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1.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 415-426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268122

ABSTRACT

Purpose: New COVID-19 variants pose great challenges in protecting the success of vaccination programs. Awareness of community becomes an important component to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze people's awareness of COVID-19 and identify the implications for optimal risk communication in Vietnam. Study Methods and Materials: A total of 341 individuals participated in an online cross-sectional study. Community awareness on COVID-19 was examined by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to examine associated factors with community awareness. Results: Our results indicated high levels of awareness of local COVID-19 situation, transmission risks, and preventive behavioral practices during the first week of social isolation. Higher awareness of local pandemic situation was associated with female respondents (Coef.: 6.19; 95% CI: 0.51; 11.87) and larger family sizes of above 5 people (Coef.: 9.00; -1.00; 19.00). Respondents between 35-44 years old were shown to be less aware of preventive behavioral practices than other age groups, including the group of participants above 44 years old (Coef.: -0.34; 95% CI: -0.67; -0.02). Lastly, participants who were "fairly satisfied" with information resources had awareness levels of preventive behavioral practices lower than that of "unsatisfied" respondents (Coef.: -0.45; 95% CI: 0.74; -0.16). Conclusion: This study offers crucial insights into the pandemic awareness of citizens and risk communication effectiveness during COVID-19 in Vietnam. The study findings shall serve the development of policies and interventions aimed at empowering individuals in the local and global fight against coronavirus.

2.
Int J Med Inform ; 170: 104962, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, eHealth Literacy is important and essential for healthcare workers, especially medical students; eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) was developed to measured eHealth literacy of individuals, with higher eHEALS scores indicated greater ehealth literacy. OBJECTIVES: The study evaluates the reliability and validity of Vietnamese version of eHEALS and analyzed some factors affecting on eHEALS score among Hanoi Medical University students in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was adopted, and data were elicited from 494 medical students. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); Cronbach's alpha and correlation coefficients; split-half assessment; Poisson regression analysis were applied. RESULTS: The total score of our subjects in the eHEALS was 30.34 ± 4.57. The results from Bartlett's test, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability were high. Poisson regression identified that eHEALS scores of participants was significantly associated with device, ongoing medical condition and trustworthiness of health information source (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Our study helps researchers who conduct studies in eHealth develop optimal applied and intervention researches in subjects with medical knowledge. Additional studies need to be required with numerous different groups of people in Vietnam. CONCLUSION: The Vietnamese version of eHEALS is a reliable and valid measure. Device, medical condition and trustworthiness of health information source are factors affecting on eHEALS score of students in Hanoi Medical University.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Students, Medical , Telemedicine , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vietnam , Pandemics , Southeast Asian People , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychometrics
3.
Risk management and healthcare policy ; 15:415-426, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743742

ABSTRACT

Purpose New COVID-19 variants pose great challenges in protecting the success of vaccination programs. Awareness of community becomes an important component to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze people’s awareness of COVID-19 and identify the implications for optimal risk communication in Vietnam. Study Methods and Materials A total of 341 individuals participated in an online cross-sectional study. Community awareness on COVID-19 was examined by using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to examine associated factors with community awareness. Results Our results indicated high levels of awareness of local COVID-19 situation, transmission risks, and preventive behavioral practices during the first week of social isolation. Higher awareness of local pandemic situation was associated with female respondents (Coef.: 6.19;95% CI: 0.51;11.87) and larger family sizes of above 5 people (Coef.: 9.00;−1.00;19.00). Respondents between 35–44 years old were shown to be less aware of preventive behavioral practices than other age groups, including the group of participants above 44 years old (Coef.: −0.34;95% CI: −0.67;−0.02). Lastly, participants who were “fairly satisfied” with information resources had awareness levels of preventive behavioral practices lower than that of “unsatisfied” respondents (Coef.: −0.45;95% CI: 0.74;−0.16). Conclusion This study offers crucial insights into the pandemic awareness of citizens and risk communication effectiveness during COVID-19 in Vietnam. The study findings shall serve the development of policies and interventions aimed at empowering individuals in the local and global fight against coronavirus.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 658107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518562

ABSTRACT

Background: In middle-income countries such as Vietnam, where healthcare resources are already constrained, protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential for ensuring the sustainability of COVID-19 response in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices regarding the prevention of the COVID-19 among the HCWs in Vietnam to identify the ways of disseminating information to maximize the safety of these essential workers. Methods: An online cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Vietnam with 742 participants within 2 weeks. The validity of the questionnaire was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the level of knowledge and practices among the HCWs to prevent the COVID-19. Inferential statistics and regression modeling were used to identify the associated factors with results. Results: Vietnamese HCWs had a high level of knowledge with more than 75% of the participants demonstrating awareness of all the modes of transmission aside from air. The mean knowledge score was 3.7 ± 0.8 (range 1-5). Nearly all the participants relied on the Ministry of Health (98.3%) and the internet (95.5%) for information regarding the COVID-19. The participants endorsed a moderately high level of self-protective practices with mean scores of 4.2 and 3.6 (band score 1-5) for the precautionary and psychological measures, respectively. Nurses were more likely to practice the precautionary measures than doctors and the HCWs at the central level were more likely to practice the psychological measures than those at the district level. Conclusion: Future education initiatives should consolidate the latest literature in an accessible format, focusing initially on the gaps of knowledge regarding aerosol transmission. These initiatives should primarily focus on the doctors, especially those in emergency and intensive care departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam
6.
34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2021 ; : 894-909, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1499134

ABSTRACT

Model-driven policymaking for epidemic control is a challenging collaborative process. It begins when a team of public-health officials, epidemiologists, and economists construct a reasonably predictive disease model representative of the team's region of interest as a function of its unique socio-economic and demographic characteristics. As the team considers possible interventions such as school closures, social distancing, vaccination drives, etc., they need to simultaneously model each intervention's effect on disease spread and economic cost. The team then engages in an extensive what-if analysis process to determine a cost-effective policy: a schedule of when, where and how extensively each intervention should be applied. This policymaking process is often an iterative and laborious programming-intensive effort where parameters are introduced and refined, model and intervention behaviors are modified, and schedules changed. We have designed and developed EpiPolicy to support this effort. EpiPolicy is a policy aid and epidemic simulation tool that supports the mathematical specification and simulation of disease and population models, the programmatic specification of interventions and the declarative construction of schedules. EpiPolicy's design supports a separation of concerns in the modeling process and enables capabilities such as the iterative and automatic exploration of intervention plans with Monte Carlo simulations to find a cost-effective one. We report expert feedback on EpiPolicy. In general, experts found EpiPolicy's capabilities powerful and transformative, when compared with their current practice. © 2021 ACM.

7.
Epidemics ; 37: 100517, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482585

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of 3rd June 2021, Malaysia is experiencing a resurgence of COVID-19 cases. In response, the federal government has implemented various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) under a series of Movement Control Orders and, more recently, a vaccination campaign to regain epidemic control. In this study, we assessed the potential for the vaccination campaign to control the epidemic in Malaysia and four high-burden regions of interest, under various public health response scenarios. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered compartmental model was developed that included two sequential incubation and infectious periods, with stratification by clinical state. The model was further stratified by age and incorporated population mobility to capture NPIs and micro-distancing (behaviour changes not captured through population mobility). Emerging variants of concern (VoC) were included as an additional strain competing with the existing wild-type strain. Several scenarios that included different vaccination strategies (i.e. vaccines that reduce disease severity and/or prevent infection, vaccination coverage) and mobility restrictions were implemented. RESULTS: The national model and the regional models all fit well to notification data but underestimated ICU occupancy and deaths in recent weeks, which may be attributable to increased severity of VoC or saturation of case detection. However, the true case detection proportion showed wide credible intervals, highlighting incomplete understanding of the true epidemic size. The scenario projections suggested that under current vaccination rates complete relaxation of all NPIs would trigger a major epidemic. The results emphasise the importance of micro-distancing, maintaining mobility restrictions during vaccination roll-out and accelerating the pace of vaccination for future control. Malaysia is particularly susceptible to a major COVID-19 resurgence resulting from its limited population immunity due to the country's historical success in maintaining control throughout much of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemiological Models , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 563193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399165

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers are frontline responders facing a disproportionate increase in occupational responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Added work-related stress among healthcare personnel may lead to personal and work-related repercussions, such as burnout or decreased quality of care for patients; however, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the daily work and life of these workers. This study aimed to evaluate the personal and occupational impacts of the COVID-19 induced partial lockdown in Vietnam among hospital staff. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was carried out to collect demographic data and the personal and job impacts of respondents during the second week of national lockdown in April 2020. Snowball sampling technique was applied to recruit 742 hospital staff. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the validity of the instrument. Results: Of the 742 respondents, 21.2% agreed that "working attitude well-maintained," followed by 16.1% of respondents who reported that there were "enough employees at work." Only 3.2% of respondents agreed that "their work was appreciated by society." Furthermore, healthcare workers in the central region were less likely to have experienced "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19" than other areas (Coef. = - 0.25, CI: -0.42 to -0.07). Being women also had a negative association with scores in "Avoidance of disclosure and discrimination related to COVID 19" domain (Coef. = -0.27, CI: -0.43 to -0.12) while having a positive association with "negative attitude towards working conditions" domain (Coef. = 0.19, CI: 0.09 to 0.3). In addition, working in administrative offices (Coef. = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.36) and infectious departments (Coef. = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.63) had a positive association with "Increased work pressure due to COVID 19" domain. Conclusion: These findings revealed marginal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of hospital staff in Vietnam. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of implementing preventive strategies during the nationwide partial lockdown to manage hospital admissions and the burden on healthcare workers. Finally, this study characterizes targeted demographics that may benefit from appreciation by employers and society during a national pandemic.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 663-666, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389113

ABSTRACT

Antibody response against nucleocapsid and spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 11 persons with mild or asymptomatic infection rapidly increased after infection. At weeks 18-30 after diagnosis, all remained seropositive but spike protein-targeting antibody titers declined. These data may be useful for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vietnam , Young Adult
10.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 47-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether environmental surface contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred at a provincial hospital in Viet Nam that admitted patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and at the regional reference laboratory responsible for confirmatory testing for SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected from patient and staff areas at the hospital and various operational and staff areas at the laboratory. Specimens from frequently touched surfaces in all rooms were collected using a moistened swab rubbed over a 25 cm2 area for each surface. The swabs were immediately transported to the laboratory for testing by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Throat specimens were collected from staff at both locations and were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: During the sampling period, the laboratory tested 6607 respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 from patients within the region, and the hospital admitted 9 COVID-19 cases. Regular cleaning was conducted at both sites in accordance with infection prevention and control (IPC) practices. All 750 environmental samples (300 laboratory and 450 hospital) and 30 staff specimens were negative for SARS-CoV-2. DISCUSSION: IPC measures at the facilities may have contributed to the negative results from the environmental samples. Other possible explanations include sampling late in a patient's hospital stay when virus load was lower, having insufficient contact time with a surface or using insufficiently moist collection swabs. Further environmental sampling studies of SARS-CoV-2 should consider including testing for the environmental presence of viruses within laboratory settings, targeting the collection of samples to early in the course of a patient's illness and including sampling of confirmed positive control surfaces, while maintaining appropriate biosafety measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Laboratories , Vietnam/epidemiology
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 562337, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346421

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 is greater among healthcare workers (HCWs) than the general population. This study aims to identify psychosocial problems faced by HCWs in Vietnam during the national partial lockdown between 1 and 22 April 2020 and to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial issues among this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the second week of April 2020 during the national lockdown in Vietnam. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants through web-based surveys. The Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of COVID-19 on HCWs through online surveys. Results: Of the 349 HCWs, we found 22.6% reported psychosocial problems. Most of participants reported having exposure to COVID-19 daily (48.7%). The majority of them also felt that their job put them at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections (90.3%) and expressed fear of potential infection (85.7%). Despite COVID-19 risks, 95.4% of participants, however, expressed their willingness to continue working at their current health facility. In addition, 94.8% of participants believed if they or their family members had been infected, their agency leaders would have provided them with appropriate medical care. Lastly, HCWs who worked in the internal medicine department who did not take care of COVID-19 patients or expressed fear of becoming infected were more likely to have higher total IES-R scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the support of healthcare leaders and assurance of care might be helpful in mitigating the psychological effects of COVID-19 among HCWs in Vietnam. These resources should be tailored to HCWs who are working in different areas of health services, including staff who are not working directly with COVID-19 patients. In addition, psychosocial health resources should be provided for not only physicians but also nursing staff.

12.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 39: 32-39, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322314

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modelling has played a pivotal role in understanding the epidemiology of and guiding public health responses to the ongoing coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we review the role of epidemiological models in understanding evolving epidemic characteristics, including the effects of vaccination and Variants of Concern (VoC). We highlight ways in which models continue to provide important insights, including (1) calculating the herd immunity threshold and evaluating its limitations; (2) verifying that nascent vaccines can prevent severe disease, infection, and transmission but may be less efficacious against VoC; (3) determining optimal vaccine allocation strategies under efficacy and supply constraints; and (4) determining that VoC are more transmissible and lethal than previously circulating strains, and that immune escape may jeopardize vaccine-induced herd immunity. Finally, we explore how models can help us anticipate and prepare for future stages of COVID-19 epidemiology (and that of other diseases) through forecasts and scenario projections, given current uncertainties and data limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S92-S97, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-associated complications including those leading to hospitalization. Resources otherwise used for influenza could support caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Health Center Program serves 30 million people annually by providing comprehensive primary healthcare, including influenza vaccination, to demographically diverse and historically underserved communities. Because racial and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, the objective of this analysis was to assess disparities in influenza vaccination at HRSA-funded health centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and HRSA analyzed cross-sectional data on influenza vaccinations from a weekly, voluntary health center COVID-19 survey after addition of an influenza-related question covering 7-11 November 2020. RESULTS: During the 3-week period, 1126 of 1385 health centers (81%) responded to the survey. Most of the 811 738 influenza vaccinations took place in urban areas and in the Western US region. There were disproportionately more health center influenza vaccinations among racial and ethnic minorities in comparison with county demographics, except among non-Hispanic blacks and American Indian/Alaska Natives. CONCLUSIONS: HRSA-funded health centers were able to quickly vaccinate large numbers of mostly racial or ethnic minority populations, disproportionately more than county demographics. However, additional efforts might be needed to reach specific racial populations and persons in rural areas. Success in influenza vaccination efforts can support success in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Minority Groups , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 589317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266687

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital staff are at the frontline for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Understanding their perception of exposure risk is, therefore, important during the early phase of this pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the perception regarding risk of exposure to COVID-19 among Vietnamese hospital staff in Vietnam. Method: A cross-sectional online study was carried out to collect demographic data and risk exposure perception during the second week of the national lockdown in April 2020 in Vietnam. Seven hundred and forty two hospital staff were recruited using the snowball sampling to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding their risk exposure perception. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Pearson coefficient analysis and multivariable regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the perceived COVID-19 exposure risk. Results: Participants perceived a high risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (score = 3.4, SD = 0.8). They also perceived the workplace response to COVID-19 as inadequate (score = 2.0, SD = 0.5). In particular, participants who worked in the emergency or intensive care departments were more likely to perceive an exposure risk, compared to those in infectious disease control departments (Coef. = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.74; -0.02). Participants from central regions perceived a lower risk of exposure to COVID-19 than those from northern regions (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.28-0.96). Nurses were less likely than doctors to report being at risk of exposure to COVID-19 (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.95). Conclusions: We identified a high level of perceived risk regarding COVID-19 exposure among hospital staff during the unprecedented lockdown period in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach, incorporating improved risk communications, safety training and psychological support programs, for all hospital staff, including nurses and those residing in high population density areas, might further strengthen the national effort to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589359, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207780

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects of the partial lockdown on the people in Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire regarding attitudes toward COVID-19 along with psychological parameters, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was conducted. From a total of 1,382 questionnaires, the respondents reported low prevalence of depression (4.9%), anxiety (7.0%), and stress (3.4%). The mean DASS-21 scores recorded were also markedly lower compared to similar studies conducted in China, Italy, and Iran. Respondents who reported severe PTSD had significantly higher depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Factors that were associated with an increased level of depression, stress, and anxiety were being single, separated, or widowed, a higher education level, a larger family size, loss of jobs and being in contact with potential COVID-19 patients. Contrary to expectations, the level of depression, stress, and anxiety observed has been low. Our findings can aid in future research on the impact of a partial lockdown and guide mental health professionals in Vietnam and other countries in the preparation of better care for populations under such circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Italy , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
17.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 69(50):1902-1905, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1196899

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is a promising approach to promoting access to care and can facilitate public health mitigation strategies and help prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory illnesses, while supporting continuity of care. Although CMS's change of its telehealth provisions enabled health centers to expand telehealth by aligning guidance and leveraging federal resources, sustaining expanded use of telehealth services might require additional policies and resources. During 11-17 July, 2020, 963 (95.4%) of 1,009 Health Resources and Services Administration-funded health centers that responded to a voluntary weekly survey reported providing telehealth services. Health centers in urban areas were more likely to provide >30% of visits virtually than were those in rural areas. Compared with health centers that reported full staffing capacity, the prevalence of reporting >30% telehealth visits was 22% higher among those reporting 5% staff absence and was 63% higher among health centers reporting 10% staff absence. No association was detected between the percentage of telehealth visits and PPE shortages for the week following the survey (the week ending July 24), nor was an association found between the percentage of telehealth visits and the change in the number of weekly visits from 2019.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6481, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142470

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perceived impact of the pandemic mediated the path sequentially, leading to adverse mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional research design with chain mediation model involving 4612 participants from participating 8 countries selected via a respondent-driven sampling strategy was used. Participants completed online questionnaires on physical symptoms, the need for health information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The results showed that Poland and the Philippines were the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress; conversely, Vietnam had the lowest mean scores in these areas. Chain mediation model showed the need for health information, and the perceived impact of the pandemic were sequential mediators between physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (predictor) and consequent mental health status (outcome). Excessive and contradictory health information might increase the perceived impact of the pandemic. Rapid COVID-19 testing should be implemented to minimize the psychological burden associated with physical symptoms, whilst public mental health interventions could target adverse mental outcomes associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Asia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 240-244, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089242

ABSTRACT

Telehealth can facilitate access to care, reduce risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), conserve scarce medical supplies, and reduce strain on health care capacity and facilities while supporting continuity of care. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)-funded health centers* expanded telehealth† services during the COVID-19 pandemic (1). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services eliminated geographic restrictions and enhanced reimbursement so that telehealth services-enabled health centers could expand telehealth services and continue providing care during the pandemic (2,3). CDC and HRSA analyzed data from 245 health centers that completed a voluntary weekly HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Survey§ for 20 consecutive weeks to describe trends in telehealth use. During the weeks ending June 26-November 6, 2020, the overall percentage of weekly health care visits conducted via telehealth (telehealth visits) decreased by 25%, from 35.8% during the week ending June 26 to 26.9% for the week ending November 6, averaging 30.2% over the study period. Weekly telehealth visits declined when COVID-19 cases were decreasing and plateaued as cases were increasing. Health centers in the South and in rural areas consistently reported the lowest average percentage of weekly telehealth visits over the 20 weeks, compared with health centers in other regions and urban areas. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, maintaining and expanding telehealth services will be critical to ensuring access to care while limiting exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , United States/epidemiology
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589183, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083142

ABSTRACT

Due to the shared border with China, Vietnam faced risks from the COVID-19 pandemic at the early stages of the outbreak. Good hygiene practices were considered an effective prevention method, but there were only minimal data on the effectiveness of hygiene practices against the pandemic at the community level. Thus, this study aims to assess hygiene practices in society by using a community-based survey. A cross-sectional study using survey monkey was conducted from December 2019 to February 2020. The Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants and exploratory factor analysis was applied to scrutinize the construct validity of the measurement. We used the Tobit regression model to assess the association. Hygiene in a high-risk environment and hygiene in the social and educational environment were two main factors after applying the EFA method. Participants grade community sanitation quite low (around 6 out of 10). Furthermore, the mean score of hygiene practice at a local level in a high-risk environment was slightly low at 6.0. The score of sanitation in the Central region (5.3) was quite low compared to the North (5.8) and the South (6.2). The most high-risk environment was construction, industrial zone and food safety. Moreover, younger respondents were more likely to report poorer hygiene practices in high-risk environments (Coefficient = -1.67; 95% CI = -3.03; -0.32) and social and educational environment (Coefficient = -1.29; 95% CI = -2.54; -0.04). Our study gives an insight into pandemic preparedness at the grassroots level. The findings suggest the necessity of specific communication education for society to improve the compliance of hygiene practices to prevent the spreading of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Sanitation , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam , Young Adult
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