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1.
COVID ; 2(8):1102-1115, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969119

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is caused by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and occurs in critically ill patients. It is one of the fatal complications observed among severe COVID-19 cases managed in intensive care units (ICU). Supportive lung-protective ventilation and prone positioning remain the mainstay interventions. Purpose: We describe the severity of ARDS, clinical outcomes, and management of ICU patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in multiple Saudi hospitals. Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted of critically ill patients who were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 and developed ARDS. Results: During our study, 1154 patients experienced ARDS: 591 (51.2%) with severe, 415 (36.0%) with moderate, and 148 (12.8%) with mild ARDS. The mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was significantly higher in severe ARDS with COVID-19 (6 ±5, p = 0.006). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed COVID-19 patients with mild ARDS had a significantly higher survival rate compared to COVID-19 patients who experienced severe ARDS (p = 0.023). Conclusion: ARDS is a challenging condition complicating COVID-19 infection. It carries significant morbidity and results in elevated mortality. ARDS requires protective mechanical ventilation and other critical care supportive measures. The severity of ARDS is associated significantly with the rate of death among the patients.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(6): 648-653, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic created many challenges for healthcare systems. Frontline workers and especially healthcare professionals were the most severely affected through increased working hours, burnout and major psychological distress. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the changes in standard care elements which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically the physician clinical rounds and nursing care provided to non-COVID-19 infected patients. DESIGN: Observational retrospective study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. KAMC is a 1200 bed tertiary care referral academic medical center. PATIENTS (MATERIALS) AND METHODS: We compared the physician clinical rounds and nursing care elements in all admissions due to non-COVID-19 pneumonia and ST elevation myocardial infarction during the lockdown period with similar admissions in a baseline period in the same weeks in the previous pre-lockdown. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To evaluates the changes occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of the standard care elements, such as the physician rounds and nursing care. SAMPLE SIZE: Total of 113 patients records were analyzed. RESULTS: During the lock down period, a total of 113 patients were admitted to the medical and cardiology wards, (95 patients with pneumonia and 18 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)) compared to 89 patients in the pre lockdown period (74 patients with pneumonia and 15 patients with STEMI). Both groups were similar in age, gender, disposition, length of stay, goal of care planning and outcome. Chronic respiratory disease and Diabetes were more present in patients admitted on the pre lockdown time. Azithromycin was more frequently used as part of the initial antibiotic regimen for pneumonia during the pre-lockdown while doxycycline was significantly more during the lockdown. For the 95 patients admitted in the medical wards during the lockdown, there were a total of 820 physicians' clinical rounds opportunities for senior and junior physicians each. The residents missed 133 (16.2%) and consultant missed 252 (30.7%) of those clinical rounds opportunities. Missed clinical rounds opportunities during the pre-lock down period was higher for residents and consultants at 19.3% (P = 0.429 ) and 36.3% respectively (P = 0.027 ). Similarly, missed clinical rounds opportunities was less during the lockdown period from 35.2% to 25% (p 0.022) and from 38.8% to 30.6% (p = 1 ) for junior staff and consultant cardiology respectively compared to pre lockdown period. For nursing care elements, there was a decrease in missed opportunities in vital signs measurement (p 0.47 and p 0.226), pain assessment (p 0.088 and p 0,366) and skin care (p 0.249 and p 0.576) for patients admitted during the lockdown period in medical and cardiology wards. CONCLUSIONS: Caring for patients admitted for non COVID 19 infection reasons, physicians' clinical rounds did marginally increase compared to pre lockdown period while nurses monitoring for those patients was significantly higher. No difference in mortality was observed for patients admitted pre and during lockdown. The number of missed opportunities to do clinical rounds by physicians remains high during both periods and measures to improve adherence of physicians to performed clinical rounds are needed.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 389-394, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the availability of the current COVID-19 vaccine, the need to control the pandemic worldwide was focused on management of the disease using previously approved antivirals, including Favipiravir which inhibits viral replication through the RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme. Favipiravir's efficacy against different viral infections has made it a potential treatment for COVID-19. We are aiming in this study to assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in treating critically ill patients admitted with COVID-19 to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The studied sample was randomized from a huge pool of data collected primarily for critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to (ICUs) during the period between April 2020 to March 2021. Two groups of patients matched 1: 1 for age and body mass index (BMI) was enrolled in the study; one group received Favipiravir and another comparison group received other antimicrobial medications, not including Favipiravir. RESULTS: A total data of 538 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, 269 (50.%) received Favipiravir and 269 (50%) the control group received different treatments. More than two-thirds 201 (74.7%) were Saudi citizens, the majority 177 (65.8%) were males and the mean age and (BMI) were; (57.23 ± 15.16) years and (31.61 ± 7.33) kg/m2 respectively. The most frequent symptoms of presentation were shortness of breath (SOB), fever, and cough, and the most frequent comorbidity was diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. In the supplemental therapy, corticosteroid, tocilizumab and chloroquine were statistically significant (P = 0.001) when combined in the FVP group more than in the comparison group. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was more frequent among Favipiravir group, while the overall mortality rate among the Favipiravir group was not statistically significant (p-value 0.4). CONCLUSION: According to the study's results revealing FVP is not superior to other antivirals, patients who received Favipiravir presented with more severe symptoms, more comorbidities, more complications, and is not effective in controlling the cytokine storm which negatively impact the efficacy of Favipiravir. FVP therapy had no influence on ICU and hospital length of stay in comparison with the control group as well as in the overall mortality rate among the FVP group was not statistically significant. further research is needed to understand how FVP along with other treatments can improve the length of stay among COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577

ABSTRACT

Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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