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1.
International Perspectives on Education and Society ; 42A:93-105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922585

ABSTRACT

In response to COVID-19 global outbreaks, Canada, and Australia, two favored destinations by international students, as the contexts of this essay, have enacted different international education policies, which will be investigated through the narratives. The authors discuss transnationality and mobility as key terms in the internationalization of higher education (HE) studies through their experiences as three Vietnamese doctoral students in Canada and Australia. Transnationality is attended through a narrative of a Vietnamese returnee struggling with bringing unfamiliar knowledge of gender and sex education from the West into a Vietnamese HE context. Mobility is unpacked through stories of a Vietnamese doctoral student in Canada stuck in Vietnam due to the COVID-19 despite inviting policies from the Canadian government to international students. This experience is connected to another Vietnamese student’s experience in Australia about a controversial act to discourage international students from staying in Australia if they cannot support themselves during the pandemic. The authors’ stories are created and retold personally for introspective and contemplative reflections on what the authors have experienced and offer considerations for how transnationality and mobility in international and comparative education could be understood through education, equity, and inclusion.

3.
ACS central science ; 8(5):527-545, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871009

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface polysaccharide recently identified as a coreceptor with the ACE2 protein for the S1 spike protein on SARS-CoV-2 virus, providing a tractable new therapeutic target. Clinically used heparins demonstrate an inhibitory activity but have an anticoagulant activity and are supply-limited, necessitating alternative solutions. Here, we show that synthetic HS mimetic pixatimod (PG545), a cancer drug candidate, binds and destabilizes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain and directly inhibits its binding to ACE2, consistent with molecular modeling identification of multiple molecular contacts and overlapping pixatimod and ACE2 binding sites. Assays with multiple clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 virus show that pixatimod potently inhibits the infection of monkey Vero E6 cells and physiologically relevant human bronchial epithelial cells at safe therapeutic concentrations. Pixatimod also retained broad potency against variants of concern (VOC) including B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Furthermore, in a K18-hACE2 mouse model, pixatimod significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral titers in the upper respiratory tract and virus-induced weight loss. This demonstration of potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity tolerant to emerging mutations establishes proof-of-concept for targeting the HS–Spike protein–ACE2 axis with synthetic HS mimetics and provides a strong rationale for clinical investigation of pixatimod as a potential multimodal therapeutic for COVID-19. Heparan sulfate (HS) has emerged as a SARS-CoV-2 coreceptor. Pixatimod (PG545), an HS mimetic, inhibits infectivity of multiple variants offering a novel therapeutic approach against COVID-19.

4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 531: 309-317, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic transmission was found to be the Achilles' heel of the symptom-based screening strategy, necessitating the implementation of mass testing to efficiently contain the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic. However, the global shortage of molecular reagents and the low throughput of available realtime PCR facilities were major limiting factors. METHODS: A novel semi-nested and heptaplex (7-plex) RT-PCR assay with melting analysis for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been established for either individual testing or 96-sample pooled testing. The complex melting spectrum collected from the heptaplex RT-PCR amplicons was interpreted with the support of an artificial intelligence algorithm for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The analytical and clinical performance of the semi-nested RT-PCR assay was evaluated using RNAs synthesized in-vitro and those isolated from nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: The LOD of the assay for individual testing was estimated to be 7.2 copies/reaction. Clinical performance evaluation indicated a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 97.83-100) and a specificity of 99.87% (95% CI: 99.55-99.98). More importantly, the assay supports a breakthrough sample pooling method, which makes possible parallel screening of up to 96 samples in one real-time PCR well without loss of sensitivity. As a result, up to 8,820 individual pre-amplified samples could be screened for SARS-CoV-2 within each 96-well plate of realtime PCR using the pooled testing procedure. CONCLUSION: The novel semi-nested RT-PCR assay provides a solution for highly multiplex (7-plex) detection of SARS-CoV-2 and enables 96-sample pooled detection for increase of testing capacity. .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 801984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776001

ABSTRACT

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine for adolescents was recommended as an effective prevention strategy of HPV-related cancers. In Vietnam, HPV vaccination has not been introduced to male adolescent. This study was conducted to examine the acceptance of having boys vaccinated against HPV and its underlying reasoning, and to identify their parent's willingness to pay (WTP) for HPV vaccination in central Vietnam. 785 parents of boys were directly interviewed based on a structured questionnaire. Parent's acceptability of HPV vaccine for their sons was identified by one question with response on 3-point scale (agree, don't know, and disagree). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine contributing factors to participant's acceptance. Bidding game method was applied to elicit WTP values for HPV vaccination with initial bid of 161.2 USD. The results showed that 49.2% of parents agreed to have their sons vaccinated against HPV. Factors that influenced parent's acceptance including son's age older than 12 years (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.08-1.98); being eldest son (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.13-2.19), being mother (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.01-1.91), parents with high educational level (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.11-2.47) and their knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.23-2.65). Average WTP value for full doses of HPV vaccine was 137.5 USD, ranging between 9 USD and 188.3 USD. Parents' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine was the only factor affecting WTP value (Rho: 0.11; p-value: 0.030). The findings suggest a strategy be introduced for HPV vaccination to male adolescents in Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccination , Adolescent , Alphapapillomavirus , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/economics , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Parents , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , Vietnam
6.
South Med J ; 115(4): 256-261, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately afflicted vulnerable populations. Older adults, particularly residents of nursing facilities, represent a small percentage of the population but account for 40% of mortality from COVID-19 in the United States. Racial and ethnic minority individuals, particularly Black, Hispanic, and Indigenous Americans have experienced higher rates of infection and death than the White population. Although there has been an unprecedented explosion of clinical trials to examine potential therapies, participation by members of these vulnerable communities is crucial to obtaining data generalizable to those communities. METHODS: We undertook an open-label, factorial randomized clinical trial examining hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin for hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Of 53 screened patients, 11 (21%) were enrolled. Ten percent (3/31) of Black patients were enrolled, 33% (7/21) of White patients, and 50% (6/12) of Hispanic patients. Forty-seven percent (25/53) of patients declined participation despite eligibility; 58%(18/31) of Black patients declined participation. Forty percent (21/53) of screened patients were from a nursing facility and 10% (2/21) were enrolled. Enrolled patients had fewer comorbidities than nonenrolled patients: median modified Charlson comorbidity score 2.0 (interquartile range 0-2.5), versus 4.0 (interquartile range 2-6) for nonenrolled patients (P = 0.006). The limitations of the study were the low participation rate and the multiple treatment trials concurrently recruiting at our institution. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of nonparticipation in our trial of nursing facility residents and Black people emphasizes the concern that clinical trials for therapeutics may not target key populations with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Minority Groups , United States
7.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 21(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1771476

ABSTRACT

Hanoi, Vietnam, is usually ranked as one of the most polluted capital cities in terms of air quality, particularly PM2.5. However, there has not been enough data to determine the main source of this pollution. In this study, we utilized the rare opportunity of the COVID-19 social distancing to assess the contribution of traffic emission to PM2.5 and CO levels when traffic volume was reduced significantly in Hanoi. Hourly PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured from nine urban and traffic monitoring stations during pre-, soft, hard, and post-social distancing periods. As a result, we observed large reductions in both PM2.5 and CO levels during social distancing periods. PM2.5 concentrations were 14–18% lower during the social distancing than before this period, while CO concentrations had a more considerable drop by 28–41%. It is known that meteorological conditions can have significant effects on the ambient levels of air pollutants. To overcome this challenge, weather normalized concentrations of those pollutants were estimated using the random forest model, a machine learning technique. The normalized weather concentrations showed smaller reductions by 7–10% for PM2.5 and 5–11% for CO, indicating the presence of favorable weather conditions for better air quality during the social distancing period. In further analysis, the apparent improvement of air quality in Hanoi during the social distancing period was in line with reducing traffic emissions while emissions from coal-fired power plants remained relatively stable.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infodemic has been co-existing with the COVID-19 pandemic with an influx of misinformation and conspiracy theories. These affect people's psychological health and adherence to preventive measures. eHealth literacy (eHEALS) may help with alleviating the negative effects of the infodemic. As nursing students are future healthcare professionals, having adequate eHEALS skills is critically important in their clinical practice, safety, and health. This study aimed to (1) explore the eHEALS level and its associated factors, and (2) examine the associations of eHEALS with preventive behaviors, fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S), anxiety, and depression among nursing students. METHODS: We surveyed 1851 nursing students from 7 April to 31 May 2020 from eight universities across Vietnam. Data were collected, including demographic characteristics, eHEALS, adherence to preventive behaviors (handwashing, mask-wearing, physical distancing), FCV-19S, anxiety, and depression. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed appropriately to examine associations. RESULTS: The mean score of eHEALS was 31.4 ± 4.4. The eHEALS score was significantly higher in males (unstandardized regression coefficient, B, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.73; p = 0.019), and students with a better ability to pay for medication (B, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.19; p < 0.001), as compared to their counterparts. Nursing students with a higher eHEALS score had a higher likelihood of adhering to hand-washing (odds ratio, OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.22; p < 0.001), mask-wearing (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.19; p < 0.001), keeping a safe physical distance (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; p < 0.001), and had a lower anxiety likelihood (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students who were men and with better ability to pay for medication had higher eHEALS scores. Those with higher eHEALS scores had better adherence to preventive measures, and better psychological health. The development of strategies to improve eHEALS of nursing students may contribute to COVID-19 containment and improve their psychological health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Health Literacy , Students, Nursing , Telemedicine , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND How well mouse models recapitulate the transcriptional profiles seen in humans remains debatable, with both conservation and diversity identified in various settings. The K18-hACE2 mouse model has been widely used for evaluation of new interventions for COVID-19. METHOD Herein we use RNA-Seq data and bioinformatics approaches to compare the transcriptional responses in the SARS-CoV-2 infected lungs of K18-hACE2 mice with those seen in humans. RESULTS Overlap in differentially expressed genes was generally poor (≈20-30%), even when multiple studies were combined. The overlap was not substantially improved when a second mouse model was examined wherein hACE was expressed from the mouse ACE2 promoter. In contrast, analyses of immune signatures and inflammatory pathways illustrated highly significant concordances between the species. CONCLUSION As immunity and immunopathology are the focus of most studies, these hACE2 transgenic mouse models can thus be viewed as representative and relevant models of COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317064

ABSTRACT

Cardiac injury and dysfunction occur in COVID-19 patients and increase the risk of mortality. Causes are ill defined, but could be direct cardiac infection and/or ‘cytokine-storm’ induced dysfunction. To identify mechanisms and discover cardio-protective drugs, we use a state-of-the-art pipeline combining human cardiac organoids with high throughput phosphoproteomics and single nuclei RNA sequencing. We identify that ‘cytokine-storm’ induced diastolic dysfunction can be caused by a cocktail of interferon gamma, interleukin 1β and poly(I:C) and also human COVID-19 serum. Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is activated along with pathology driving fibrotic and induced nitric oxide synthase genes. BRD inhibitors fully recover function in hCO and totally prevent death in a cytokine-storm mouse model. BRD inhibition decreases transcription of multiple genes, including fibrotic, induced nitric oxide synthase and ACE2, and prevention of cardiac infection with SARS-CoV2. Thus, BRD inhibitors are promising candidates to prevent COVID-19 mediated cardiac damage.Funding: We acknowledge grant and fellowship support from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (J.E.H., M.J.S., C.R.E., T.B.), Heart Foundation of Australia (J.E.H.), QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (J.E.H.), The Stafford Fox Foundation (E.R.P.), the Royal Children’s Hospital Foundation (E.R.P.), Australian Research Council Strategic Initiative in Stem Cell Science (Stem Cells Australia) (E.R.P. and J.E.H.) and the Medical Research Future Fund (MRFF9200008) (J.E.H., T.B., M.J.S., K.P.A.MD., C.R.E., E.R.P.). M.J.S. is supported by Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Program (APP1132519) and Investigator (APP1173958) grants. A.S. is also supported by Investigator grant (APP1173880). The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute is supported by the Victorian Government’s Operational Infrastructure Support Program. This project received support from Dynomics Inc. J.E.H. is supported by a Snow Medical Fellowship. Conflict of Interest: R.J.M., J.E.H., G.A.Q.-R., D.M.T. and E.R.P. are listed as co-inventors on pending patents held by The University of Queensland and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute that relate to cardiac organoid maturation and putative cardiac regeneration therapeutics. J.E.H. is a coinventor on licensed patents held by the University of Goettingen. R.J.M, E.R.P., D.M.T., B.G. and J.E.H. are co-founders, scientific advisors and stockholders in Dynomics Inc. D.M.T. and B.G. are employees of Dynomics Inc. /Dynomics Pty Ltd. QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute has filed a patent on the use of BRD inhibitors. Ethical Approval: Animal work was approved by the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Animal Ethics Committee. Ethical approval for the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) was obtained from QIMR Berghofer’s Ethics Committee and was carried out in accordance with the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) regulations. Procedures complied with standards set under Australian guidelines for animal welfare and experiments were subject to Monash University animal welfare ethics review (Approval #MARP/2019/13606).

11.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667047

ABSTRACT

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a (bio)chemical snapshot of the sample, and was recently used in proof-of-concept cohort studies for COVID-19 saliva screening. However, the biological basis of the proposed technology has not been established. To investigate underlying pathophysiology, we conducted controlled infection experiments on Vero E6 cells in vitro and K18-hACE2 mice in vivo. Potentially infectious culture supernatant or mouse oral lavage samples were treated with ethanol or 75% (v/v) Trizol for attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy and proteomics, or RT-PCR, respectively. Controlled infection with UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 elicited strong biochemical changes in culture supernatant/oral lavage despite a lack of viral replication, determined by RT-PCR or a cell culture infectious dose 50% assay. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced additional FTIR signals over UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 infection in both cell and mouse models, which correspond to aggregated proteins and RNA. Proteomics of mouse oral lavage revealed increased secretion of kallikreins and immune modulatory proteins. Next, we collected saliva from a cohort of human participants (n = 104) and developed a predictive model for COVID-19 using partial least squares discriminant analysis. While high sensitivity of 93.48% was achieved through leave-one-out cross-validation, COVID-19 patients testing negative on follow-up on the day of saliva sampling using RT-PCR was poorly predicted in this model. Importantly, COVID-19 vaccination did not lead to the misclassification of COVID-19 negatives. Finally, meta-analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 induced increases in the amide II band in all arms of this study and in recently published cohort studies, indicative of altered ß-sheet structures in secreted proteins. In conclusion, this study reveals a consistent secretory pathophysiological response to SARS-CoV-2, as well as a simple, robust method for COVID-19 saliva screening using ATR-FTIR.

12.
Front Nutr ; 8: 774328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555869

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19-induced lockdown has been implemented in many countries, which may cause unfavorable changes in lifestyles and psychological health. People's health literacy, healthy diet, and lifestyles play important roles in mitigating the negative impacts of the pandemic. Therefore, we aimed to examine associations of COVID-19 lockdown with changes in eating behavior, physical activity, and mental health; and the modification effects by digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and eHealth literacy (eHEALS) on the associations. Methods: We conducted an observational study on 4,348 outpatients from 7th April to 31st May 2020. Data from 11 hospitals in Vietnam included demographic characteristics, DDL, eHEALS, eating behavior, physical activity, and mental health changes. Multiple logistic regression and interaction models were performed to examine associations. Results: Patients under lockdown had a lower likelihood of having "unchanged or healthier" eating behavior (odds ratio, OR, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 0.29 to 0.51; p < 0.001), "unchanged or more" physical activity (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90; p < 0.001), and "stable or better" mental health (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.89; p < 0.001), as compared to those after lockdown. In interaction models, as compared to patients after lockdown and with the lowest DDL score, those under lockdown and with a one-score increment of DDL had a higher likelihood of having "unchanged or healthier" eating behavior (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07; p < 0.001), and "stable or better" mental health (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04; p < 0.001). Similarly, as compared to patients after lockdown and with the lowest eHEALS score, those under lockdown and with a one-score increment of eHEALS had a higher likelihood of having an "unchanged or more" physical activity (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 lockdown measure could negatively affect eating behavior, physical activity, and mental health among outpatients. Better DDL and eHEALS were found to mitigate the negative impacts of the lockdown, which may empower outpatients to maintain healthy lifestyles and protect mental health. However, this study holds several limitations that may undermine the certainty of reported findings.

13.
mBio ; 12(5): e0181321, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462901

ABSTRACT

Vaccines pave the way out of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Besides mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines, effective protein-based vaccines are needed for immunization against current and emerging variants. We have developed a virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system, a robust production platform known for its scalability, low cost, and safety. Baculoviruses were constructed encoding SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins: full-length S, stabilized secreted S, or the S1 domain. Since subunit S only partially protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, we produced S1 for conjugation to bacteriophage AP205 VLP nanoparticles using tag/catcher technology. The S1 yield in an insect-cell bioreactor was ∼11 mg/liter, and authentic protein folding, efficient glycosylation, partial trimerization, and ACE2 receptor binding was confirmed. Prime-boost immunization of mice with 0.5 µg S1-VLPs showed potent neutralizing antibody responses against Wuhan and UK/B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variants. This two-component nanoparticle vaccine can now be further developed to help alleviate the burden of COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Vaccination is essential to reduce disease severity and limit the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Protein-based vaccines are useful to vaccinate the world population and to boost immunity against emerging variants. Their safety profiles, production costs, and vaccine storage temperatures are advantageous compared to mRNA and adenovirus vector vaccines. Here, we use the versatile and scalable baculovirus expression vector system to generate a two-component nanoparticle vaccine to induce potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These nanoparticle vaccines can be quickly adapted as boosters by simply updating the antigen component.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Nanoparticles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Glycosylation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sf9 Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
15.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(10): 114, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338274

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has significantly derailed cancer care. Patients with leukemia are more likely to have severe infection and increased rates of mortality. There is paucity of information on how to modify care of leukemia patients in view of the COVID-19 risks and imposed restrictions. We review the available literature on the impact of COVID-19 on different types of leukemia patients and suggest general as well as disease-specific recommendations on care based on available evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 infection impacts leukemia subtypes in variable ways and the standard treatments for leukemia have similarly, varying effects on the course of COVID-19 infection. Useful treatment strategies include deferring treatment when possible, use of less intensive regimens, outpatient targeted oral agents requiring minimal monitoring, and prioritization of curative or life-prolonging strategies. Reducing health care encounters, rational transfusion standards, just resource allocation, and pre-emptive advance care planning will serve the interests of leukemia patients. Ad hoc modifications based on expert opinions and extrapolations of previous well-designed studies are the way forward to navigate the crisis. This should be supplanted with more rigorous prospective evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Leukemia/classification , Leukemia/diagnosis , Leukemia/epidemiology , Patient Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the impacts of digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and healthy eating behaviors (HES) on fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among front-line healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: An online survey was conducted at 15 hospitals and health centers from 6-19 April 2020. Data of 2299 front-line HCWs were analyzed-including socio-demographics, symptoms like COVID-19, health literacy, eHealth literacy, DDL, HES, fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and HRQoL. Regression models were used to examine the associations. RESULTS: HCWs with higher scores of DDL and HES had lower scores of FCoV-19S (regression coefficient, B, -0.04; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, -0.07, -0.02; p = 0.001; and B, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.15, -0.06; p < 0.001); had a higher likelihood of stable or better mental health status (odds ratio, OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.05; p = 0.029; and OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.07; p = 0.043); and HRQoL (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.03; p = 0.006; and OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.06; p = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DDL and HES were found as independent predictors of fear of COVID-19, changes in mental health status, and HRQoL in front-line HCWs. Improving DDL and HES should be considered as a strategic approach for hospitals and healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Health Literacy/methods , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/methods , Digital Technology/methods , Fear , Female , Health Status , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009723, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295527

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 uses the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor for cell attachment and entry, with mouse ACE2 (mACE2) unable to support infection. Herein we describe an ACE2-lentivirus system and illustrate its utility for in vitro and in vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection models. Transduction of non-permissive cell lines with hACE2 imparted replication competence, and transduction with mACE2 containing N30D, N31K, F83Y and H353K substitutions, to match hACE2, rescued SARS-CoV-2 replication. Intrapulmonary hACE2-lentivirus transduction of C57BL/6J mice permitted significant virus replication in lung epithelium. RNA-Seq and histological analyses illustrated that this model involved an acute inflammatory disease followed by resolution and tissue repair, with a transcriptomic profile similar to that seen in COVID-19 patients. hACE2-lentivirus transduction of IFNAR-/- and IL-28RA-/- mouse lungs was used to illustrate that loss of type I or III interferon responses have no significant effect on virus replication. However, their importance in driving inflammatory responses was illustrated by RNA-Seq analyses. We also demonstrate the utility of the hACE2-lentivirus transduction system for vaccine evaluation in C57BL/6J mice. The ACE2-lentivirus system thus has broad application in SARS-CoV-2 research, providing a tool for both mutagenesis studies and mouse model development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Profiling , Lentivirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Transduction, Genetic , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
18.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 634904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282431

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We explored the association of underlying health conditions (UHC) with depression and anxiety, and examined the modification effects of suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), health-related behaviors (HB), and preventive behaviors (PB). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8,291 outpatients aged 18-85 years, in 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14th February to May 31, 2020. We collected the data regarding participant's characteristics, UHC, HB, PB, depression, and anxiety. Results: People with UHC had higher odds of depression (OR = 2.11; p < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.86; p < 0.001) than those without UHC. The odds of depression and anxiety were significantly higher for those with UHC and S-COVID-19-S (p < 0.001); and were significantly lower for those had UHC and interacted with "unchanged/more" physical activity (p < 0.001), or "unchanged/more" drinking (p < 0.001 for only anxiety), or "unchanged/healthier" eating (p < 0.001), and high PB score (p < 0.001), as compared to those without UHC and without S-COVID-19-S, "never/stopped/less" physical activity, drinking, "less healthy" eating, and low PB score, respectively. Conclusion: S-COVID-19-S worsen psychological health in patients with UHC. Physical activity, drinking, healthier eating, and high PB score were protective factors.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Depression , Outpatients , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Virol J ; 18(1): 123, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro screening that includes standard cytotoxicity controls. Under-appreciated is that viable, but stressed or otherwise compromised cells, can also have a reduced capacity to replicate virus. A refinement proposed herein for in vitro drug screening thus includes a simple growth assay to identify drug concentrations that cause cellular stress or "cytomorbidity", as distinct from cytotoxicity or loss of viability. METHODS: A simple rapid bioassay is presented for antiviral drug screening using Vero E6 cells and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 induced cytopathic effects (CPE) measured using crystal violet staining. We use high cell density for cytotoxicity assays, and low cell density for cytomorbidity assays. RESULTS: The assay clearly illustrated the anti-viral activity of remdesivir, a drug known to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, nitazoxanide, oleuropein, cyclosporine A and ribavirin all showed no ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 CPE. Hydroxychloroquine, cyclohexamide, didemnin B, γ-mangostin and linoleic acid were all able to inhibit viral CPE at concentrations that did not induce cytotoxicity. However, these drugs inhibited CPE at concentrations that induced cytomorbidity, indicating non-specific anti-viral activity. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the methodology for a simple in vitro drug screening assay that identifies potential anti-viral drugs via their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced CPE. The additional growth assay illustrated how several drugs display anti-viral activity at concentrations that induce cytomorbidity. For instance, hydroxychloroquine showed anti-viral activity at concentrations that slow cell growth, arguing that its purported in vitro anti-viral activity arises from non-specific impairment of cellular activities. The cytomorbidity assay can therefore rapidly exclude potential false positives.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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