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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): 955-961, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed contagions of coronavirus disease 2019 inside school bubble groups in Catalonia, Spain, in the presence of strong nonpharmaceutical interventions from September to December 2020. More than 1 million students were organized in bubble groups and monitored and analyzed by the Health and the Educational departments. METHODS: We had access to 2 data sources, and both were employed for the analysis, one is the Catalan school surveillance system and the other of the educational department. As soon as a positive index case is detected by the health system, isolation is required for all members of the bubble group, in addition to a mandatory proactive systematic screening of each individual. All infected cases are reported. It permits the calculation of the average reproductive number (R*), corresponding to the average number of infected individuals per index case. RESULTS: We found that propagation inside of the bubble group was small. Among 75% index cases, there was no transmission to other members in the classroom, with an average R* across all ages inside the bubble of R* = 0.4. We found a significant age trend in the secondary attack rates, with the R* going from 0.2 in preschool to 0.6 in high school youth. CONCLUSIONS: The secondary attack rate depends on the school level and therefore on the age. Super-spreading events (outbreaks of 5 cases or more) in childhood were rare, only occurring in 2.5% of all infections triggered from a pediatric index case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Adolescent , Age Factors , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Population Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321910

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the characteristics of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected children during lock-down period in Catalonia (Spain), and their transmission role within the households. Among 295 traced household contacts of 89 pediatric patients, children were classified as final index cases in only 3.4% of the traced homes.

3.
Stroke ; 53(4): 1276-1284, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the association between previous stroke and mortality after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) according to sex, age groups, and stroke subtypes. METHODS: Prospective population-based cohort study including all COVID-19 positive cases between February 1 and July 31, 2020. Comorbidities and mortality were extracted using linked health administration databases. Previous stroke included transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, and combined stroke for cases with more than one category. Other comorbidities were obesity, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, dementia, individual socioeconomic index, and deprivation index. Cases were followed up until December 31, 2020. Primary outcome was mortality of any cause after COVID-19 positivity. Cox proportional regression analysis adjusted for comorbidities was used. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age (<60, 60-79, and ≥80 years). RESULTS: There were 91 629 COVID-19 cases. Previous strokes were 5752 (6.27%), of which 3887 (67.57%) were ischemic, 1237 (21.50%) transient ischemic attack, 255 (4.43%) combined, 203 (3.53%) hemorrhagic, and 170 (2.96%) subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 9512 deaths (10.38%). Mortality was associated with previous stroke (hazard ratio [HR]=1.12 [95% CI, 1.06-1.18]; P<0.001), in both sexes separately (men=1.13 [1.05-1.22]; P=0.001; women=1.09 [1.01-1.18]; P=0.023), in people <60 years (HR=2.97 [1.97-4.48]; P<0.001) and 60 to 79 years (HR=1.32 [1.19-1.48]; P<0.001) but not in people ≥80 years (HR=1.02 [0.96-1.09]; P=0.437). Ischemic (HR=1.11 [1.05-1.18]; P=0.001), hemorrhagic (HR=1.53 [1.20-1.96]; P=0.001) and combined (HR=1.31 [1.05-1.63]; P=0.016) strokes were associated but not transient ischemic attack. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated only in people <60 years (HR=5.73 [1.82-18.06]; P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Previous stroke was associated with a higher mortality in people younger than 80 years. The association occurred for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke but not for transient ischemic attack. These data might help healthcare authorities to establish prioritization strategies for COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
4.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 754744, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441127

ABSTRACT

Objective: We describe and analyze the childhood (<18 years) COVID-19 incidence in Catalonia, Spain, during the first 36 weeks of the 2020-2021 school-year and to compare it with the incidence in adults. Methods: Data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests were obtained from the Catalan Agency for Quality and Health Assessment. Overall, 7,203,663 SARS-CoV-2 tests were performed, of which 491,819 were positive (6.8%). We collected epidemiological data including age-group incidence, diagnostic effort, and positivity rate per 100,000 population to analyze the relative results for these epidemiological characteristics. Results: Despite a great diagnostic effort among children, with a difference of 1,154 tests per 100,000 population in relation to adults, the relative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 for <18 years was slightly lower than for the general population, and it increased with the age of the children. Additionally, positivity of SARS-CoV-2 in children (5.7%) was lower than in adults (7.2%), especially outside vacation periods, when children were attending school (4.9%). Conclusions: A great diagnostic effort, including mass screening and systematic whole-group contact tracing when a positive was detected in the class group, was associated with childhood SARS-CoV-2 incidence and lower positivity rate in the 2020-2021 school year. Schools have been a key tool in epidemiological surveillance rather than being drivers of SARS-CoV-2 incidence in Catalonia, Spain.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1261-e1269, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of children in household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain, and investigate the household transmission dynamics. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was performed during summer and school periods (1 July 2020-31 October 2020) to analyze epidemiological and clinical features and viral household transmission dynamics in COVID-19 patients aged <16 years. A pediatric index case was established when a child was the first individual infected. Secondary cases were defined when another household member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before the child. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was calculated, and logistic regression was used to assess associations between transmission risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The study included 1040 COVID-19 patients. Almost half (47.2%) were asymptomatic, 10.8% had comorbidities, and 2.6% required hospitalization. No deaths were reported. Viral transmission was common among household members (62.3%). More than 70% (756/1040) of pediatric cases were secondary to an adult, whereas 7.7% (80/1040) were index cases. The SAR was significantly lower in households with COVID-19 pediatric index cases during the school period relative to summer (P = .02) and compared to adults (P = .006). No individual or environmental risk factors associated with the SAR. CONCLUSIONS: Children are unlikely to cause household COVID-19 clusters or be major drivers of the pandemic, even if attending school. Interventions aimed at children are expected to have a small impact on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
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