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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 180-190, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 have emerged as a population at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of IFIs has not yet been assessed in large populations of mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and mortality associated with IFIs in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 under intensive care. METHODS: We performed a national, multicentre, observational cohort study in 18 French intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively and prospectively enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome, with all demographic and clinical and biological follow-up data anonymised and collected from electronic case report forms. Patients were systematically screened for respiratory fungal microorganisms once or twice a week during the period of mechanical ventilation up to ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the prevalence of IFIs in all eligible participants with a minimum of three microbiological samples screened during ICU admission, with proven or probable (pr/pb) COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) classified according to the recent ECMM/ISHAM definitions. Secondary outcomes were risk factors of pr/pb CAPA, ICU mortality between the pr/pb CAPA and non-pr/pb CAPA groups, and associations of pr/pb CAPA and related variables with ICU mortality, identified by regression models. The MYCOVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368221. FINDINGS: Between Feb 29 and July 9, 2020, we enrolled 565 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. 509 patients with at least three screening samples were analysed (mean age 59·4 years [SD 12·5], 400 [79%] men). 128 (25%) patients had 138 episodes of pr/pb or possible IFIs. 76 (15%) patients fulfilled the criteria for pr/pb CAPA. According to multivariate analysis, age older than 62 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·34 [95% CI 1·39-3·92], p=0·0013), treatment with dexamethasone and anti-IL-6 (OR 2·71 [1·12-6·56], p=0·027), and long duration of mechanical ventilation (>14 days; OR 2·16 [1·14-4·09], p=0·019) were independently associated with pr/pb CAPA. 38 (7%) patients had one or more other pr/pb IFIs: 32 (6%) had candidaemia, six (1%) had invasive mucormycosis, and one (<1%) had invasive fusariosis. Multivariate analysis of associations with death, adjusted for candidaemia, for the 509 patients identified three significant factors: age older than 62 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1·71 [95% CI 1·26-2·32], p=0·0005), solid organ transplantation (HR 2·46 [1·53-3·95], p=0·0002), and pr/pb CAPA (HR 1·45 [95% CI 1·03-2·03], p=0·033). At time of ICU discharge, survival curves showed that overall ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients with pr/pb CAPA than in those without, at 61·8% (95% CI 50·0-72·8) versus 32·1% (27·7-36·7; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the high prevalence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidaemia and high mortality associated with pr/pb CAPA in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the need for active surveillance of fungal pathogens in patients with severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(7): 744-748, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323413

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome remains the main cause of death among people with COVID-19. Although many immunomodulatory and antiviral drug therapies have been tested, the only effective therapy against severe COVID-19 pneumonia among the general population is a regimen of high-dose corticosteroids for cases of severe associated inflammation. In solid-organ transplant recipients with long-term immunosuppression, data on disease presentation and evolution are scarce, and the benefit of high-dose corticosteroids remains uncertain for cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we report 2 cases of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome that occurred in lung transplant recipients in March and April 2020, respectively. Both cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in patients with long-term azithromycin treatment prescribed to prevent chronic allograft dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with severe inflammation and was cured after early administration of high-dose corticosteroids in both cases, with progressive and complete resolution of lung lesions evidenced on thoracic computed tomography scan. Our findings support the benefit of early high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome with hyperinflammation in patients with long-term immunosuppression such as lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Transplantation , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/virology , Remission Induction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(5)2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234760

ABSTRACT

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit patients is a major concern. Influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe COVID-19 patients are both at risk of developing invasive fungal diseases. We used the new international definitions of influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) to compare the demographic, clinical, biological, and radiological aspects of IAPA and CAPA in a monocentric retrospective study. A total of 120 patients were included, 71 with influenza and 49 with COVID-19-associated ARDS. Among them, 27 fulfilled the newly published criteria of IPA: 17/71 IAPA (23.9%) and 10/49 CAPA (20.4%). Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly higher 90-day mortality for IPA patients overall (p = 0.032), whereas mortality did not differ between CAPA and IAPA patients. Radiological findings showed differences between IAPA and CAPA, with a higher proportion of features suggestive of IPA during IAPA. Lastly, a wide proportion of IPA patients had low plasma voriconazole concentrations with a higher delay to reach concentrations > 2 mg/L in CAPA vs. IAPA patients (p = 0.045). Severe COVID-19 and influenza patients appeared very similar in terms of prevalence of IPA and outcome. The dramatic consequences on the patients' prognosis emphasize the need for a better awareness in these particular populations.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 515-525, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002122

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with prolonged mechanical ventilation and high mortality rate. Interestingly, COVID-19-associated ARDS share biological and clinical features with sepsis-associated immunosuppression since lymphopenia and acquired infections associated with late mortality are frequently encountered. Mechanisms responsible for COVID-19-associated lymphopenia need to be explored since they could be responsible for delayed virus clearance and increased mortality rate among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A series of 26 clinically annotated COVID-19 patients were analyzed by thorough phenotypic and functional investigations at days 0, 4, and 7 after ICU admission. RESULTS: We revealed that, in the absence of any difference in demographic parameters nor medical history between the two groups, ARDS patients presented with an increased number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and a decreased number of CD8pos effector memory cell compared to patients hospitalized for COVID-19 moderate pneumonia. Interestingly, COVID-19-related MDSC expansion was directly correlated to lymphopenia and enhanced arginase activity. Lastly, T cell proliferative capacity in vitro was significantly reduced among COVID-19 patients and could be restored through arginine supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reports a critical role for MDSC in COVID-19-associated ARDS. Our findings open the possibility of arginine supplementation as an adjuvant therapy for these ICU patients, aiming to reduce immunosuppression and help virus clearance, thereby decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation, nosocomial infection acquisition, and mortality.


Subject(s)
Arginine/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/etiology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cross Infection/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(3)2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646390

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in an intensive care unit (ICU)remains a challenge and the COVID-19 epidemic makes it even harder. Here, we evaluatedAspergillus PCR input to help classifying IA in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. (2) Methods: 45COVID-19 patients were prospectively monitored twice weekly for Aspergillus markers and anti-Aspergillus serology. We evaluated the concordance between (Ι) Aspergillus PCR and culture inrespiratory samples, and (ΙΙ) blood PCR and serum galactomannan. Patients were classified asputative/proven/colonized using AspICU algorithm and two other methods. (3) Results: Theconcordance of techniques applied on respiratory and blood samples was moderate (kappa = 0.58and kappa = 0.63, respectively), with a higher sensitivity of PCR. According to AspICU, 9/45 patientswere classified as putative IA. When incorporating PCR results, 15 were putative IA because theymet all criteria, probably with a lack of specificity in the context of COVID-19. Using a modifiedAspICU algorithm, eight patients were classified as colonized and seven as putative IA. (4)Conclusion: An appreciation of the fungal burden using PCR and Aspergillus serology was addedto propose a modified AspICU algorithm. This proof of concept seemed relevant, as it was inagreement with the outcome of patients, but will need validation in larger cohorts.

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