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1.
Risk management and healthcare policy ; 15:415-426, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743742

ABSTRACT

Purpose New COVID-19 variants pose great challenges in protecting the success of vaccination programs. Awareness of community becomes an important component to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze people’s awareness of COVID-19 and identify the implications for optimal risk communication in Vietnam. Study Methods and Materials A total of 341 individuals participated in an online cross-sectional study. Community awareness on COVID-19 was examined by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to examine associated factors with community awareness. Results Our results indicated high levels of awareness of local COVID-19 situation, transmission risks, and preventive behavioral practices during the first week of social isolation. Higher awareness of local pandemic situation was associated with female respondents (Coef.: 6.19;95% CI: 0.51;11.87) and larger family sizes of above 5 people (Coef.: 9.00;−1.00;19.00). Respondents between 35–44 years old were shown to be less aware of preventive behavioral practices than other age groups, including the group of participants above 44 years old (Coef.: −0.34;95% CI: −0.67;−0.02). Lastly, participants who were “fairly satisfied” with information resources had awareness levels of preventive behavioral practices lower than that of “unsatisfied” respondents (Coef.: −0.45;95% CI: 0.74;−0.16). Conclusion This study offers crucial insights into the pandemic awareness of citizens and risk communication effectiveness during COVID-19 in Vietnam. The study findings shall serve the development of policies and interventions aimed at empowering individuals in the local and global fight against coronavirus.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326253

ABSTRACT

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently emerged as a robust framework for graph-structured data. They have been applied to many problems such as knowledge graph analysis, social networks recommendation, and even Covid19 detection and vaccine developments. However, unlike other deep neural networks such as Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNNs), few analyses such as verification and property inferences exist, potentially due to dynamic behaviors of GNNs, which can take arbitrary graphs as input, whereas FFNNs which only take fixed size numerical vectors as inputs. This paper proposes an approach to analyze GNNs by converting them into FFNNs and reusing existing FFNNs analyses. We discuss various designs to ensure the scalability and accuracy of the conversions. We illustrate our method on a study case of node classification. We believe that our approach opens new research directions for understanding and analyzing GNNs.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323534

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Association (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. Little is known about the relationship between the impact of COVID-19 and one’s mental health status, and thus research needs to be conducted to identify the factors involved and develop tailored evidence-based strategies in response to reduce the adverse psychological impact. Methods: From February to June 2020, we conducted an online Global Mental Health survey which recruited participants via a respondent-driven sampling country in 8 countries (China, Pakistan, Philippines, Iran, Poland, Spain, USA and Vietnam). The online survey collected information on demographic characteristics, physical symptoms and health service utilisation, contact history, knowledge and concerns regarding COVID-19, precautionary measures taken and additional health information variables among the countries involved. The psychological impact was measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and the mental health status was measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: There were 5555 participants involved in the study, 31.4% male and 68.6% female, with an age range of 12-to above 50 years of age. There were significant differences in the mean IES-R and DASS-21 scores between the 8 countries (F(7, 55477) = 71.605, η2=0.085, p<0.001). China had the highest IES-R score (mean=32.98, SD=15.42). Poland and Pakistan were found to be the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress;conversely, Vietnam had the lowest scores in stress (mean = 3.80, SD = 5.81), anxiety (mean = 2.10, SD = 4.91) and depression (mean = 2.28, SD = 5.43). Female gender, age older than 50 years, crowded home environment, unemployment and student status were significant associated with adverse mental health (p<0.05). However, higher education background, greater level of satisfaction with health information, staying with family members, spending less than 2 hours a day monitoring health information, taking suitable precautionary measures, use of face masks and less time spent at home were found to be protective factors for mental health (p<0.05). Interpretation: During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health of the global population was significantly affected as shown empirically by the results of our study, and each country faced their own set of unique challenges in their response to COVID-19. Our findings have identified protective and risk factors associated with mental health that can help us to develop targeted psychological interventions for those who are more vulnerable during this pandemic.Funding Statement: This study has the following funding sources: Huaibei Normal University, China, Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland under the 2019-2022 program, Regional Initiative of Excellence", project number 012 / RID / 2018/19, National University of Singapore iHeathtech Other Operating Expenses (R-722-000-004-731) and Vingroup Innovation Foundation (VINIF) COVID research grant (VINIF.2020.Covid19.DA07) in Vietnam.Declaration of Interests: None declared.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards from each country, China (Huaibei Normal University of China, HBU-IRB2020-001/002), Philippines (University of Philippines Manila Research Ethics Board, UPMREB 2020-198-01), Poland (SWPS University, WKEB62/04/2020), Spain (Complutense University of Madrid of Spain, Pr_2019_20_027), Vietnam (Hanoi Medical University, QD 75/QD-YHDP&YHDP) and the US (East Carolina University, UMCIRB 20-000838). Approval was also obtained from the relevant Iranian and Pakistani committees. All respondents provided informed consent. The collected data were anonymous and treated as confidential.

5.
34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2021 ; : 894-909, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1499134

ABSTRACT

Model-driven policymaking for epidemic control is a challenging collaborative process. It begins when a team of public-health officials, epidemiologists, and economists construct a reasonably predictive disease model representative of the team's region of interest as a function of its unique socio-economic and demographic characteristics. As the team considers possible interventions such as school closures, social distancing, vaccination drives, etc., they need to simultaneously model each intervention's effect on disease spread and economic cost. The team then engages in an extensive what-if analysis process to determine a cost-effective policy: a schedule of when, where and how extensively each intervention should be applied. This policymaking process is often an iterative and laborious programming-intensive effort where parameters are introduced and refined, model and intervention behaviors are modified, and schedules changed. We have designed and developed EpiPolicy to support this effort. EpiPolicy is a policy aid and epidemic simulation tool that supports the mathematical specification and simulation of disease and population models, the programmatic specification of interventions and the declarative construction of schedules. EpiPolicy's design supports a separation of concerns in the modeling process and enables capabilities such as the iterative and automatic exploration of intervention plans with Monte Carlo simulations to find a cost-effective one. We report expert feedback on EpiPolicy. In general, experts found EpiPolicy's capabilities powerful and transformative, when compared with their current practice. © 2021 ACM.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 658107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518562

ABSTRACT

Background: In middle-income countries such as Vietnam, where healthcare resources are already constrained, protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential for ensuring the sustainability of COVID-19 response in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding the prevention of the COVID-19 among the HCWs in Vietnam to identify the ways of disseminating information to maximize the safety of these essential workers. Methods: An online cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Vietnam with 742 participants within 2 weeks. The validity of the questionnaire was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the level of knowledge and practices among the HCWs to prevent the COVID-19. Inferential statistics and regression modeling were used to identify the associated factors with results. Results: Vietnamese HCWs had a high level of knowledge with more than 75% of the participants demonstrating awareness of all the modes of transmission aside from air. The mean knowledge score was 3.7 ± 0.8 (range 1-5). Nearly all the participants relied on the Ministry of Health (98.3%) and the internet (95.5%) for information regarding the COVID-19. The participants endorsed a moderately high level of self-protective practices with mean scores of 4.2 and 3.6 (band score 1-5) for the precautionary and psychological measures, respectively. Nurses were more likely to practice the precautionary measures than doctors and the HCWs at the central level were more likely to practice the psychological measures than those at the district level. Conclusion: Future education initiatives should consolidate the latest literature in an accessible format, focusing initially on the gaps of knowledge regarding aerosol transmission. These initiatives should primarily focus on the doctors, especially those in emergency and intensive care departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam
7.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 69(50):1895-1901, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1502896

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 public health emergency, health centers have provided and continue to provide testing and follow-up care to medically underserved populations;these centers are capable of reaching areas disproportionately affected by the pandemic. HRSA administers a weekly, voluntary Health Center COVID-19 Survey section section to track health center COVID-19 testing capacity and the impact of COVID-19 on operations, patients, and personnel. Potential respondents can include up to 1,382 HRSA-funded health centers. To assess health centers' capacity to reach racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk for COVID-19 and to provide access to testing, CDC and HRSA analyzed survey data for the weeks June 2-5 October 2020 to describe all patients tested (3,194,838) and those who received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (308,780) by race/ethnicity and state of residence. Among persons with known race/ethnicity who received testing (2,506,935), 36% were Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic), 38% were non-Hispanic White (White), and 20% were non-Hispanic Black (Black);among those with known race/ethnicity with positive test results, 56% were Hispanic, 24% were White, and 15% were Black. Improving health centers' ability to reach groups at increased risk for COVID-19 might reduce transmission by identifying cases and supporting contact tracing and isolation. Efforts to improve coordination of COVID-19 response-related activities between state and local public health departments and HRSA-funded health centers can increase access to testing and follow-up care for populations at increased risk for COVID-19.

8.
Epidemics ; 37: 100517, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482585

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of 3rd June 2021, Malaysia is experiencing a resurgence of COVID-19 cases. In response, the federal government has implemented various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) under a series of Movement Control Orders and, more recently, a vaccination campaign to regain epidemic control. In this study, we assessed the potential for the vaccination campaign to control the epidemic in Malaysia and four high-burden regions of interest, under various public health response scenarios. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered compartmental model was developed that included two sequential incubation and infectious periods, with stratification by clinical state. The model was further stratified by age and incorporated population mobility to capture NPIs and micro-distancing (behaviour changes not captured through population mobility). Emerging variants of concern (VoC) were included as an additional strain competing with the existing wild-type strain. Several scenarios that included different vaccination strategies (i.e. vaccines that reduce disease severity and/or prevent infection, vaccination coverage) and mobility restrictions were implemented. RESULTS: The national model and the regional models all fit well to notification data but underestimated ICU occupancy and deaths in recent weeks, which may be attributable to increased severity of VoC or saturation of case detection. However, the true case detection proportion showed wide credible intervals, highlighting incomplete understanding of the true epidemic size. The scenario projections suggested that under current vaccination rates complete relaxation of all NPIs would trigger a major epidemic. The results emphasise the importance of micro-distancing, maintaining mobility restrictions during vaccination roll-out and accelerating the pace of vaccination for future control. Malaysia is particularly susceptible to a major COVID-19 resurgence resulting from its limited population immunity due to the country's historical success in maintaining control throughout much of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 563193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399165

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers are frontline responders facing a disproportionate increase in occupational responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Added work-related stress among healthcare personnel may lead to personal and work-related repercussions, such as burnout or decreased quality of care for patients; however, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the daily work and life of these workers. This study aimed to evaluate the personal and occupational impacts of the COVID-19 induced partial lockdown in Vietnam among hospital staff. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was carried out to collect demographic data and the personal and job impacts of respondents during the second week of national lockdown in April 2020. Snowball sampling technique was applied to recruit 742 hospital staff. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the validity of the instrument. Results: Of the 742 respondents, 21.2% agreed that "working attitude well-maintained," followed by 16.1% of respondents who reported that there were "enough employees at work." Only 3.2% of respondents agreed that "their work was appreciated by society." Furthermore, healthcare workers in the central region were less likely to have experienced "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19" than other areas (Coef. = - 0.25, CI: -0.42 to -0.07). Being women also had a negative association with scores in "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID 19" domain (Coef. = -0.27, CI: -0.43 to -0.12) while having a positive association with "negative attitude towards working conditions" domain (Coef. = 0.19, CI: 0.09 to 0.3). In addition, working in administrative offices (Coef. = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.36) and infectious departments (Coef. = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.63) had a positive association with "Increased work pressure due to COVID 19" domain. Conclusion: These findings revealed marginal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of hospital staff in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of implementing preventive strategies during the nationwide partial lockdown to manage hospital admissions and the burden on healthcare workers. Finally, this study characterizes targeted demographics that may benefit from appreciation by employers and society during a national pandemic.

10.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 70(7):240-244, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395407

ABSTRACT

This study described the utilisation of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic in June to November 2020. In April 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) began administering a weekly survey to study the effects of COVID-19 on the testing capacity and operations of health centers. The survey was voluntary and available to 1,382 HRSA-funded centers. Urbanisation and region have been associated with higher rates of telehealth use. Health centers that responded to the COVID-19 surveys were more likely to report multiple visits than those that did not respond. The average percentage of weekly visits for all regions and urbanicity was calculated. The weekly changes were computed based on the number of visits during the first 10 weeks and the second 10 weeks. Week-to-week differences were calculated as the average number of telehealth visits during the first and second weeks of the study. The average percentage of weekly visits that were telehealth-related decreased 25% among the responding health centers during the study period. During the first 10 weeks of the study, the largest absolute change in the number of weekly telehealth visits was reported by health centers in the Northeast. Health centers in the Northeast maintained stable weekly telehealth visits during the second half of the study. Compared with the first 10 weeks, the second half of the study showed a significant change in the percentage of telehealth visits. The average percentage of weekly visits to a telehealth facility differed significantly among various regions. For instance, the South had the lowest percentage of visits. Urban health centers reported significantly higher average percentage of weekly visits for telehealth than rural health centers. The number of cases of COVID-19 in the Northeast also increased during the second quarter. The number of cases of COVID-19 increased in counties where urban health centers are located during the first 10 weeks of the study.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 663-666, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389113

ABSTRACT

Antibody response against nucleocapsid and spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 11 persons with mild or asymptomatic infection rapidly increased after infection. At weeks 18-30 after diagnosis, all remained seropositive but spike protein-targeting antibody titers declined. These data may be useful for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vietnam , Young Adult
12.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 47-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether environmental surface contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred at a provincial hospital in Viet Nam that admitted patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and at the regional reference laboratory responsible for confirmatory testing for SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected from patient and staff areas at the hospital and various operational and staff areas at the laboratory. Specimens from frequently touched surfaces in all rooms were collected using a moistened swab rubbed over a 25 cm2 area for each surface. The swabs were immediately transported to the laboratory for testing by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Throat specimens were collected from staff at both locations and were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: During the sampling period, the laboratory tested 6607 respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 from patients within the region, and the hospital admitted 9 COVID-19 cases. Regular cleaning was conducted at both sites in accordance with infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. All 750 environmental samples (300 laboratory and 450 hospital) and 30 staff specimens were negative for SARS-CoV-2. DISCUSSION: IPC measures at the facilities may have contributed to the negative results from the environmental samples. Other possible explanations include sampling late in a patient's hospital stay when virus load was lower, having insufficient contact time with a surface or using insufficiently moist collection swabs. Further environmental sampling studies of SARS-CoV-2 should consider including testing for the environmental presence of viruses within laboratory settings, targeting the collection of samples to early in the course of a patient's illness and including sampling of confirmed positive control surfaces, while maintaining appropriate biosafety measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Laboratories , Vietnam/epidemiology
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 562337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346421

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 is greater among healthcare workers (HCWs) than the general population. This study aims to identify psychosocial problems faced by HCWs in Vietnam during the national partial lockdown between 1 and 22 April 2020 and to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial issues among this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the second week of April 2020 during the national lockdown in Vietnam. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants through web-based surveys. The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of COVID-19 on HCWs through online surveys. Results: Of the 349 HCWs, we found 22.6% reported psychosocial problems. Most of participants reported having exposure to COVID-19 daily (48.7%). The majority of them also felt that their job put them at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections (90.3%) and expressed fear of potential infection (85.7%). Despite COVID-19 risks, 95.4% of participants, however, expressed their willingness to continue working at their current health facility. In addition, 94.8% of participants believed if they or their family members had been infected, their agency leaders would have provided them with appropriate medical care. Lastly, HCWs who worked in the internal medicine department who did not take care of COVID-19 patients or expressed fear of becoming infected were more likely to have higher total IES-R scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the support of healthcare leaders and assurance of care might be helpful in mitigating the psychological effects of COVID-19 among HCWs in Vietnam. These resources should be tailored to HCWs who are working in different areas of health services, including staff who are not working directly with COVID-19 patients. In addition, psychosocial health resources should be provided for not only physicians but also nursing staff.

14.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 39: 32-39, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322314

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modelling has played a pivotal role in understanding the epidemiology of and guiding public health responses to the ongoing coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we review the role of epidemiological models in understanding evolving epidemic characteristics, including the effects of vaccination and Variants of Concern (VoC). We highlight ways in which models continue to provide important insights, including (1) calculating the herd immunity threshold and evaluating its limitations; (2) verifying that nascent vaccines can prevent severe disease, infection, and transmission but may be less efficacious against VoC; (3) determining optimal vaccine allocation strategies under efficacy and supply constraints; and (4) determining that VoC are more transmissible and lethal than previously circulating strains, and that immune escape may jeopardize vaccine-induced herd immunity. Finally, we explore how models can help us anticipate and prepare for future stages of COVID-19 epidemiology (and that of other diseases) through forecasts and scenario projections, given current uncertainties and data limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S92-S97, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-associated complications including those leading to hospitalization. Resources otherwise used for influenza could support caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Health Center Program serves 30 million people annually by providing comprehensive primary healthcare, including influenza vaccination, to demographically diverse and historically underserved communities. Because racial and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, the objective of this analysis was to assess disparities in influenza vaccination at HRSA-funded health centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and HRSA analyzed cross-sectional data on influenza vaccinations from a weekly, voluntary health center COVID-19 survey after addition of an influenza-related question covering 7-11 November 2020. RESULTS: During the 3-week period, 1126 of 1385 health centers (81%) responded to the survey. Most of the 811 738 influenza vaccinations took place in urban areas and in the Western US region. There were disproportionately more health center influenza vaccinations among racial and ethnic minorities in comparison with county demographics, except among non-Hispanic blacks and American Indian/Alaska Natives. CONCLUSIONS: HRSA-funded health centers were able to quickly vaccinate large numbers of mostly racial or ethnic minority populations, disproportionately more than county demographics. However, additional efforts might be needed to reach specific racial populations and persons in rural areas. Success in influenza vaccination efforts can support success in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Minority Groups , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 589317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266687

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital staff are at the frontline for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Understanding their perception of exposure risk is, therefore, important during the early phase of this pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the perception regarding risk of exposure to COVID-19 among Vietnamese hospital staff in Vietnam. Method: A cross-sectional online study was carried out to collect demographic data and risk exposure perception during the second week of the national lockdown in April 2020 in Vietnam. Seven hundred and forty two hospital staff were recruited using the snowball sampling to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding their risk exposure perception. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Pearson coefficient analysis and multivariable regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the perceived COVID-19 exposure risk. Results: Participants perceived a high risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (score = 3.4, SD = 0.8). They also perceived the workplace response to COVID-19 as inadequate (score = 2.0, SD = 0.5). In particular, participants who worked in the emergency or intensive care departments were more likely to perceive an exposure risk, compared to those in infectious disease control departments (Coef. = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.74; -0.02). Participants from central regions perceived a lower risk of exposure to COVID-19 than those from northern regions (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.28-0.96). Nurses were less likely than doctors to report being at risk of exposure to COVID-19 (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.95). Conclusions: We identified a high level of perceived risk regarding COVID-19 exposure among hospital staff during the unprecedented lockdown period in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach, incorporating improved risk communications, safety training and psychological support programs, for all hospital staff, including nurses and those residing in high population density areas, might further strengthen the national effort to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S92-S97, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-associated complications including those leading to hospitalization. Resources otherwise used for influenza could support caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Health Center Program serves 30 million people annually by providing comprehensive primary healthcare, including influenza vaccination, to demographically diverse and historically underserved communities. Because racial and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, the objective of this analysis was to assess disparities in influenza vaccination at HRSA-funded health centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and HRSA analyzed cross-sectional data on influenza vaccinations from a weekly, voluntary health center COVID-19 survey after addition of an influenza-related question covering 7-11 November 2020. RESULTS: During the 3-week period, 1126 of 1385 health centers (81%) responded to the survey. Most of the 811 738 influenza vaccinations took place in urban areas and in the Western US region. There were disproportionately more health center influenza vaccinations among racial and ethnic minorities in comparison with county demographics, except among non-Hispanic blacks and American Indian/Alaska Natives. CONCLUSIONS: HRSA-funded health centers were able to quickly vaccinate large numbers of mostly racial or ethnic minority populations, disproportionately more than county demographics. However, additional efforts might be needed to reach specific racial populations and persons in rural areas. Success in influenza vaccination efforts can support success in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Minority Groups , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589359, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207780

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects of the partial lockdown on the people in Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire regarding attitudes toward COVID-19 along with psychological parameters, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was conducted. From a total of 1,382 questionnaires, the respondents reported low prevalence of depression (4.9%), anxiety (7.0%), and stress (3.4%). The mean DASS-21 scores recorded were also markedly lower compared to similar studies conducted in China, Italy, and Iran. Respondents who reported severe PTSD had significantly higher depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Factors that were associated with an increased level of depression, stress, and anxiety were being single, separated, or widowed, a higher education level, a larger family size, loss of jobs and being in contact with potential COVID-19 patients. Contrary to expectations, the level of depression, stress, and anxiety observed has been low. Our findings can aid in future research on the impact of a partial lockdown and guide mental health professionals in Vietnam and other countries in the preparation of better care for populations under such circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Italy , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
20.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 69(50):1902-1905, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1196899

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is a promising approach to promoting access to care and can facilitate public health mitigation strategies and help prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory illnesses, while supporting continuity of care. Although CMS's change of its telehealth provisions enabled health centers to expand telehealth by aligning guidance and leveraging federal resources, sustaining expanded use of telehealth services might require additional policies and resources. During 11-17 July, 2020, 963 (95.4%) of 1,009 Health Resources and Services Administration-funded health centers that responded to a voluntary weekly survey reported providing telehealth services. Health centers in urban areas were more likely to provide >30% of visits virtually than were those in rural areas. Compared with health centers that reported full staffing capacity, the prevalence of reporting >30% telehealth visits was 22% higher among those reporting 5% staff absence and was 63% higher among health centers reporting 10% staff absence. No association was detected between the percentage of telehealth visits and PPE shortages for the week following the survey (the week ending July 24), nor was an association found between the percentage of telehealth visits and the change in the number of weekly visits from 2019.

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