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1.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324340
2.
Mayo Clinic proceedings ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2294640
3.
Can J Cardiol ; 39(6): 754-760, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258597

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the leading noncommunicable disease and cause of premature mortality globally. Despite well established evidence of a cause-effect relationship between modifiable lifestyle behaviours and the onset of risk of chronic disease, preventive approaches to curtail increasing prevalence have been ineffective. This has undoubtedly been exacerbated by the response to COVID-19, which saw widespread national lockdowns implemented to reduce transmission and alleviate pressure on strained health care systems. A consequence of these approaches was a well documented negative impact on population health in the context of both physical and mental well-being. Although the true extent of the impact of the COVID-19 response on global health has yet to be fully realised or understood, it seems prudent to review effective preventative and management strategies that have yielded positive outcomes across the spectrum (ie, from individual to society). There is also a clear need to heed lessons learned from the COVID-19 experience in the power of collaboration and how this can be used in the design, development, and implementation of future approaches to address the longstanding burden of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health
6.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(4): 101547, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260805

ABSTRACT

Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported to have poor outcomes. However, previous studies are small and limited. The National Inpatient Sample database for the year 2020 was queried to identify all adult hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of STEMI, with and without concurrent COVID-19. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed. A total of 159,890 hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of STEMI were identified. Of these, 2210 (1.38%) had concurrent COVID-19. After propensity matching, STEMI patients with concurrent COVID-19 had a significantly higher mortality (17.8% vs 9.1%, OR 1.96, P< 0.001), lower likelihood to receive same-day percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (63.6% vs 70.6%, P = 0.019), with a trend towards lower overall PCI (74.9% vs 80.2%, P = 0.057) and significantly lower coronary artery bypass grafting) (3.0% vs 6.8%, P = 0.008) prior to discharge, compared with STEMI patients without COVID-19. The prevalence of cardiogenic shock, need for mechanical circulatory support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiac arrest, acute kidney injury (AKI), dialysis, major bleeding and stroke were not significantly different between the groups. COVID-19-positive STEMI patients who received same-day PCI had significantly lower odds of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.85, P = 0.017). STEMI patients with concurrent COVID-19 infection had a significantly higher (almost 2 times) in-hospital mortality, and lower likelihood of receiving same-day PCI, overall (any-day) PCI, and CABG during their admission, compared with STEMI patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Cardiogenic , Treatment Outcome
7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 76: 76-83, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240579

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to put forward some evidence-based lessons that can be learned from how to respond to a Pandemic that relate to healthy living behaviours (HLB). A 4-step methodology was followed to conduct a narrative review of the literature and to present a professional practice vignette. The narrative review identified 8 lessons: 1) peer review; 2) historical perspectives; 3) investing in resilience and protection; 4) unintended consequences; 5) protecting physical activity; 6) school closures; 7) mental health; and 8) obesity. As in all probability there will be another Pandemic, it is important that the lessons learned over the last three years in relation to HLB are acted upon. Whilst there will not always be a consensus on what to emphasise, it is important that many evidence-based positions are presented. The authors of this paper recognise that this work is a starting point and that the lessons presented here will need to be revisited as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Obesity , Mental Health , Exercise
8.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244633
10.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234903

ABSTRACT

A hypercoagulable state associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been well documented and is believed to be strongly supported by a proinflammatory state. The hypercoagulable state in turn results in increased incidence of arterial and venous thromboembolism (VTE) seen in hospitalized COVID-19 when compared with hospitalized non-COVID-19 patient cohorts. Moreover, patients with arterial or VTE and COVID-19 have higher mortality compared with COVID-19 patients without arterial or VTE. Prevention of arterial or VTE thus remains an essential question in the management of COVID-19 patients, especially because of high rates of reported microvascular and macrovascular thrombosis. This has prompted multiple randomized control trials (RCTs) evaluating different anticoagulation strategies in COVID-19 patients at various stages of the disease. Herein, we review findings from RCTs in the past 2 years of antithrombotic therapy in critically ill hospitalized patients, noncritically ill hospitalized patients, patients postdischarge from the hospital, and outpatients. RCTs in critically ill patients demonstrated therapeutic dose anticoagulation does not improve outcomes and has more bleeding than prophylaxis dose anticoagulant in these patients. Trials in noncritically ill hospitalized patients showed a therapeutic dose anticoagulation with a heparin formulation might improve clinical outcomes. Anticoagulation with a direct oral anticoagulant posthospital discharge may improve outcomes, although there is a large RCT in progress. Nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients have an insufficient burden of events to be candidates for antithrombotic therapy. Anticoagulation in pregnant and lactating patients with COVID-19, as well as antiplatelet therapy for COVID-19, is also reviewed.

11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(4): 101541, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231265

ABSTRACT

Heart Failure (HF) patients are at a higher risk of adverse events associated with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Large population-based reports of the impact of COVID-19 on patients hospitalized with HF are limited. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for HF admissions during 2020 in the United States (US), with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on ICD-10-CM U07. Propensity score matching was used to match patients across age, race, sex, and comorbidities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. A weighted total of 1,110,085 hospitalizations for HF were identified of which 7,905 patients (0.71%) had a concomitant diagnosis of COVID-19. After propensity matching, HF patients with COVID-19 had higher rate of in-hospital mortality (8.2% vs 3.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 2.33 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69, 3.21]; P< 0.001), cardiac arrest (2.9% vs 1.1%, OR 2.21 [95% CI: 1.24,3.93]; P<0.001), and pulmonary embolism (1.0% vs 0.4%; OR 2.68 [95% CI: 1.05, 6.90]; P = 0.0329). During hospitalizations for HF, COVID-19 was also found to be an independent predictor of mortality. Further, increasing age, arrythmias, and chronic kidney disease were independent predictors of mortality in HF patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 is associated with increased in-hospital mortality, longer hospital stays, higher cost of hospitalization and increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients admitted with HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , United States , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Length of Stay , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/diagnosis
12.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 76: 25-30, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230699

ABSTRACT

Stress cardiomyopathy was noted to occur at a higher incidence during coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This database analysis has been done to compare the in-hospital outcomes in patients with stress cardiomyopathy and concurrent COVID-19 infection with those without COVID-19 infection. The National Inpatient Sample database for the year 2020 was queried to identify all admissions diagnosed with stress cardiomyopathy. These patients were then stratified based on whether they had concomitant COVID-19 infection or not. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of mortality. We identified 41,290 hospitalizations for stress cardiomyopathy, including 1665 patients with concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19. The female preponderance was significantly lower in patients with stress cardiomyopathy and COVID-19. Patients with concomitant COVID-19 were more likely to be African American, diabetic and have chronic kidney disease. After propensity matching, the incidence of complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI), AKI requiring dialysis, coagulopathy, sepsis, cardiogenic shock, cases with prolonged intubation of >24 h, requirement of vasopressor and inpatient mortality, were noted to be significantly higher in patients with COVID-19. Concomitant COVID-19 infection was independently associated with worse outcomes and increased mortality in patients hospitalized with stress cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Shock, Cardiogenic , Inpatients , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 98(2): 316-331, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221125

ABSTRACT

The beneficial health effects and prognostic significance of regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA), increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), or both are often underappreciated by the medical community and the patients they serve. Individuals with low CRF have higher annual health care costs, higher rates of surgical complications, and are two to three times more likely to die prematurely than their fitter counterparts when matched for risk factor profile or coronary calcium score. Increased levels of habitual PA before hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes are also associated with better short-term cardiovascular outcomes. Accordingly, this review examines these relations and the potential underlying mechanisms of benefit (eg, exercise preconditioning), with specific reference to the incidence of cardiovascular, cancer, and coronavirus diseases, and the prescriptive implications and exercise thresholds for optimizing health outcomes. To assess the evidence supporting or refuting the benefits of PA and CRF, we performed a literature search (PubMed) and critically reviewed the evidence to date. In aggregate, these data are presented in the context of clarifying the impact that regular PA and/or increased CRF have on preventing and treating chronic and infectious diseases, with reference to evidence-based exercise thresholds that the medical community can embrace and promote.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Exercise , Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Physical Fitness
14.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143421

ABSTRACT

Twenty percent of deaths in the United States are secondary to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In patients with hyperlipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia, studies have shown high atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) event rates despite the use of statins. Given the association of high triglyceride (TG) levels with elevated cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) cholesterol guidelines recommend using elevated TGs as a "risk-enhancing factor" for ASCVD and using omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3FAs) for patients with persistently elevated severe hypertriglyceridemia. Ω3FA, or fish oils (FOs), have been shown to reduce very high TG levels, hospitalizations, and CVD mortality in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We have published the largest meta-analysis to date demonstrating significant effects on several CVD outcomes, especially fatal myocardial infarctions (MIs) and total MIs. Despite the most intensive research on Ω3FAs on CVD, their benefits have been demonstrated to cluster across multiple systems and pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, chronic kidney disease, central nervous system diseases, and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. A review and summary of the controversies surrounding Ω3FAs, some of the latest evidence-based findings, and the current and most updated recommendations on Ω3FAs are presented in this paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertriglyceridemia , Myocardial Infarction , United States , Humans , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol, HDL , Triglycerides , Cholesterol , Hypertriglyceridemia/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(10): 2253-2266, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032022

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally, higher levels of PA, ET, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are correlated with reduced risk of CVD, including myocardial infarction, CVD-related death, and all-cause mortality. Although exact details regarding the ideal doses of ET, including resistance and, especially, aerobic ET, as well as the potential adverse effects of extreme levels of ET, continue to be investigated, there is no question that most of the world's population have insufficient levels of PA/ET, and many also have lower than ideal levels of CRF. Therefore, assessment and promotion of PA, ET, and efforts to improve levels of CRF should be integrated into all health professionals' practices worldwide. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the exercise effects on many areas related to CVD, from basic aspects to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Risk Factors
18.
19.
Am J Med ; 135(11): 1288-1295, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982511

ABSTRACT

Tragically, the United States (US) surpassed one million documented deaths due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A convincing association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and poorer outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection has already been demonstrated and communicated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in public health messaging. The US is experiencing not a pandemic, but a syndemic, specifically an unhealthy lifestyle behaviors-chronic diseases-COVID-19 syndemic. This syndemic has almost certainly significantly contributed to the more than one million deaths the United States has experienced during the pandemic. Decades of a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors laid the foundation for our current unfortunate situation by increasing vulnerability to a novel virus, especially among subgroups who have been historically marginalized. As such, a major pathway to defeating this syndemic is through the promotion of healthy living behaviors for all. Now is the time for action appropriate to meet the demands of a syndemic and a new path forward to a healthier and more equitable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Syndemic , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Life Style
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