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2.
Computers ; 11(7):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979147

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2019 has seen unprecedented demand for medical equipment and supplies. However, the problem of waste treatment has not yet been given due attention, i.e., the traditional waste treatment process is done independently, and it is not easy to share the necessary information. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the interaction between parties is minimized to limit infections. To evaluate the current system at medical centers, we also refer to the traditional waste treatment processes of four hospitals in Can Tho and Ho Chi Minh cities (Vietnam). Almost all hospitals are handled independently, lacking any interaction between the stakeholders. In this article, we propose a decentralized blockchain-based system for automating waste treatment processes for medical equipment and supplies after usage among the relevant parties, named Medical-Waste Chain. It consists of four components: medical equipment and supplies, waste centers, recycling plants, and sorting factories. Medical-Waste Chain integrates blockchain-based Hyperledger Fabric technology with decentralized storage of medical equipment and supply information, and securely shares related data with stakeholders. We present the system design, along with the interactions among the stakeholders, to ensure the minimization of medical waste generation. We evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using system-wide timing and latency analysis based on the Hyperledger Caliper engine. Our system is developed based on the hybrid-blockchain system, so it is fully scalable for both on-chain and off-chain-based extensions. Moreover, the participants do not need to pay any fees to use and upgrade the system. To encourage future use of Medical-Waste Chain, we also share a proof-of-concept on our Github repository.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1008, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune-modulating medications for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been associated with suboptimal vaccine responses. There is conflicting data with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity at 2 weeks post 2nd mRNA vaccine in IBD patients as compared to normal healthy donors (NHD). We measured humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2: anti-spike Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG were measured by ELISA, and neutralizing antibody titers were measured using recombinant, reporter SARS-CoV-2. Antigen specific memory B cells were measured using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Activation induced marker T cell (AIM) assays were performed using SARS-CoV-2 spike megapools. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We enrolled 29 patients with IBD (19 with Crohn's disease, 10 with ulcerative colitis) on infliximab (IFX) monotherapy (N=9), IFX combination therapy with a thiopurine (N=9), vedolizumab monotherapy (N= 11) as compared to matched NHD (N=12). At 2 weeks post vaccination, all subjects made detectable anti-spike IgG and anti-RBD IgG. There were no differences in anti-spike IgG titers among the different groups. IBD patients on IFX monotherapy, but not IBD patients on IFX combination therapy or vedolizumab monotherapy, had lower anti-RBD and neutralization titers as compared to NHD (p-value: 0.041 and 0.023, respectively) (Fig. 1). There were no significant differences in the percentage of spike-specific or RBD-specific memory B cells in IBD patients as compared to NHD (Fig. 1). There were no differences in the percentage of spike-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in all IBD patients as compared to NHDs (Fig. 2). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate overall comparable and perserved cell-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a small cohort of IBD patients treated with a range of different immune-modulating medications as compared to healthy controls. Larger numbers of patients are needed to validate these findings.

4.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):553-554, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928146

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior studies indicated a decrease in the incidences of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the early stages of the COVID- 19 pandemic. We evaluated differences in the incidence, severity of SAH presentation, and ruptured aneurysm treatment modality during the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the preceding year. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 49 countries and 187 centers. We recorded volumes for: COVID-19 hospitalizations, SAH hospitalizations, Hunt-Hess Grade, coiling, clipping, and aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) in-hospital mortality. Diagnoses were identified by ICD-10 codes or stroke databases from January 2019 to May 2021. Results: Over the study period, there were 16,247 aSAH admissions, 344,491 COVID-19 admissions, 8,300 coiling and 4,240 aneurysmal clipping procedures. Declines were observed in aSAH admissions (-6.4% [95%CI -7,-5.8];p=0.0001) during the first year of the pandemic compared to the prior year, most pronounced in high-volume SAH and highvolume COVID-19 hospitals. There was a trend towards a decline in mild and moderate presentation of aSAH (mild: -5%[-5.9,-4.3], p=0.06;moderate: -8.3%[-10.2,-6.7], p=0.06) but no difference in higher SAH severity. The clipping rate remained unchanged (30.7% vs. 31.2%, p=0.58), whereas coiling increased (53.97%vs.56.5%, p=0.009). There was no difference in aSAH in-hospital mortality rate (19.1% vs 20.1%,p=0.12). Conclusion: During the first year of the pandemic, there was a decrease in aSAH admissions volume driven by a decrease in mild to moderate presentation of aSAH. There was an increase in the coiling rate, but no change in clipping rate, nor change in aSAH in-hospital mortality.

7.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 14: 17562864211058298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gaps in current evidence and guidance leave clinicians with unanswered questions on the use of cladribine tablets for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular relating to COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE: We describe a consensus-based program led by international MS experts with the aim of supplementing current guidelines and treatment labels by providing timely recommendations relating to COVID-19 vaccination and the use of cladribine tablets in clinical practice. METHODS: A steering committee (SC) of 10 international MS experts identified 7 clinical questions to answer concerning the use of cladribine tablets and COVID-19 vaccination, which addressed issues relating to patient selection, timing and efficacy, and safety. Clinical recommendations to address each question were drafted using available evidence combined with expert opinion from the SC. An extended faculty of 28 MS experts, representing 19 countries, in addition to the 10 SC members, voted on the recommendations. Consensus on recommendations was achieved when ⩾75% of respondents expressed an agreement score of 7-9, on a 9-point scale. RESULTS: Consensus was achieved on all 13 recommendations. Clinical recommendations are provided on whether all patients with MS receiving cladribine tablets should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and whether they should be prioritized; the timing of vaccination around dosing of cladribine tablets (i.e. before and after a treatment course); and the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for these patients. CONCLUSION: These expert recommendations provide timely guidance on COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving cladribine tablets, which is relevant to everyday clinical practice.

8.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(4):143-152, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798668

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of several factors on students' decisions to attend a public institution in Vietnam's North Central area. The enrollment issue toward regional institutions is particularly critical in the Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training reforming the university enrollment process and the complicated scenario of the Covid-19 pandemic. A total of 500 students were surveyed for research samples. Data is synthesized, validated, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software using methods including reliability, EFA, CFA, and SEM. The findings suggest that the proposed independent components (individual factors, study fees, advertisement, infrastructure and facilities, local features, and lastly, training activities) have a beneficial impact on students' decision to attend a public university in the North Central region. The study also found that the graduation exam outcome had a moderating effect on the relationship between registration and students' decisions. These imply targeted solutions for regional public universities to diversify training majors, improve training quality, capitalize on local advantages, increase interaction, and promote training programs and image to be more effective in attracting students and maintaining competition in the current enrollment environment.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S302-S303, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746592

ABSTRACT

Background. In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from Wuhan, China. A global pandemic quickly unfolded, infecting >137 million people and causing >2.9 million deaths globally as of April 13, 2021. Before April 1, 2020, there were only five confirmed COVID-19 cases in Nepal. Like many countries around the world, the COVID-19 situation quickly escalated in Nepal. The purpose of this study was to determine the trends in COVID-19 cases and deaths in Nepal from April 2020 to March 2021. Methods. We utilized epidemiological data from daily Situation Reports published by the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) of Nepal. Data were extracted or calculated from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021. Primary variables of interest were national and provincial daily cases, total cases, daily deaths, and total deaths. Results. Between April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, there were 277,304 cases. October 2020 had the highest monthly cases with 92,926 cases. During the one-year study period, the infection rate was 915 cases per 100,000 people. The largest single-day new cases was October 21, 2020 with 5,743 cases, which is calculated to 19 cases per 100,000 people. There were a total of 3,030 deaths. The largest daily new deaths was November 4, 2020 with 43 cases. June 10, 2020 had the highest number of people in quarantine with 172,266 people. October 23, 2020 had the highest number of active cases with 46,329 cases. By March 31, 2021, the percent of mortality was 1.1%, active infection was 0.5%, and recovery was 98.4%. Conclusion. Nepal had lower COVID-19 infection and case-fatality rates compared to other countries most affected by the pandemic. This was due to several factors, most notably early implementation of strict lockdown measures and closing of international borders on March 24, 2020 after the second confirmed COVID-19 case. As lockdown restrictions were lifted on July 7, 2020, COVID-19 cases and deaths in Nepal rose rapidly. As vaccination begun on January 27, 2021, cases started to slow down until the most recent outbreak coinciding with the second wave in its neighboring country, India. Now, infection and case-fatality rates in Nepal are at an all-time high, prompting further lockdowns on April 29, 2021.

10.
Asian Journal of Law and Economics ; 12(1):95-119, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1598769

ABSTRACT

Poverty is a global issue and a lot of attention and efforts of the international community have been made to deal with this problem. Especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, when a part of the population could fall into poverty due to rising unemployment and income deduction, identifying the factors affecting poverty becomes particularly important. Financial inclusion has been recognized as one important factor affecting poverty reduction. This research is conducted to investigate the impact of financial inclusion and other control variables on poverty reduction. The study employs Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to build a financial inclusion index. Using 2SLS and the GMM regressions for a panel data of 29 European countries during the period from 2011 to 2017, the results show that financial inclusion has a negative impact on poverty at all three poverty lines of USD1.9, 3.2, and 5.5 per day. The proportion of the population aged 15-64 and the ratio of service employment to the total number of employment also have a negative effect on all three levels of POV1.9, POV3.2, and POV5.5. In contrast, GDP per capita, trade openness and the proportion of the population aged from 25 with at least secondary school education have a positive impact on poverty at three levels of poverty. The results confirm that financial inclusion plays an important role in reducing poverty. The study provides a number of recommendations to governments to promote financial inclusion and reduce poverty in the countries. © 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

11.
8th International Conference on Future Data and Security Engineering, FDSE 2021 ; 1500 CCIS:387-398, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1565345

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has caused negative impacts on the economy, society and lives of people in Vietnam, especially in Ho Chi Minh City. Forecasting daily new Covid-19 infections is essential and important for prevention and social distancing purposes. Recurrent neural networks have been intensively used to process sequential data like voice, text, video and time series recently. In this paper, we present the forecasting models to predict new Covid-19 infected cases in Ho Chi Minh City using different recurrent neural networks (RNN). The experimental results show that the bidirectional long short-term memory network obtains better performance than the other models based on three statistical assessment criteria, the mean absolute error (MAE), symmetric mean absolute percentage error (sMAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE). The forecasting performance is also verified on the different forecasting horizons and multiple test runs. © 2021, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
18th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering, CDVE 2021 ; 12983 LNCS:271-283, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1479463

ABSTRACT

Remote collaboration is becoming increasingly crucial, especially currently when travel is restricted because of the Covid-19 pandemic. People are looking for real-time and no-travel solutions to enable remote collaboration with colleagues and experts. A lot of research has been conducted on how to support remote guidance on physical tasks. However, these studies have mainly focused on development of technical components to support collaboration, while less attention has been paid into exploring and evaluating human factors that could influence remote collaboration. The aim of this paper is to identify human factors including culture, language, trust and social status for their possible effects on remote collaboration by reviewing their effects on computer-supported collaboration. This review adds more critical views of human perspectives into the current research mostly-focused on the technical side of remote guidance. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
1st Van Lang International Conference on Heritage and Technology 2021, VanLang-HeriTech 2021 ; 2406, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470024

ABSTRACT

Building the virtual reality for heritage reservation and helping the visitors and tourists accessibility in Covid 19 period challenges are necessary. Traditionally, the visitors have to participate the onsite tours but today the developments of computer graphics, especially in building virtual really help solving the problems. There are many tools providing the designers the ability to build the AR/VR, this paper presents the tools and workflow to develop the AR/VR application. © 2021 Author(s).

14.
Applied Geography ; 134, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1316377

ABSTRACT

Inequality to food access has always been a serious problem, yet it became even more critical during the COVID-19 pandemic, which exacerbated social inequality and reshaped essential travel. This study provides a holistic view of spatio-temporal changes in food access based on observed travel data for all grocery shopping trips in Columbus, Ohio, during and after the state-wide stay-at-home period. We estimated the decline and recovery patterns of store visits during the pandemic to identify the key socio-economic and built environment determinants of food shopping patterns. The results show a disparity: during the lockdown, store visits to dollar stores declined the least, while visits to big-box stores declined the most and recovered the fastest. Visits to stores in low-income areas experienced smaller changes even during the lockdown period. A higher percentage of low-income customers was associated with lower store visits during the lockdown period. Furthermore, stores with a higher percentage of white customers declined the least and recovered faster during the reopening phase. Our study improves the understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on food access disparities and business performance. It highlights the role of COVID-19 and similar disruptions on exposing underlying social problems in the US. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

15.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21259308

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGaps in current evidence and guidance leave clinicians with unanswered questions on the use of cladribine tablets for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular relating to COVID-19 vaccination. ObjectiveWe describe a consensus-based program led by international MS experts with the aim of supplementing current guidelines and treatment labels by providing timely recommendations relating to COVID-19 vaccination and the use of cladribine tablets in clinical practice. MethodsA steering committee (SC) of 10 international MS experts identified seven clinical questions to answer concerning the use of cladribine tablets and COVID-19 vaccination, which addressed issues relating to patient selection, timing and efficacy, and safety. Clinical recommendations to address each question were drafted using available evidence combined with expert opinion from the SC. An extended faculty of 28 MS experts, representing 19 countries, in addition to the 10 SC members, voted on the recommendations. Consensus on recommendations was achieved when [≥]75% of respondents expressed an agreement score of 7-9, on a 9-point scale. ResultsConsensus was achieved on all 13 recommendations. Clinical recommendations are provided on whether all patients with MS receiving cladribine tablets should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and whether they should be prioritized; the timing of vaccination around dosing of cladribine tablets (i.e., before and after a treatment course); and the safety of COVID-19 vaccination for these patients. ConclusionsThese expert recommendations provide timely guidance on COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving cladribine tablets, which is relevant to everyday clinical practice.

16.
Cmc-Computers Materials & Continua ; 67(2):1595-1612, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1129916

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was first discovered in Wuhan, China, and it has since spread to more than 200 countries. The World Health Organization proclaimed COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. Normally, a quickly spreading infection that could jeopardize the well-being of countless individuals requires prompt action to forestall the malady in a timely manner. COVID-19 is a major threat worldwide due to its ability to rapidly spread. No vaccines are yet available for COVID-19. The objective of this paper is to examine the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, specifically studying Hubei Province, China;Taiwan;South Korea;Japan;and Italy, in terms of exposed, infected, recovered/deceased, original confirmed cases, and predict confirmed cases in specific countries by using the susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model to predict the future outbreak of COVID-19. We applied four differential equations to calculate the number of confirmed cases in each country, plotted them on a graph, and then applied polynomial regression with the logic of multiple linear regression to predict the further spread of the pandemic. We also compared the calculated and predicted cases of confirmed population and plotted them in the graph, where we could see that the lines of calculated and predicted cases do intersect with each other to give the perfect true results for the future spread of the virus. This study considered the cases from 22 January 2020 to 25 April 2020.

17.
13th International Conference on Blended Learning, ICBL 2020 ; 12218 LNCS:3-14, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1016976

ABSTRACT

A multimodal human-computer interaction system is composed of the comprehensive usage of various input and output channels. For the information input, apart from the traditional keyboard typing, mouse clicking, screen touching, the latest speech and face recognition technology can be used. For the output, the traditional screen display, the latest speech and facial expression synthesis and gesture generation can be used. After literature review of related works, this paper at first presents such a system, MMISE (Multimodal Interaction System for Education), about its architecture and working mechanism, POOOIIM (Pedagogical Objective Oriented Output, Input and Implementation Mechanism) illustrated with practical examples. Then this paper introduces this system’s pilot applications in the epidemic time of novel coronavirus in 2020. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-939630

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 hits every country’s health-care system and economy. There is a trend toward using automation technology in response to the COVID-19 crisis not only in developed countries but also in those with lower levels of technology development. However, current studies mainly focus on the world level, and only a few ones report deployments at the country level. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of automation solutions in Vietnam with locally available materials mainly in the first wave from January to July 2020. Design/methodology/approach: The authors collected COVID-related automation solutions during the first wave of COVID-19 in Vietnam from January to July 2020 through a search process. The analysis and insights of a panel consisting of various disciplines (i.e. academia, health care, government, entrepreneur and media) aim at providing a clear picture of how and to what extent these solutions have been deployed. Findings: The authors found seven groups of solutions from low to high research and development (R&D) levels deployed across the country with various funding sources. Low R&D solutions were widely spread owing to simplicity and affordability. High R&D solutions were mainly deployed in big cities. Most of the solutions were deployed during the first phases when international supply chains were limited with a significant contribution of the media. Higher R&D solutions have opportunities to be deployed in the reopening phase. However, challenges can be listed as limited interdisciplinary research teams, market demand, the local supporting industry, end-user validation and social-ethical issues. Originality/value: To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first study analyzing the use of automation technology in response to COVID-19 in Vietnam and also in a country in Southeast Asia. Lessons learned from these current deployments are useful for future emerging infectious diseases. The reality of Vietnam’s automation solutions in response to COVID-19 might be a reference for other developing countries with similar social-economic circumstances and contributes to the global picture of how different countries adopt technology to combat COVID-19. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

19.
Management Science Letters ; 10(15):3683-3692, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-827546

ABSTRACT

Based on the context of Thanh Hoa province, the research proposes the model of policy - related factors from the action of government (at all level) influencing on the survival and the development of SMEs. The research was conducted by collecting data from 512 SMEs in Thanh Hoa province. The results indicate that tax supporting policy and the preferential policies of the bank were crucial factors affecting the development of enterprises during the Covid 19 pandemic, directly. Other factors included insurance policy, capital support packages of Government, the act of public administration and the role of professional association which were considered as important elements affecting the enterprise’s development. Based on the results, the study proposes policy implication in order to support SMEs overcome difficulties during the coronavirus pandemic. © 2020 by the authors;licensee Growing Science, Canada. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

20.
Mult Scler ; 26(10): 1163-1171, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at higher risk for complications from the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic due to use of immunomodulatory disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and greater need for medical services. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and describe the pandemic's impact on healthcare delivery. METHODS: Surveys sent to MS patients at Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins, and Vall d'Hebron-Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya in April and May 2020 collected information about comorbidities, DMTs, exposures, COVID-19 testing/outcomes, health behaviors, and disruptions to MS care. RESULTS: There were 3028/10,816 responders. Suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases were more likely to have a known COVID-19 contact (odds ratio (OR): 4.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 18.54). In multivariable-adjusted models, people who were younger, had to work on site, had a lower education level, and resided in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were less likely to follow social distancing guidelines. 4.4% reported changes to therapy plans, primarily delays in infusions, and 15.5% a disruption to rehabilitative services. CONCLUSION: Younger people with lower socioeconomic status required to work on site may be at higher exposure risk and are potential targets for educational intervention and work restrictions to limit exposure. Providers should be mindful of potential infusion delays and MS care disruption.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Employment , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Occupational Therapy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Class , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Educational Status , Female , Health Behavior , Health Services Accessibility , Home Infusion Therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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