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Anal Chem ; 95(19): 7620-7629, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315422


A sensor capable of quantifying both anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody levels and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in saliva and serum was developed. This was accomplished by exploiting the enzymatic reaction of maltose and orthophosphate (PO43-) in the presence of maltose phosphorylase to generate an equivalent amount of glucose that was detected using a commercial glucometer test strip and a potentiostat. Important for this approach is the ability to generate PO43- in an amount that is directly related to the concentration of the analytes. RBD-modified magnetic microparticles were used to capture anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibodies, while particles modified with anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies were used to capture SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein from inactivated virus samples. A magnet was used to isolate and purify the magnetic microparticles (with analyte attached), and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibodies were bound to the analytes attached to the respective magnetic microparticles. Finally, through enzymatic reactions, specific amounts of PO43- (and subsequently glucose) were generated in proportion to the analyte concentration, which was then quantified using a commercial glucometer test strip. Utilizing glucose test strips makes the sensor relatively inexpensive, with a cost per test of ∼US $7 and ∼US $12 for quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Our sensor exhibited a limit of detection of 0.42 ng/mL for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody, which is sensitive enough to quantify typical concentrations of antibodies in COVID-19-infected or vaccinated individuals (>1 µg/mL). The limit of detection for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is 300 pfu/mL (5.4 × 106 RNA copies/mL), which exceeds the performance recommended by the WHO (500 pfu/mL). In addition, the sensor exhibited good selectivity when challenged with competing analytes and could be used to quantify analytes in saliva and serum matrices with an accuracy of >94% compared to RT-qPCR.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Glucose
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5769-5779, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392616


SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of COVID19. There are currently several licensed vaccines approved for human use and most of them target the spike protein in the virion envelope to induce protective immunity. Recently, variants that spread more quickly have emerged. There is evidence that some of these variants are less sensitive to neutralization in vitro, but it is not clear whether they can evade vaccine induced protection. In this study, we tested SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD as a vaccine antigen and explored the effect of formulation with Alum/MPLA or AddaS03 adjuvants. Our results show that RBD induces high titers of neutralizing antibodies and activates strong cellular immune responses. There is also significant cross-neutralization of variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 and to a lesser extent, SARS-CoV-1. These results indicate that recombinant RBD can be a viable candidate as a stand-alone vaccine or as a booster shot to diversify our strategy for COVID19 protection.

Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
Trimestre Economico ; 87(347):899-917, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-804118


During the Covid-19 global pandemic, and in the face of an imminent crisis derived from it, various concerns arise regarding the economic consequences that the situation will bring, as well as whether the response of the different governments will be enough in the long term. The Foundational Economy Collective proposes, for the European context in particular, a series of points and lessons for the economic policy decisions that emerge from this crisis in order to stimulate national and regional economies once the pandemic is over.