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1.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 13: 285-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779830

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Synchronous and asynchronous e-learning is a promising and effective educational method for the delivery of medical lessons. Due to the public health measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, our Pathology Department faced the challenge of a total online transition of the lessons. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the aspects of the applied e-learning method they received. Materials and Methods: At the end of the semester when e-learning was applied, we designed a structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items via Google Forms, which took the students between 5 and 7 minutes to complete. Of the 257 students registered on the Pathology course in the fifth semester, 207 students (80.5%) returned completed valid questionnaires. Results: Fifteen of the seventeen components of the e-learning Pathology questionnaire were evaluated highly by the vast majority of the students. The two remaining items, the HIPON platform and the Microlabs e-lessons, were evaluated highly by almost half the students. Approximately 93% of medical students answered that e-learning could be integrated with real class lessons in the medical curriculum: 62.8% (N = 130) of students answered to a great extent, and 30.4% (N = 63) answered to a small extent. Statistically significant differences were found between the demographic characteristics of the participants (gender, permanent residence, working status) and their evaluation of the e-learning items. Conclusion: E-learning was successfully implemented for the delivery of the pathology lessons and was widely accepted by the students, providing evidence for its future integration into the medical curriculum. Our findings illuminate various aspects of the students' experience with e-learning, and we strongly recommend that the students' evaluation and perspective be taken into consideration by the faculty in the development of policies for higher-quality medical education.

2.
Surgeon ; 20(5): 275-283, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing numbers of female medical students, surgery remains male-dominated. PURPOSE: To highlight the principal career obstacles experienced by aspiring female surgeons. METHODS: A narrative review of literature on the position and career barriers of female surgeons has been conducted, using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. MAIN FINDINGS: Implicit and even explicit biases against female surgeons remain prevalent, negatively impacting their training performance and overall professional trajectory. Female surgeons are globally underrepresented in leadership positions and senior academic rankings, especially that of a full professor. They feel hampered by lack of effective mentorship, whose value for a successful career has been acknowledged by all medical students, surgeons and surgical leaders. Their work-life imbalance is sometimes expressed as lower likelihood than their male contemporaries of getting married or having children and may be attributed to their conventional association with the role of caretaker, their personal desire to accommodate occupational and family duties and the inadequate implementation of parental leave and childcare policies. Female surgeons' "infertility" may be further explained by direct and indirect pregnancy-related difficulties. Female surgeons are also financially undercompensated compared to their male contemporaries. Finally, specialty-specific challenges should not be overlooked. CONCLUSIONS: While encouraging steps have been made, women in surgery feel still hindered by various obstacles. The qualitative, interview-based nature of current literature requires more meticulous studies on these barriers with a more quantitative and objective approach. Attenuation of gender imbalance in surgical specialties requires further changes in mentality and more targeted modifications in relevant policies.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Surgeons , Attitude of Health Personnel , Career Choice , Child , Female , General Surgery/education , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Specialties, Surgical/education
3.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 1081-1091, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441029

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE: Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, educational institutions had to utilize online platform solutions to deliver their curriculum. We conducted this study to explore participation and interactivity in a synchronous e-learning non-mandatory participation course in pathology at a medical school in Greece. The knowledge acquired is expected to be instrumental in the development of educational practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data for this study were gathered through the recorded video archives of the synchronous e-lessons. We observed online participation at seven time points during each of the assessed e-lessons. Moreover, we identified and categorized the professor's/students' interactivity patterns according to content. RESULTS: The maximum number of students participating in the first e-lesson was N = 196. We recorded a reduction of N = 91 students, approximately 46%, in maximum student participants from the second observed e-lesson, and an additional decrease of N = 28 students, approximately 27%, from the third observation. Participation numbers continued to lessen. Even though there was a statistically significant difference in the mean percentage of students participating between the seven time points of each e-lesson, the difference in the mean percentage of students' online participation between the seven e-lessons assessed was not statistically significant. This indicates a consistent e-audience. Evidence of interactivity was summarized in a table, and each professor-students interaction was classified according to its content. We found that the professor posed questions to his students every 2-5 minutes during every synchronous e-lesson and e-tutorial observed, and students wrote 3-6 answers in chat in response to each question. Students asked more questions as more synchronous e-learning classes took place, with limited exceptions. CONCLUSION: From our perspective, our observations set the basis for further research to enhance our understanding of the aspects of the e-learning environment towards the formulation of policies for higher-quality education. PLAIN TEXT: Our pathology department places high value on the quality of education that the medical students receive. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our department had to deploy e-learning modalities for curriculum delivery. Thus, we conducted this research to evaluate a pathology e-learning class in terms of students' participation and the interactivity dynamics between them and the professor. We used statistics to measure participation during each e-lesson and identified recurring patterns of interactivity. We avoided imposing our predetermined interpretations of the data in this study so as to present an accurate depiction of the aspects of the e-learning environment. We were very pleased to identify a steady e-audience despite the drop-out rate from one e-lesson to the next, as well as strong, increasing interactivity patterns between the students and the professor, as students posed more and more questions from one e-lesson to the next. We are looking forward to future studies that address the e-learning procedure's challenges and provide evidence of its effectiveness and quality.

4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 654866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220115

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-related Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) initially was detected in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Since early 2021, World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic due to rapidly transformed to a globally massive catastrophic viral infection. In order to confront this emergency situation, many pharmaceutical companies focused on the design and development of efficient vaccines that are considered necessary for providing a level of normalization in totally affected human social-economical activity worldwide. A variety of vaccine types are under development, validation or even some of them have already completed these stages, initially approved as conditional marketing authorisation by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national health authorities for commercial purposes (in vivo use in general population), accelerating their production and distribution process. Innovative nucleoside-modified viral messenger RNA (v-mRNA)-based vaccines encapsulated within nanoparticles-specifically lipid ones (LNPs)-are now well recognized. Although this is a promising genetic engineering topic in the field of nanopharmacogenomics or targeted nucleic vaccines, there are limited but continuously enriched in vivo data in depth of time regarding their safety, efficacy, and immune response. In the current paper we expand the limited published data in the field of ribosome machinery and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA fragment vaccines interaction by describing their functional specialization and modifications. Additionally, alterations in post-transcriptional/translational molecules and mechanisms that could potentially affect the interaction between target cells and vaccines are also presented. Understanding these mechanisms is a crucial step for the next generation v-mRNA vaccines development.

5.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(3): 244, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073518

ABSTRACT

As one year is approaching since the beginning of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important to acknowledge the detrimental effect that it is having on mental health at the individual, societal and public health levels. The current review presents the direct and indirect psychological impact of COVID-19 on the general public, as well as on vulnerable groups, including the elderly, the young, healthcare professionals, people with pre-existing mental health issues, those infected by COVID-19, homeless people and refugees. Important findings are discussed in the present review, including the social stigma in older people associated with portraying COVID-19 as the disease of the elderly, and the limited psychological impact of COVID-19 in the severely mentally ill, alongside the response of the mental healthcare systems globally to this unparalleled public health crisis. The important lessons to be learnt so far can help formulate individual mental health recommendations, as well as improved intervention and prevention public health strategies.

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