT/QTc length and presence of fever (P = 0.001) at admission represented the most important determinants of QT/QTc prolongation. No arrhythmic-related deaths were reported. The overall major ventricular arrhythmia rate was low (1.1%), with all events found not to be related to QT or HCQ therapy at a centralized event evaluation. No differences in QT/QTc prolongation and QT-related arrhythmias were observed across different clinical settings, with non-QT-related arrhythmias being more common in the intensive care setting. CONCLUSION: HCQ administration is safe for a short-term treatment for patients with COVID-19 infection regardless of the clinical setting of delivery, causing only modest QTc prolongation and no directly attributable arrhythmic deaths.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 21(21):8118, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896522

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease still represents a large burden on individuals and health care resources worldwide. By conventions, it is equated with atherosclerotic plaque due to flow-limiting obstruction in large–medium sized coronary arteries. However, clinical, angiographic and autoptic findings suggest a multifaceted pathophysiology for ischemic heart disease and just some cases are caused by severe or complicated atherosclerotic plaques. Currently there is no well-defined assessment of ischemic heart disease pathophysiology that satisfies all the observations and sometimes the underlying mechanism to everyday ischemic heart disease ward cases is misleading. In order to better examine this complicated disease and to provide future perspectives, it is important to know and analyze the pathophysiological mechanisms that underline it, because ischemic heart disease is not always determined by atherosclerotic plaque complication. Therefore, in order to have a more complete comprehension of ischemic heart disease we propose an overview of the available pathophysiological paradigms, from plaque activation to microvascular dysfunction.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888070

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The recent coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak forced the adoption of restraint measures, which modified the hospital admission patterns for several diseases. The aim of the study is to investigate the rate of hospital admissions for heart failure (HF) during the early days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, compared with a corresponding period during the previous year and an earlier period during the same year. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis on HF admissions number at eight hospitals in Italy throughout the study period (21 February to 31 March 2020), compared with an inter-year period (21 February to 31 March 2019) and an intra-year period (1 January to 20 February 2020). The primary outcome was the overall rate of hospital admissions for HF. A total of 505 HF patients were included in this survey: 112 during the case period, 201 during intra-year period, and 192 during inter-year period. The mean admission rate during the case period was 2.80 admissions per day, significantly lower compared with intra-year period (3.94 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.89; P = 0.0037), or with inter-year (4.92 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.72; P < 0.001). Patients admitted during study period were less frequently admitted in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II compared with inter-year period (P = 0.019). At covariance analysis NYHA class was significantly lower in patients admitted during inter-year control period, compared with patients admitted during case period (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Admissions for HF were significantly reduced during the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy.

19.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1445-1456, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743765

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak had a major impact on the organization of care in Italy, and a survey to evaluate provision of for arrhythmia during COVID-19 outbreak (March-April 2020) was launched. A total of 104 physicians from 84 Italian arrhythmia centres took part in the survey. The vast majority of participating centres (95.2%) reported a significant reduction in the number of elective pacemaker implantations during the outbreak period compared to the corresponding two months of year 2019 (50.0% of centres reported a reduction of > 50%). Similarly, 92.9% of participating centres reported a significant reduction in the number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantations for primary prevention, and 72.6% a significant reduction of ICD implantations for secondary prevention (> 50% in 65.5 and 44.0% of the centres, respectively). The majority of participating centres (77.4%) reported a significant reduction in the number of elective ablations (> 50% in 65.5% of the centres). Also the interventional procedures performed in an emergency setting, as well as acute management of atrial fibrillation had a marked reduction, thus leading to the conclusion that the impact of COVID-19 was disrupting the entire organization of health care, with a massive impact on the activities and procedures related to arrhythmia management in Italy.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Electrophysiology/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Electrophysiology/methods , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Physicians/psychology , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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